Ionic Bonding and Metallic Bonding

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1 Ionic Bonding and Metallic Bonding

2 Keeping Track of Electrons The electrons responsible for the chemical properties of atoms are those in the outer energy level. Valence electrons - The s and p electrons in the outer energy level. Dealing with transition metals is a bit more complex, but we still mostly deal with s and p electrons first Core electrons -those in the energy levels below.

3 Keeping Track of Electrons Atoms in the same column Have the same general outer electron configuration. Have the same valence electrons. Electrons can easily be found by looking up the group number on the periodic table. Group 2 - Be, Mg, Ca, etc.- 2 valence electrons

4 Electron Dot diagrams A way of keeping track of valence electrons. How to write them Write the symbol. Put one dot for each valence electron Don t pair electrons up until there are no open spots left

5 The Electron Dot diagram for Nitrogen Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons. First we write the symbol. Then add 1 electron at a time to each side. Until they are forced to pair up.

6 Write the electron dot diagram Na Mg C O F Ne He for

7 Electron Configurations for Cations Metals lose electrons to attain noble gas configuration. They make positive ions. If we look at electron configuration it makes sense. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1-1 valence electron Na + 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 -noble gas configuration

8 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will have few valence electrons

9 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will have few valence electrons These will come off

10 Electron Dots For Cations Metals will have few valence electrons These will come off Forming positive ions

11 Electron Configurations for Anions Nonmetals gain electrons to attain noble gas configuration. They make negative ions. If we look at electron configuration it makes sense. S 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4-6 valence electrons S -2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 -noble gas configuration.

12 Electron Dots For Anions Nonmetals will have many valence electrons.

13 Electron Dots For Anions Nonmetals will have many valence electrons. They will gain electrons to fill outer shell.

14 Electron Dots For Anions Nonmetals will have many valence electrons. They will gain electrons to fill outer shell. Forming negative ions

15 Stable Electron Configurations All atoms react to achieve noble gas configuration. Noble gases have 2 s and 6 p electrons. Again, we ignore the d electrons 8 valence electrons. This is called the octet rule.

16 Stable Electron Configurations Which elements on the periodic table do not achieve a true octet when making stable, naturally occurring ions? H +1, Li +1, Be +2, B +3, H -1

17 Ionic Bonding Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges. Attraction between opposite charges is called electrostatics Ionic compounds are called salts. Salts are what is left over when an acid and base react

18 Ionic Bonding The simplest ratio of the atoms in an ionic compound is called the formula unit. Ionic bonds are formed through the transfer of electrons. Electrons are transferred to achieve noble gas configuration for both atoms/ions.

19 Ionic Bonding

20 Ionic Bonding Electronegativity applies here. The chlorine has a higher attraction to the electrons so...

21 Ionic Bonding The electron is transferred to the chlorine

22 Ionic Bonding The electron is transferred to the chlorine

23 Ionic Bonding + - Making the atoms into ions

24 Ionic Bonding + -

25 Ionic Bonding + -

26 Ionic Bonding All the electrons must be accounted for!

27 Ionic Bonding

28 Ionic Bonding +2

29 Ionic Bonding +2

30 Ionic Bonding +2-3

31 Ionic Bonding +2-3

32 Ionic Bonding

33 Ionic Bonding

34 Ionic Bonding

35 Ionic Bonding

36 Ionic Bonding 3 2 Formula Unit

37 Properties of Ionic Compounds They are formed as crystalline structure. A regular repeating arrangement of ions in the solid. Ions are strongly bonded (electrostatic attraction) Crystal structure is very rigid Ionic compounds have high melting points because of strong forces between ions.

38 Crystalline structure

39 Do they Conduct? Conducting electricity means charges are allowed to move. In a solid, the ions are locked in place No charges can move Ionic solids are excellent insulators

40 Do they Conduct? Melting the compounds allows the ions to move freely. When melted the ions are no longer locked in place Separate ions can move Moving ions can conduct electricity Molten ionic compounds conduct electricity First get them to around 800ºC Then the ions have freedom of movement

41 Do they Conduct? When dissolved water allows the ions to separate Separate ions can move Moving ions can conduct electricity

42 Metallic Bonds How electrons are held together in the metallic solid Metals hold onto their valence electrons very loosely Due to a small electronegativity Electrons are not held in the valance shell Think of metals as positive ions floating in a sea of electrons

43 Sea of Electrons Electrons are free to move through the solid Can metals conduct electricity?

44 Metals are Malleable Hammered into shape (bend). Ductile - drawn into wires.

45 Malleable

46 Malleable Electron cloud allows ions to slide by

47 Ionic solids are brittle

48 Ionic solids are brittle Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart

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