CS 356 Lecture 29 Wireless Security. Spring 2013

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1 CS 356 Lecture 29 Wireless Security Spring 2013

2 Review Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Terminology Chapter 2: Basic Cryptographic Tools Chapter 3 User Authentication Chapter 4 Access Control Lists Chapter 5 Database Security (skipped) Chapter 6 Malicious Software Networking Basics (not in book) Chapter 7 Denial of Service Chapter 8 Intrusion Detection Chapter 9 Firewalls and Intrusion Prevention Chapter 10 Buffer Overflow Chapter 11 Software Security Chapter 12 OS Security Chapter 22 Internet Security Protocols Chapter 23 Internet Authentication Applications Chapter 24 Wireless Security

3 Chapter 24 Wireless Network Security

4 Wireless Security Overview concerns for wireless security are similar to those found in a wired environment security requirements are the same: confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, accountability most significant source of risk is the underlying communications medium

5 Wireless Networking Components Endpoint Access point Figure 24.1 Wireless Networking Components

6 Wireless Network Threats accidental association malicious association ad hoc networks nontraditional networks identity theft (MAC spoofing) man-in-the middle attacks denial of service (DoS) network injection

7 Securing Wireless Transmissions principal threats are eavesdropping, altering or inserting messages, and disruption countermeasures for eavesdropping: signal-hiding techniques encryption the use of encryption and authentication protocols is the standard method of countering attempts to alter or insert transmissions

8 Securing Wireless Networks the main threat involving wireless access points is unauthorized access to the network principal approach for preventing such access is the IEEE 802.1X standard for port-based network access control the standard provides an authentication mechanism for devices wishing to attach to a LAN or wireless network use of 802.1X can prevent rogue access points and other unauthorized devices from becoming insecure backdoors

9 Wireless Network Security Techniques use encryption allow only specific computers to access your wireless network use anti-virus and anti-spyware software and a firewall change your router s pre-set password for administration turn off identifier broadcasting change the identifier on your router from the default

10 IEEE Terminology

11 Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Alliance b first standard to gain broad industry acceptance Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) industry consortium formed in 1999 to address the concern of products from different vendors successfully interoperating later renamed the Wi-Fi Alliance term used for certified b products is Wi-Fi has been extended to g products Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Wi-Fi Alliance certification procedures for IEEE security standards WPA2 incorporates all of the features of the IEEE802.11i WLAN security specification

12 IEEE 802 Protocol Architecture General IEEE 802 functions Specific IEEE functions Logical Link Control Flow control Error control Medium Access Control Physical Assemble data into frame Addressing Error detection Medium access Encoding/decoding of signals Bit transmission/ reception Transmission medium Reliable data delivery Wireless access control protocols Frequency band definition Wireless signal encoding Figure 24.2 IEEE Protocol Stack

13 General IEEE 802 MPDU Format MAC Control Destination MAC Address Source MAC Address MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU) CRC MAC header MAC trailer Figure 24.3 General IEEE 802 MPDU Format

14 Distribution System STA 2 AP 1 Basic Service Set (BSS) STA4 STA 1 AP 2 Basic Service Set (BSS) STA 6 STA 7 STA 8 IEEE Extended Service Set STA 3 Figure 24.4 IEEE Extended Service Set

15 IEEE Services

16 Distribution of Messages Within a DS the two services involved with the distribution of messages within a DS are: distribution integration distribution the primary service used by stations to exchange MPDUs when the MPDUs must traverse the DS to get from a station in one BSS to a station in another BSS integration enables transfer of data between a station on an IEEE LAN and a station on an integrated IEEE 802x LAN service enables transfer of data between a station on an IEEE LAN and a station on an integrated IEEE 802.x LAN

17 Association-Related Services transition types, based on mobility: no transition a station of this type is either stationary or moves only within the direct communication range of the communicating stations of a single BSS BSS transition station movement from one BSS to another BSS within the same ESS; delivery of data to the station requires that the addressing capability be able to recognize the new location of the station ESS transition station movement from a BSS in one ESS to a BSS within another ESS; maintenance of upper-layer connections supported by cannot be guaranteed

18 Services association establishes an initial association between a station and an AP reassociation disassociation enables an established association to be transferred from one AP to another, allowing a mobile station to move from one BSS to another a notification from either a station or an AP that an existing association is terminated

19 Wireless LAN Security Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm privacy Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) set of security mechanisms that eliminates most security issues and was based on the current state of the i standard Robust Security Network (RSN) final form of the i standard Wi-Fi Alliance certifies vendors in compliance with the full i specification under the WPA2 program

20 Robust Security Network (RSN) Services Access Control Authentication and Key Generation Confidentiality, Data Origin Authentication and Integrity and Replay Protection Protocols IEEE Port-based Access Control Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) TKIP CCMP Elements of (a) Services and Protocols Robust Security Network (RSN) IEEE i Services Confidentiality Integrity and Data Origin Authentication Key Generation Algorithms TKIP (RC4) CCM (AES- CTR) NIST Key Wrap HMAC- SHA-1 HMAC- MD5 TKIP (Michael MIC) CCM (AES- CBC- MAC) HMAC- SHA-1 RFC 1750 (b) Cryptographic Algorithms CBC-MAC = Cipher Block Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (MAC) CCM = Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code CCMP = Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining MAC Protocol TKIP = Temporal Key Integrity Protocol Figure 24.5 Elements of IEEE i

21 STA AP AS End Station Phase 1 - Discovery Phase 2 - Authentication Phase 3 - Key Management Phase 4 - Protected Data Transfer IEEE i Phases of Operation Phase 5 - Connection Termination Figure 24.6 IEEE i Phases of Operation

22 STA AP AS Station sends a request to join network Station sends a request to perform null authentication Station sends a request to associate with AP with security parameters Probe request Probe response Open system authentication request Open system authentication response Association request Association response Station sets selected security parameters 802.1X controlled port blocked 802.1x EAP request 802.1x EAP response AP sends possible security parameter (security capabilties set per the security policy) AP performs null authentication AP sends the associated security parameters Access request (EAP request) Extensible Authentication Protocol Exchange IEEE i Phases of 802.1x EAP success 802.1X controlled port blocked Accept/EAP-success key material Operation Figure 24.7 IEEE i Phases of Operation: Capability Discovery, Authentication, and Association

23 Uncontrolled port Access point Authentication server 802.1X Access Station Controlled port Controlled port Control To other wireless stations on this BSS To DS Figure X Access Control

24 MPDU Exchange authentication phase consists of three phases: connect to AS the STA sends a request to its AP that it has an association with for connection to the AS; the AP acknowledges this request and sends an access request to the AS EAP exchange authenticates the STA and AS to each other secure key delivery once authentication is established, the AS generates a master session key and sends it to the STA

25 Out-of-band path PSK Pre-shared key 256 bits User-defined cryptoid EAP method path AAAK or MSK AAA key!"#$%&'() EAP authentication Legend No modification Possible truncation PRF (pseudo-random function) using HMAC-SHA-1 PTK 384 bits (CCMP) 512 bits (TKIP) PMK Pairwise master key 256 bits Pairwise transient key following EAP authentication or PSK During 4-way handshake IEEE i KCK KEK TK EAPOL key confirmation key EAPOL key encryption key Temporal key 128 bits 128 bits 128 bits (CCMP) 256 bits (TKIP) These keys are components of the PTK (a) Pairwise key hierarchy GMK (generated by AS) 256 bits Changes periodically or if compromised GTK Group master key Group temporal key Key Hierarchies 40 bits, 104 bits (WEP) 128 bits (CCMP) 256 bits (TKIP) Changes based on policy (disassociation, deauthentication) (b) Group key hierarchy Figure 24.9 IEEE i Key Hierarchies

26 IEEE i Keys for Data Confidentiality and Integrity Protocols

27 STA AP Message 2 delivers another nonce to the AP so that it can also generate the PTK. It demonstrates to the AP that the STA is alive, ensures that the PTK is fresh (new) and that there is no man-in-the-middle Message 4 serves as an acknowledgement to Message 3. It serves no cryptographic function. This message also ensures the reliable start of the group key handshake. AP s 802.1X controlled port blocked Message 1 EAPOL-key (Anonce, Unicast) Message 2 EAPOL-key (Snonce, Unicast, MIC) Message 3 EAPOL-key (Install PTK, Unicast, MIC) Message 4 EAPOL-key (Unicast, MIC) AP s 802.1X controlled port unblocked for unicast traffic Message 1 delivers a nonce to the STA so that it can generate the PTK. Message 3 demonstrates to the STA that the authenticator is alive, ensures that the PTK is fresh (new) and that there is no man-in-the-middle. Phases of Operation The STA decrypts the GTK and installs it for use. Message 2 is delivered to the AP. This frame serves only as an acknowledgment to the AP. Message 1 EAPOL-key (GTK, MIC) Message 2 EAPOL-key (MIC) Message 1 delivers a new GTK to the STA. The GTK is encrypted before it is sent and the entire message is integrity protected The AP installs the GTK. Figure IEEE i Phases of Operation: Four-Way Handshake and Group Key Handshake

28 Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) designed to require only software changes to devices that are implemented with the older wireless LAN security approach called WEP provides two services: message integrity adds a message integrity code to the MAC frame after the data field data confidentiality provided by encrypting the MPDU

29 A 0 B i + 1 Pseudorandom Function K HMAC-SHA-1 R = HMAC-SHA-1(K, A 0 B i) Figure IEEE i Pseudorandom Function

30 Summary wireless security overview wireless network threats wireless security measure IEEE wireless LAN overview Wi-Fi alliance IEEE 802 protocol architecture IEEE network components and architectural model IEEE services l IEEE i l IEEE i Services l IEEE i Phases of Operation l Discovery Phase l Authentication Phase l Key Management Phase l Protected Data Transfer Phase l the IEEE i Pseudorandom Function

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