Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Electrons and Energy Levels Lesson 2 Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Lesson 3 Ionic and Metallic Bonds

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1 Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Electrons and Energy Levels Lesson 2 Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Lesson 3 Ionic and Metallic Bonds Chapter Wrap-Up

2 The Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table are organized in periods (rows) and groups (columns). The periodic table lists elements in order of atomic number, which increases from left to right as you move across a period.

3 The three main regions of elements on the periodic table classify elements as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.

4 The Periodic Table (cont.) Except for hydrogen, elements on the left side of the table are metals. Nonmetals are on the right side of the table. Metalloids form the narrow stair-step region between metals and nonmetals.

5 Atoms Bond A chemical bond is a force that holds two or more atoms together in a compound. Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons. Each proton has a positive charge; each neutron has no charge; and each electron has a negative charge.

6 Protons and neutrons are in an atom s nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus.

7 Atoms Bond (cont.) The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in each atom of that element. An electron moves around the nucleus at a distance that corresponds to its amount of energy.

8 Atoms Bond (cont.) Areas of space in which electrons move around the nucleus are called energy levels. Electrons closest to the nucleus have the least amount of energy. Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the greatest amount of energy.

9 Electron Energy Levels

10 Atoms Bond (cont.) The attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another atom is what creates a chemical bond. A valence electron is an outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding.

11 Atoms Bond (cont.) valence from Latin valentia, means strength, capacity The number of valence electrons in each atom of an element can help determine the type and number of bonds that an atom can form.

12 The periodic table can tell you how many valence electrons an atom has.

13 Atoms Bond (cont.) In 1916 an American chemist named Gilbert Lewis developed the electron dot diagram, a model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element s chemical symbol.

14

15 Atoms Bond (cont.) Atoms with eight valence electrons are chemically stable and do not easily react with other atoms. Atoms that have between one and seven valence electrons are reactive or chemically unstable and easily bond with other atoms to form chemically stable compounds.

16 Atoms Bond (cont.) The elements in group 18 are called noble gases. With the exception of helium, noble gases have eight valence electrons and are chemically stable.

17 Atoms gain, lose, or share valence electrons and become chemically stable.

18 Electrons are less strongly attracted to a nucleus the farther they are from it, similar to the way a magnet attracts a paper clip.

19 Electrons in atoms are in energy levels around the nucleus. Valence electrons are involved in chemical bonding.

20 All noble gases, except He, have four pairs of dots in their electron dot diagrams. Noble gases are chemically stable.

21 Where on the periodic table are nonmetals located? A. the left side B. the right side C. the middle D. all of the above

22 Which term refers to areas of space in which electrons move around the nucleus? A. electron dot diagram B. periodic table C. neutron D. energy levels

23 All of the elements in group 18 are called what? A. metalloids B. valence electrons C. noble gases D. metals

24 From Elements to Compounds Compounds are chemical combinations of different types of atoms. Chemical bonds join atoms together.

25 From Elements to Compounds (cont.) bond Science Use a force that holds atoms together in a compound Common Use a close personal relationship between two people

26 Covalent Bonds Electron Sharing A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons. A compound formed from many covalent bonds is called a covalent compound.

27 Atoms with less than eight valence electrons become chemically stable by forming a chemical bond.

28 Covalent Bonds Electron Sharing (cont.) A single covalent bond exists when two atoms share one pair of valence electrons. A double covalent bond exists when two atoms share two pairs of valence electrons A triple covalent bond exists when two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons.

29 The more valence electrons that two atoms share, the stronger the covalent bond is between the atoms.

30 Covalent Compounds When two or more atoms share valence electrons, they form a stable covalent compound. Covalent compounds usually have low melting points and low boiling points. They are usually gases or liquids at room temperature, but they can also be solids. Covalent compounds are poor conductors of thermal energy and electricity.

31 Covalent Compounds (cont.) A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonding that acts as an independent unit. A molecule that has a partial positive end and a partial negative end because of unequal sharing of electrons is a polar molecule.

32 Atoms of a polar molecule share their valence electrons unequally.

33 Atoms of a nonpolar molecule share their valence electrons equally.

34 Covalent Compounds (cont.) A chemical formula is a group of chemical symbols and numbers that represent the elements and the number of atoms of each element that make up a compound. A chemical formula describes the types of atoms in a compound or a molecule, but it does not explain the shape or appearance of the molecule.

35 Chemical formulas and molecular models provide information about molecules.

36 A chemical formula is one way to show the elements that make up a compound.

37 A covalent bond forms when atoms share valence electrons. The smallest particle of a covalent compound is a molecule.

38 Water is a polar molecule because the oxygen and hydrogen atoms unequally share electrons.

39 Which term refers to chemical combinations of different types of atoms? A. covalent bond B. chemical formula C. compound D. polar molecule

40 When two atoms share one pair of valence electrons, which of the following exists? A. single covalent bond B. double covalent bond C. triple covalent bond D. none of these

41 Which term refers to a molecule that has a partial positive end and a partial negative end because of unequal sharing of electrons? A. covalent bond B. polar molecule C. nonpolar molecule D. covalent compound

42 Understanding Ions An ion is an atom that is no longer electrically neutral because it has lost or gained valence electrons. ion from Greek ienai, means to go

43 Understanding Ions (cont.) Because electrons have a negative charge, losing or gaining an electron changes the overall charge of an atom. Atoms that lose valence electrons become ions with a positive charge. Metal atoms, such as sodium, become more stable when they lose valence electrons and form a chemical bond with a nonmetal.

44 Sodium atoms have a tendency to lose a valence electron. Chlorine atoms have a tendency to gain a valence electron.

45 Understanding Ions (cont.) Atoms are electrically neutral because they have the same number of protons and electrons. Once an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes a charged ion.

46 Ionic Bonds Electron Transferring When forming a compound, the nonmetal atoms gain the electrons lost by the metal atoms. The attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic compound is an ionic bond.

47 An ionic bond forms between Na and Cl when an Na atom transfers an electron to a Cl atom.

48 Ionic Compounds Individual ions in an ionic compound are strongly attracted to each other. Covalent compounds are made up of many molecules. When nonmetal ions bond to metal ions in an ionic compound there is a large collection of oppositely charged ions and no molecules.

49 Metallic Bonds Electron Pooling A metallic bond is a bond formed when many metal atoms share their pooled valence electrons. Valence electrons in metals are not bonded to one atom. Instead, a sea of electrons surrounds the positive ions.

50 Valence electrons are free to move among all the aluminum (Al) ions.

51 Metallic Bonds Electron Pooling (cont.) Metals are good conductors of thermal energy and electricity. Metals are shiny because the valence electrons at the surface of a metal interact with light.

52

53

54 Metal atoms lose electrons and nonmetal atoms gain electrons and form stable compounds. An atom that has gained or lost an electron is an ion.

55 An ionic bond forms between positively and negatively charged ions.

56 A metallic bond forms when many metal atoms share their pooled valence electrons.

57 Which of these describes an atom that is no longer electrically neutral because it has lost or gained valence electrons? A. covalent compound B. proton C. ion D. molecule

58 What is a bond formed when many metal atoms share their pooled valence electrons? A. ionic bond B. metallic bond C. covalent compound D. ionic compound

59 An ionic bond is the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in which of these? A. valence electrons B. covalent compound C. ionic compound D. none of these

60 Lesson 1: Electrons and Energy Levels Electrons with more energy are farther from the atom s nucleus and are in a higher energy level. Atoms with fewer than eight valence electrons gain, lose, or share valence electrons and form stable compounds. Atoms in stable compounds have the same electron arrangement as a noble gas.

61 Lesson 2: Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds A compound and the elements it is made from have different chemical and physical properties. A covalent bond forms when two nonmetal atoms share valence electrons. Common properties of covalent compounds include low melting points and low boiling points. They are usually gas or liquid at room temperature and poor conductors of electricity. Water is a polar compound because the oxygen atom pulls more strongly on the shared valence electrons than the hydrogen atoms do.

62 Lesson 3: Ionic and Metallic Bonds Ionic bonds form when valence electrons from a metal atom transfers to a nonmetal atom. An ionic compound is held together by ionic bonds, which are attractions between positively and negatively charged ions. A metallic bond forms when valence electrons are pooled among many metal atoms.

63 Which term refers to a force that holds two or more atoms together in a compound? A. valence electron B. positive charge C. chemical bond D. negative charge

64 Which of these is the outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding? A. valence electron B. nucleus C. negative electrons D. proton

65 Which of these is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonding that acts as an independent unit? A. electron B. proton C. molecule D. valence electrons

66 Which of these describes a chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons? A. polar molecule B. covalent bond C. chemical compound D. none of these

67 A metallic bond is a bond formed when many metal atoms share what? A. their pooled valence electrons B. ions C. charged ions D. molecules

68 Which of these is a model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element s chemical symbol? A. periodic table B. energy level C. atomic number D. electron dot diagram

69 Which term describes atoms with unpaired dots in their electron dot diagrams? A. reactive B. chemically unstable C. chemically stable D. A and B

70 Which of these describes a group of chemical symbols and numbers that represent the elements and the number of atoms of each element that make up a compound? A. chemical bond B. chemical formula C. covalent bond D. molecule

71 Once an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes which of these? A. charged ion B. covalent compound C. molecule D. proton

72 Which of these refers to the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic compound? A. metallic bond B. ionic bond C. covalent compound D. none of these

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