Framework for Student Well-being

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1 Framework for Student Well-being Physical Well-being Student Achievement Student Well-being Cognitive Well-being Socio-Emotional Well-being

2 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Context In 2009, the Student Achievement and School Board Governance Act under Bill 177, came into effect in Ontario. Bill 177 requires that boards promote student achievement and well-being. The OCDSB has taken this direction seriously, believing that in order to sustain and augment the current high levels of student achievement, the well-being of all students is a powerful, enabling and necessary condition not only for learning but life. How will we know that we have achieved our vision? The District s framework for student well-being is developed and implemented across the District and students demonstrate high rates of: positive attitude about school; resilience; and positive relationship with peers and school staff; satisfaction with self and learning experiences at school These measures will be tracked over the next couple of years through several District goals that have a strong connection between student achievement and well-being. These goals include: Goal #2: The District is meeting annual targets for student achievement results and the Board Improvement Plan that exceeds provincial results on average by 5% and reduce gaps for identified sub-groups. Goal #3: All School Improvement Plans are developed in partnership with the school community and establish targets for student achievement and wellbeing in alignment with the Board Improvement Plan and student well-being framework. Goal #7: All students have equitable access to choice of high quality programs. Goal #8: The school climate survey results indicate improvement in student level of comfort and safety at school. We have come to deeply understand that student well-being does not stand alone, nor is it an initiative. Our learning has underscored the fact that it underpins every aspect of the teaching-learning environment, school and broader school community. This is further supported by the consistency of messaging from the Ministry of Education to boards, to create and nurture safe, inclusive, caring and accepting school environments. It has done so through its curriculum documents, policies and resources: i.e. Caring and Safe Schools in Ontario K 12, 2010, Curriculum Documents, Education for All, Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy 2009, Finding Common Ground - Character Development K 12, 2008, Great to Excellent: Launching the Next Stage of Ontario s Education Agenda, Growing Success, 2010, Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat publications, Ontario First Nations, Métis and Inuit Policy Framework, 2007, Ontario Leadership Framework, Open Minds, Healthy Minds, 2011Mental Health, Pathways, Programs and Planning, 2013, Safe and Accepting Schools 2009, School Effectiveness Framework K-12, As well, many national and international research studies have explored this holistic notion of student well-being and its impact in the school setting. A study completed in 2009 by the Ontario Ministry of Education, looked at the interconnectedness between cognitive, social-emotional and physical outcomes of students. These dimensions are closely interrelated. The OCDSB Framework for Student Well-being was informed and inspired by these sources as well as our internal work in the areas of: Creativity, Innovation and Critical Thinking Appreciative Inquiry Character Development Mental Health Framework Learning Support Services Literacy and Numeracy Equity and Inclusion Environmental Sustainability Inclusive, Safe and Caring Programs Exit Outcomes The valuable input gathered internally through the consultation process on student well-being has also enriched the development of this framework and plan. We trust you will see this document as a reflection of our common hopes, aspirations and dreams for all OCDSB students. 2

3 What is Student Well-being? Framework for Student Well-being For the purpose of our work within the OCDSB, well-being means: A holistic concept that is multi-dimensional. It represents a balanced state of socialemotional, cognitive and physical well-being (Student well-being Framework 2009.) It means having a positive sense of how students feel, think and act which improves their ability to enjoy life and reach their full potential in the school and broader community. Optimal student well-being is characterized by positive attitudes about school, positive relationships with peers and teachers, resilience, and satisfaction with self and learning experiences at school (Noble et al. 2008). Vision Every student in every classroom feels a strong sense of well-being and connectedness as a result of learning and living in a school environment that is welcoming, equitable, inclusive and respectful. A place where every student is encouraged to take risks, be creative, and innovative in a learning culture that is caring and safe. A place where healthy relationships are nurtured and students are inspired every day to participate actively and with confidence. A place where conditions enable every student to achieve to the best of their ability and be successful in all aspects of learning and life. Guiding Principles We believe student well-being: Is essential for strong academic achievement and confident participation in all aspects of life at school and beyond; Is intentionally developed and supported in all areas of the curriculum and other school activities; Requires us to seamlessly bring together the tenets of equity, diversity, safe, caring and accepting schools, character development, 21st century skills, critical thinking, creativity and innovation in a context of high expectations; Is necessary in that we are committed to developing students for their roles in society as engaged, productive and resilient citizens; and Must be a whole board/school/community effort. Respect Appreciation Acceptance INTEGRITY CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT BETTER TOGETHER IN A SAFE AND CARING LEARNING COMMUNITY Responsibility Cooperation EMPATHY Fairness Perseverance Optimism Character traits are the foundation for excellence and equity in education; through character, we find common ground. Finding Common Ground, June

4 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Key Beliefs The following key beliefs are overarching statements grounded in research that are intended to foster a common understanding of student well-being within the OCDSB. They represent a common acknowledgement of the undeniable impact of well-being on student success and achievement. Our deliberate efforts will nurture the development of the universal attributes identified in this document. With respect to the dimension of Social-Emotional Well-being, we believe: Students, educators, administrators, support staff, volunteers and parents/guardians create the conditions and share the responsibility to ensure that all students are willingly engaged, happy and successful. A shared vision and common goals held by all, support a positive climate and dynamic culture; Students need to feel physically and emotionally safe. The school and classroom code of conducts and behaviour expectations reflect a wholeschool approach, and are fair but flexible. Bullying prevention and intervention strategies are the responsibility of everyone in the school and school community, are foundational to a safe and caring school culture and are reflected in the daily life of the school; Students feel connected when they know they are valued members of the class, school and school community and have positive, caring, inclusive and respectful relationships with peers and staff; School connectedness increases overall engagement and participation, school completion, higher levels of academic achievement, reduction in anti-social or disruptive behaviours and an increase in pro-social behaviours; Students benefit from positive parental and guardian involvement in their child s educational experience; Students build a sense of pride and respect when the school building and grounds have a positive appearance and when hallways and bulletin boards reflect school values, learning goals and student voice; Students develop self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making when there is deliberate guidance and instruction in these areas; Students academic engagement and success depends on their capacity to develop positive relationships with peers and their teachers. Social skills are academic enablers, helping students make the best of their abilities; Students with higher levels of well-being are more able to cope and show more general life and academic resilience; Students benefit from an approach to learning which builds upon their strengths and curiosity; and Students, when provided with focused support and instruction, develop the ability to work cooperatively with others (e.g. group work), to manage their own emotions, to cope with setbacks, and to demonstrate positive social-emotional learning skills. What research says: Students are more likely to succeed academically when they feel connected to school (Battistich & Hom, 1997.Hawkins 2003). Positive student-teacher relationships cannot just be left to chance; it is the teacher s professional responsibility to ensure that they establish a positive relationship with each student (Marzano et al. 2003). There is a universal trend for countries around the world to incorporate a focus on student well-being in its vision and curriculums. There is a consistent message from evaluations of these initiatives that implementation is complex and requires a whole school approach which incorporates a positive school ethos, planning for sustainability and collaborative partnerships (ACU National 2006). A positive school culture underpinned by the intentional facilitation of positive relationships predispose students to adopt the goals and values of the school, show more compassion and concern for others, be more prepared to resolve conflicts fairly, engage in more altruistic and pro-social behaviours and adopt an inclusive attitude towards others (Schaps, 2003). Social-emotional learning and positive behavioural approaches have an established track record of reducing challenging behaviours and increasing positive social interaction at the individual level, which have also helped in reducing the onset of mental illness and mental difficulties. (Payton, Weisberg, Durlak et al, 2008). Positive peer relationships are more likely when students are directly taught the skills for empathic responding and pro-social behaviour, and when students have opportunities to practise them in authentic and naturally occurring settings over time rather than simply being urged to use them (McGrath, 2005). 4

5 Framework for Student Well-being With respect to the dimension of Cognitive Well-being, we believe: Students able to use their cognitive and personal strengths in schoolwork or in the general life of the school and classroom tend to experience more positive emotions, higher levels of academic engagement and success, especially for those students whose strengths are not in the traditional academic domain; Students encouraged to work from and with their strengths, tend to learn more readily, perform at higher levels, be more motivated, confident and have a stronger sense of satisfaction and competence. When students have an appropriate level of challenge this increases student engagement, risk-taking and self-efficacy; Student engagement flourishes when positive staff-student relationships, high expectations for success, clear learning goals, authentic and relevant learning tasks, ongoing and timely feedback, and a positive disciplinary climate are in place; and Students who have an opportunity to participate in decision-making see their sense of meaning and purpose and overall engagement in learning increase. What research says:.shifting from a fixed mindset of student abilities which can t be changed to a growth mindset that highlights that good pedagogy can build on strengths and enhance student academic engagement and success (Dweck 2006)....High expectations that allow students to express themselves, think critically, problem-solve in a safe and solution-seeking classroom culture. Holding high standards is not about making the work more difficult but about motivating through relevance and personalization (J. Cummins 2006). A key issue in student well-being is the degree to which social changes, including the processes of social fragmentation and individualisation have increased uncertainty in young people s lives. This uncertainty underscores the need for young people to develop a sense of meaning and purpose (AUC National 2008). An equitable education system is fundamental to achieving high level of student achievement, reduce gaps, and increase public confidence and is recognized as critical to delivering high quality education for all learners; equity and excellence go hand in hand Ministry of Education Policy # With respect to the dimension of Physical Well-being, we believe: Students who participate in regular physical activities and good nutritional practices improve their ability to learn and concentrate, improve their executive functioning skills, improve their memory and their overall intellectual performance; Students who take part in regular physical activities improve their well-being in both short and long term by generating positive emotions and reducing feelings of stress, anxiety and depression; Students strive to achieve their personal best, when advantaged by a whole child approach to physical well-being (i.e. safety of self and others, good physical and mental health, equity and fair play, and respect for all); and Students deepen their appreciation and understanding of themselves and others, of their health and well-being through ongoing practice of skill development and reflection, within a consistent physically and emotionally safe environment. What research says: Students play a tremendous role in determining the culture of a school community and can be a source of enthusiasm and passion in creating a healthy school community. Student involvement and positive student engagement are vital for changing the social environment of the school by authentically engaging students in the planning and execution of healthy school initiatives. Students can begin to feel a sense of belonging, empowerment and intrinsic motivation, which will contribute to the successful implementation of a healthy school community ( L. Rowling, V. Jeffreys 2011). There is now sound imperical evidence that a safe and pro-social environment where students feel connected, and supported by peers and teachers experience a sense of meaning and purpose in their academic engagement in learning, has an indirect effect but plays a critical role in students health and well-being (AHIW, 2009). Teachers who are fairer and more flexible in the administration of school rules and support student autonomy, are more likely to have more behaviourally engaged students (Miller, Leinhardt,& Zigmond 1988). 5

6 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Dimensions of Well-being The following dimensions of well-being provide the focus for our work in student well-being and achievement. Cognitive Well-Being Physical Well-Being Student Achievement Student Well-being Emotional Well-Being #1: Socio-emotional Well-being: Encompasses a sense of self and social awareness, connectedness and belonging to their classroom and their school community, within a culture of collective social responsibility and positive engagement with peers and educators. Characteristics Descriptors Evidence Connectedness and belonging Self and social awareness and relationship skills feel a sense of belonging and connectedness to the school (i.e. see themselves and their cultures in the curriculum and school community) feel welcomed and engaged in the life of the school and maintain good and positive mental health invest in the well-being of the school community display confidence in themselves, their ideas and abilities value the importance of the OCDSB character traits value harmony and have concerns for others in a culture of respect are self-aware see the perspective of others and empathize with them make choices that are ethical and constructive about personal and social behaviour accept responsibility for protecting their rights and the rights of others including through digital citizenship contribute and take part in class activities and school life (e.g. group work, join committees, sports teams, drama and music productions, etc.) speak highly of the staff and school in general, and contribute to the school s positive reputation work collaboratively with peers demonstrate respectful interactions with peers and with teachers contribute and actively participate in all aspects of school life report that they believe that adults care about them as learners and unique, important individuals know that adults in the school care about their learning as well as about them as unique and important individuals display empathy, acceptance, appreciation, cooperation, fairness, integrity, optimism, perseverance, respect, responsibility, friendliness, and respect for inclusion and diversity demonstrate positive relationships with adults and peers, make and keep friends accurately assess their own feelings, interests, values and strengths articulate their thinking and learning processes make choices that contribute to positive outcomes take a stance, be an advocate, speak up to assist others who are victimized resolve conflicts in an appropriate and constructive manner 6

7 Framework for Student Well-being #1: Socio-emotional Well-being: Characteristics Descriptors Evidence General life resilience Selfmanagement and responsible decision-making respond adaptively to difficult circumstances and still thrive use coping responses when dealing with personal and interpersonal challenges demonstrate resilience and a positive self-concept objectively respond to stresses and challenges demonstrate a positive view of self that is rooted in awareness of their personal emotions and values as well as strengths and limitations see multiple perspectives in relation to other people, thinking and events exhibit emotional and behavioural self-regulation strategies have healthy and positive relationships as well as care and concern for others persevere through difficult social interactions or negative experiences using effective problem-solving skills use coping skills such as relaxation techniques, adopting an optimistic attitude, trying out solutions to problems, expressing emotions and asking for help demonstrate self-confidence and pride in their accomplishments and respond productively to constructive criticism bounce back after encountering challenges or adversity (e.g. bullying, unfair play, homophobic or unkind comments, academic hurdle) and seek help when challenges appear less manageable identify and communicate personal feelings, interests, strengths, values, limitations demonstrate through their actions and responses an appreciation for differing points of view manage their emotions and behaviours to achieve their goals plan and follow through with personal, interpersonal, education, career and life goals take responsibility for their learning and their actions collaborate effectively in groups and interact positively with peers and teachers refrain from cyberbullying and other forms of bullying, and intervene in a positive and constructive manner to help others who may be victimized behave in a positive and respectful manner and express emotions in ways that are appropriate to a situation (including through the use of technology) 7

8 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Cognitive Well-Being Physical Well-Being Student Achievement Student Well-being Emotional Well-Being #2: Cognitive Well-being: Encompasses critical thinking, problem-solving, creativity and innovation, within a strength-based learning environment, that enables academic resilience, self-efficacy in service of cognitive engagement. Characteristics Descriptors Evidence High standards Student voice Academic resilience, and self-efficacy Creativity and innovation experience authentic and relevant teaching and learning which is infused with empowering critical thinking and problem-solving tasks experience a strength-based approach to learning where students strengths are identified and used as the foundation for ongoing learning learn in a supportive environment of high expectations awareness of their own learning style and confidence in their ability to achieve know they have been heard and their voices matter engage in leadership opportunities in the classroom and broader school community have flexibility in the selection of effective learning strategies to pursue and achieve their goals view themselves as engaged learners capable of taking risks and experimenting with new learning fully participate in the formal requirements of school with a sense of meaning and purpose believe they have the capacity to undertake the tasks they are given as they persevere and monitor their own progress to meet the desired outcomes receive, and act confidently on, constructive feedback explore without fear of failure and learn from their mistakes demonstrate creativity through original, new and innovative thinking think critically and creatively in order to approach learning tasks with a sense of purpose engage in learning that is relevant, interesting, important and empowering. Approach tasks using flexible thinking and critical questioning attend classes regularly set realistic but ambitious academic and personal goals and strive for academic success articulate their own thinking and learning processes complete school work, including homework, to the best of their ability demonstrate a strong sense of self-discipline, display self-confidence, and manage life, including stress, in healthy ways understand the task, take risks and demonstrate commitment to learning embrace challenging tasks and persist towards successful completion explore new ways to solve problems, make decisions and set goals use feedback and formative assessment to reflect upon and refine their thinking and enhance their work problem-solve and think critically during engaging tasks that are in service of a better future see themselves as critical readers and writers who reflect, question, predict and connect texts to build understanding produce work that reflects richness of ideas, original thinking, has added value and can be acted upon 8

9 Framework for Student Well-being Cognitive Well-Being Physical Well-Being Student Achievement Student Well-being Emotional Well-Being #3: Physical Well-being: Encompasses healthy development in relation to physical activity, nutrition, making good choices and safety. Characteristics Descriptors Evidence Physical Activity engage in a range of skill-building and movementdevelopment activities experience a variety of physical education activities to increase self-esteem, self-confidence and develop positive interpersonal skills choose to and spend time doing physical activities both at and outside of school participate willingly and confidently in physical and or extracurricular activities as participants and/or leaders Nutrition understand the benefits of good nutrition make healthy food choices advocate for responsible food choices at and beyond school Healthy Choices and Perspective Safety recognize the risks of substance use and addiction participate in and contribute to an inclusive and accepting learning environment understand that factors such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, physical or mental disabilities are not barriers to student participation recognize the value of cooperating with others demonstrate a commitment to social justice (i.e. equality and fairness between human beings) engage in health classes that have personal relevance share responsibility for their own safety and the safety of others at school, and the school community respond appropriately to safety and injury prevention standards honour safety standards and show awareness of the space around them contribute to a climate that is positive, safe, and free from harassment at the school and in the broader school community avoid the risks and dangers of substance use and addiction treat all students respectfully and reach out to those who may feel marginalized participate in teams and social groupings that reflect the diverse population of the school work effectively in teams demonstrate fair play demonstrate mindful behaviours in shared spaces in the school and community show care and safety for the overall well-being of others understand why rules are in place; show awareness of the space around them exemplify the school s code of conduct and willingly engage in safe and respectful behaviour 9

10 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board The Story of Student Well-being Specific projects or initiatives have contributed to the District s commitment to student well-being. School culture/climate System overview Workplace Census (2010) Equity and Inclusive Education Policy (2011) Religious Accommodation Policy (2011) Student Survey (2011) Diversity and Inclusion Taskforce ( ) Advisory Committee on Equity (renewed mandate 2012) Diversity, Equity and Inclusive Education Framework ( ) Exit Outcomes (2013) Student engagement System overview Curriculum Services - Garfield Gini-Newman training Me to We National Student Forum Student Equity Conference - May 2012 Rainbow Youth Forum one day annual event for students grades 9 to 12 In Love and in Danger workshop You Can Leadership System leadership (the team: superintendents, principal, staff, parents, students) Ottawa-Carleton Education Network (OCENET ) Equity Instructional Coaches (Two) National Capital Pride Parade Innovative, creativity focused leadership conference (yearly event) Lead the Way events Recognizing and Promoting Leadership across our District Well-being related system projects or initiatives and existing servi.e. Cultural Proficiency - Conference and training opportunities for OCDSB staff and students Pastoral Care Programs Inclusive, Safe and Caring - Involvement in Restorative Practice training, Bullying Prevention and Intervention training, Collaborative Problem- Solving Training, Roots of Empathy Learning Support Services - Mental Health Suicide Prevention training Aboriginal portfolio - implementation of a self-identification process and creation of a 3 year plan Parent Engagement Speaker Series Public information nights where parents hear from experts on topics such as bullying, texting and sexting, mental health prevention and promotion Weekly School Council newsletter Includes tips and resources to help parents engage with their school and children (also posted on the website) OCDSB website Helping Your Child Succeed and Parent and Family Literacy Centre sections provide hands-on tips and activities to support parent engagement Parent Involvement Committee website, brochure, meetings, etc. 10

11 Framework for Student Well-being The Story of our Student Well-being Data Initially the following data sources were considered: Social-Emotional Well-being Dimension Bullying and Connectedness to school - results from the 2011 OCDSB Student Survey: Results represent responses from 47% of students in Grades JK-6 and 67% of students in Grades 7 to 12: 97% of JK to Grade 6 students and 89% of Grade 7 to 12 students feel they belong at their school; 58% of JK-6 survey participants indicated they had been bullied or harassed; 68% of Grade 7 to 12 survey participants indicated they had been bullied or harassed. Cognitive Well-being Dimension Student engagement in EQAO mathematics and literacy student survey: Trends in student engagement, over the past 4 years, show slightly more than 50% of OCDSB students in Grade 3, 6 and 9 reported that they liked mathematics or felt that they were good at mathematics, most of the time, boys more so than girls. Grade 3 and 6 student engagement questions focused on literacy; 51% of Grade 3 students and 44% of Grade 6 students reported that they viewed themselves as good writers most of the time. 44% of Grade 3 students and 46% of Grade 6 students reported being able to communicate ideas in writing. Physical Well-being Dimension Trends in EQAO student surveys from 2009 and 2013 indicate that 37% of OCDSB students in Grade 3, 43% of students in Grade 6, and approximately 40% of students in Grade 9, reported that they participate in out-of-school sports or physical activity every day or almost every day. According to parent respondents in the OCDSB JK 6 student survey, the activities outside school in which the highest percentage of JK 6 participants take part in are: 92% sports and recreation, 74% arts and 56% other events and activities. Fewer than half of participants take part in activities from other areas, such as 37% cultural group activities, and 33% youth groups. According to the responses of Grade 7 12 participants, the activities outside of school in which the highest percentage of participants take part are: 81% sports and recreation, 64% arts, and 63% other activities. Tell Them From Me Survey The Tell The From Me (TTFM) Survey, conducted in the Spring of 2013, has provided additional baseline data which has informed the development of the District s first Board Improvement Plan for Studen Well-Being. Appendix A (Elementary) and Appendix B (Secondary) provide a summary of OCDSB results. 11

12 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Sample Related Curriculum Expectations Grade 1 Social studies Identify important relationships in their lives; explain why rules and responsibilities have been established; Grade 2 Social studies Demonstrate an understanding that Canada is a country of many cultures; identify the origins and cultures of various families; Grade 4 Social studies Demonstrate the rights of groups and individuals and the responsibilities of citizenship; Physical Education Grade 1-8 Demonstrate an understanding of factors that contribute to healthy development; Physical Education Grade 1-8 Demonstrate personal and interpersonal skills and the use of critical and creative thinking processes as they acquire knowledge and skills; Grade 1-8 Demonstrate the ability to make connections that relate to health and well-being- how their choices and behaviours affect both themselves and others; Grade 9-10 Arts The implementation of antidiscrimination principles in education influences all aspects of school life. It promotes a school climate that encourages all students to work to high levels of achievement, affirms the worth of all students, and helps students strengthen their sense of identity and develop a positive self-image; Grade 9-10 Business Learning the importance of protecting human rights and of taking a stand against racism and other expressions of hatred and discrimination is also part of the foundation for responsible citizenship and ethical business practices; Grade 9-10 Canadian and World Studies.designed to help students acquire the habits of mind essential for citizens in a complex democratic society characterized by rapid technological economic, political, and social change; Grade 9-10 Mathematics Learning activities and resources used to implement the curriculum should be inclusive in nature, reflecting the range of experiences of students with varying backgrounds, abilities, interests, and learning styles; Grade 9 Physical and Health Education Demonstrate the appropriate steps to conflict resolution in situations encountered in class, at school, with friends, and at home; Grade 10 Physical and Health Education Demonstrate behaviours that are respectful of other s point of view; Grade 11 Physical and Health Education Describe the characteristics of an emotionally healthy person. Describe the skills that enhance personal mental health; Grade 12 Physical and Health Education Demonstrate an ability to use strategies that assist in changing and maintaining behaviours to achieve personal, healthy, active living goals; Grade 12 Physical and Health Education Demonstrate an understanding of specific mental health issues; Grade 12 Exit Outcomes Students who are resilient face and overcome challenging situations. They persevere, and move forward confidently; Grade 12 Exit Outcomes Students who are collaborative understand the importance of working cooperatively in a team setting. Collaboration values diverse perspectives and effectively utilizes each person s contributions. 12

13 Glossary Framework for Student Well-being Bullying Typically a form of repeated, persistent and aggressive behaviour directed at an individual or individuals that is intended to cause (or should be known to cause) fear and distress and/or harm to another person s body, feelings, self-esteem, or reputation. Bullying occurs in a context where there is a real or perceived power imbalance. Bullying: We can help stop it. (Ontario Ministry of Education 2012) Critical thinking Consists of seeing both sides of an issue, being open to new evidence that disconfirms your ideas, reasoning dispassionately, demanding that claims be backed with evidence, deducing and inferring conclusions from available facts in solving problems. (D.T. Willingham 2007) Diversity The presence of a wide range of human qualities and attributes within a group, organization, or society. The dimensions of diversity include, but are not limited to, ancestry, culture, ethnicity, gender, identity, language, physical and intellectual ability, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. (Ontario s Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy 2009) Engagement A long-term disposition towards learning viewing learning as fun, seeing it as important, seeing the value of working with and functioning as part of a team, being part of a social institution. (Douglas Willms 2011) Equity A condition or state of fair, inclusive, and respectful treatment of all people. Equity does not mean treating people the same without regard for individual differences. (Ontario s Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy 2009) Inclusive education Based on the principles of acceptance and inclusion of all students. Students see themselves reflected in the curriculum, their physical surroundings, and the broader environment, in which diversity is honoured and all individuals are respected. To achieve an equitable and inclusive school climate, school boards, schools and classrooms will strive to ensure that all members of the school community feel safe, comfortable, and accepted. (Ontario s Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy 2009) Mental health A state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity. Mental health is indispensable to personal well-being, family and interpersonal relationships, and contribution to community or society. It is easy to overlook the value of mental health until problems surface. (Taking Mental Health to School August 2009) Mental health problems Signs and symptoms of insufficient intensity or duration to meet the criteria for any mental disorder. Almost everyone has experienced mental health problems in which the distress one feels matches some of the signs and symptoms of mental disorders. Mental health problems can affect a person s ability to enjoy life and deal with everyday challenges, and can impede learning. (Taking Mental Health to School August 2009; Caring and Safe Schools in Ontario K to 12.) Mental fitness A state of psychological wellness that reflects people s self-perceptions (feeling and cognitions) regarding the fulfillment of three basic need areas which are: the need for relatedness, competency, and autonomy. (Adapted from the Pan-Canadian Joint Consortium Positive Mental Health Toolkit 2010) Mental illness Refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders. Mental disorders are health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behaviour (or some combination thereof) associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. (Taking Mental Health to School August 2009) 13

14 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Positive mental health The capacity of each and all of us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. It is a positive sense of emotional and spiritual well-being that respects the importance of culture, equity, social justice, interconnectedness and personal dignity. (Pan Canadian Joint Consortium-Positive mental Health Toolkit 2009) Relationship skills Establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships based on cooperation; resisting inappropriate social pressure; preventing, managing, and resolving interpersonal conflict; and seeking help when needed. (Adapted from the Pan-Canadian Joint Consortium Positive Mental Health Toolkit 2010) Resilience The ability to cope and bounce back after encountering negative events, difficult situations, challenges or adversity and to return to almost the same level of emotional well-being (Noble, McGrath and Rowling 2008). Resilience can be subdivided as general life resilience and academic resilience. General life resilience is effective coping responses to acute situations or adversities. Academic resilience is coping with chronic education situations such as difficulties with reading, a lack of material or equipment and living in a household that doesn t support school learning. (ACU National 2008) Restorative practices Ways of responding to inappropriate behaviour or repairing the harm done to people and relationships rather than on punishing the offender. (Barton and van den Broek 1999,) refer to restorative justice as part of the ethic of care It brings together a community of care around both the offender and those affected and both sides share in the resolution of the problem. (Drewery 2004 and Caring and Safe Schools in Ontario K to ) Responsible decision-making Making decisions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, appropriate social norms, respect for others and likely consequences of actions; applying decision-making skills to academic and social situations; and contributing to the well-being of one s school and community. (Measuring Student Well-being in the Context of Australian Schooling 2004) School connectedness A positive sense of belonging, attachment and commitment a student feels in relation to the school as a result of perceived caring from, and closeness to, teachers, other staff and peers (Resnick et al., 1997) It is a belief by students that adults in the school care about their learning as well as about them as individuals. (Measuring Student Well-being in the Context of Australian Schooling 2004) School culture/climate Environment where individuals are trusted, respected, and involved, where there is collaboration, high academic and behaviour expectations, mutual trust, caring and support for all individuals. High expectations exist so that students are successful both academically and socially. (Caring and Safe Schools in Ontario K to 12, 2010) Sense of meaning and purpose Involvement in a task or activity that impacts on people other than just oneself. Sense of purpose involvement in a worthwhile task or activity. (Measuring Student Well-being in the Context of Australian Schooling 2004) Self-awareness Assessing one s own feelings, interests, values and strengths; understanding one s own thinking and learning processes; and maintaining a well grounded sense of self-confidence. (Adapted from Measuring Student Well-being in the context of Australian Schooling, 2004) Self-efficacy beliefs The perceptions people hold regarding their ability to perform successfully in a particular situation. They impact an individual s goals, effort, persistence. (ACU National 2008) Self-efficacy Students believe they have the capacity to undertake the tasks they are given. They demonstrate a strong sense of self-discipline, can accurately assess their own feelings, interests, values and strengths, understand their own thinking and learning processes and maintain a well-grounded sense of self- confidence, can handle stress and persevere and monitor their own progress. (ACU National 2008) 14

15 Framework for Student Well-being Self-management Regulating emotions to handle stress, control impulses and persevere in overcoming obstacles; setting and monitoring progress toward personal and academic goals; and expressing emotions appropriately. (ACU National 2008) Social awareness Being able to take the perspective of others and empathize with them; recognizing and appreciating individual and group similarities and differences; and recognizing and using family, school and community resources. (ACU National 2008) Social justice The equivalent to social fairness. It refers to giving what is rightly due to an individual or group, team or community. It is about fairness and equity between human beings. (Adapted from ACU National 2008) Strength-based approach Based on the assumption that having the opportunities to use one s strengths in schoolwork or in the general life of the school and classroom produces more positive emotions. Young learners are more likely to experience psychological flow when involved in an intellectually challenging activity that utilizes their strengths. (AUC National, 2008) Student voice Describes the many ways in which youth might have the opportunity to participate in school decisions that will shape their lives and the lives of their peers. (School Effectiveness Framework K-12 Ontario 2010) Student well-being A students level of satisfaction about the quality of their life at school. Optimal student well-being is characterized by positive feelings and attitudes about school, positive relationships with peers and teachers, resilience, and satisfaction with self and learning experiences at school. (Noble et al., 2008) Whole school approach Based on positive partnerships and assumes that all members of the school community (teachers, support staff, students and parents) have a significant role to play in addressing all aspect of student well-being and achievement, especially with regard to the vision and values that underpin adult responses to aggressive behaviour, harassment, bullying and in promoting a supportive school culture. A whole school approach also involves all other areas of a school: policy and procedures, teaching practices, curriculum alignment, and the organization and supervision of the physical and social environment of the school. (Adapted from National Safe Schools Framework and Wingspread Declaration on School Connections 2004) 15

16 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Bibliography Alberta Ministry of Education. (2009). Draft framework for K-12 wellness Alberta Ministry of Education. (2006). Foundations for school nutrition initiatives in Alberta Alberta Ministry of Education. (2010). School health promotion in Alberta Australian Catholic University. (2008). Scoping study into approaches to student well-being Australian Department of Education. (2011). National safe schools framework manual British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2008). Performance standards social responsibility a framework for British Columbia schools California Endowment. (2011). Student health is vital to academic results Being well, learning well. Care Journal of Classroom Interaction. (2011). Improving classroom learning environments by cultivating awareness and resilience in education Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. (2012) Best practice guidelines for mental health promotion programs: refugees CODE. (2012). Caring and safe schools in Ontario advisory issue # 16 Fraillon, J. (2004). Measuring student well-being in the context of Australian schooling: discussion paper Fullan, M. (2013).Great to excellent: Launching the next stage of Ontario education agenda Greater Good. (2010). The science of a meaningful life HELF-UBC. (2008). Effectiveness of the mindfulness education (ME) Program Research summary Hughes, K. (2012). Research paper Impact of student engagement on achievement and well-being Kutsyuruba, D. Klinger, R. (2012). Research paper Relationships among school climate/school safety and student achievement and well-being MCEECDYA. (2011). Australian national safe schools framework National Research Council. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional and behavioural disorders among young people New Brunswick Ministry of Health. (2011). Student wellness survey Ottawa-Carleton District School Board. (2012).Towards an OCDSB Mental Health Framework Ottawa-Carleton District School Board. (2013).Unleashing Potential, Harnessing Possibilities Ontario s Comprehensive Mental Health and Addiction Strategy. (2011). Open minds, healthy minds Ontario Education Research Symposium. (2007). Fresh start false start Ontario Ministry of Education. (2011). Bullying we can all help stop it. A guide for parents of elementary and secondary school students 16

17 Framework for Student Well-being Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Canada s active schools: a review of school-based physical activity.. SIRC Ontario Ministry of Education. (2008). Finding common ground Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Ontario s equity and inclusive education strategy Ontario Ministry of Education Curriculum Documents (arts, health and physical education, social studies, litearcy, numeracy, history, geography.) Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Foundations for a healthy school Ontario Ministry of Education.(2010). School effectiveness framework Ontario School Libraries Association. (2013). Together for learning School libraries and the emergence of the commons Pan-Canadian Consortium for School Health. (2010). Positive mental health toolkit PISA. (2003). International study of student engagement - chapter one Physical and Health Education. (2009). A review of school-based physical activity in Canada Propel Centre for Population Health Impact. (2012). Healthy schools communities Queensland Department ff Education, Australia. (2009). Guide to social and emotional in Queensland state schools Santor, D., Short, K., Ferguson, B. (2009). Taking mental health to school A policy-oriented paper school-based mental health for Ontario Singapore Ministry of Education. (2009). Holistic health framework The Hawn Foundation. (2011). MindsUp curriculum - mindfulness education 17

18 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board 18

19 Framework for Student Well-being Board Improvement Plan for Student Well-being Physical Well-being Student Achievement Student Well-being Cognitive Well-being Socio-Emotional Well-being 19

20 Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Physical Well-Being Student Achievement Student Well-being Cognitive Well-Being Emotional Well-Being Social-Emotional Well-being SMART GOAL: By June 2015, 5% more students will experience a positive sense of belonging. (2013 TTFM survey - 83% of elementary students in this district had a high sense of belonging. 74% of secondary students had a high sense of belonging.) How will we create the conditions to support student well-being? Indicators of Wellbeing for students Questions to Facilitate our Learning Key Strategies Actions to build our capacity for system leaders, school teams and communities Evidence of Student well-being Connectedness and belonging Feel welcome and be engaged in the life of the school and maintain positive mental health What strategies are required in order for each child to feel a sense of belonging to his /her classroom and school environment? How can we help students recognize stress and learn how to identify the causes? Establish criteria for connectedness and sense of belonging to the classroom and school Share strategies and align beliefs and practices through PLC opportunities Increase awareness deconstruct the elements of student school connectedness and sense of belonging Continue and strengthen effective transition programs (i.e. Students entering the school community for the first time, moving from Kindergarten to primary, primary to junior and junior to intermediate and intermediate to high school) Increase the involvement of parents in the conversations and planning to welcome new families to the school Demonstrate respectful interactions with peers, staff, volunteers and community members Contribute and actively participate in school life Self and social awareness and relationship skills Demonstrate social skills that emphasize the importance of the OCDSB character traits How will we continue to impact character development through interactions and learning tasks? How will we clearly demonstrate respect and support for inclusion and diversity? Engage in professional learning to enhance and align instruction of social skills Embed the teaching of conflict resolution in all curricular areas Support colleagues through team planning and teaching, peer coaching and peer feedback about their interactions with students Involve parents in the conversation and planning Reflect on practices to ensure they are inclusive of all students (e.g. activities, clubs and sports teams, celebrations and field trips) Focus on character traits during the planning of all lessons and school activities Display empathy, acceptance, appreciation, cooperation, fairness, integrity, optimism, perseverance, respect, responsibility, friendliness, inclusion and diversity Demonstrate positive relationships with adults and peers, make and keep friends Are responsible and reflective digital citizens 20

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