1. Which particles may be gained, lost, or shared by an atom when it forms a chemical bond? (1) protons (2) electrons (3) neutrons (4) nucleons

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1 Name: Bonding Review 1. Which particles may be gained, lost, or shared by an atom when it forms a chemical bond? (1) protons (2) electrons (3) neutrons (4) nucleons 2. As energy is released during the formation of a bond, the stability of the chemical system generally will (1) decrease (2) increase (3) remain the same 3. The forces between atoms that create chemical bonds are the result of interactions between (1) nuclei (2) electrons (3) protons and electrons (4) protons and nuclei 4. What happens when two oxygen atoms combine to form a molecule of oxygen? (1) Chemical bonds are broken and energy is absorbed. (2) Chemical bonds are broken and energy is released. (3) Chemical bonds are formed and energy is absorbed. (4) Chemical bonds are formed and energy is released. 5. When a chemical bond is broken, energy is (1) absorbed, only (3) both absorbed and released (2) released, only (4) neither absorbed nor released 6. What is conserved during a chemical reaction? (1) mass, only (3) both mass and charge (2) charge, only (4) neither mass nor charge 7. Which of these elements has an atom with the most stable outer electron configuration? (1) Ne (2) Cl (3) Ca (4) Na 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: Which electrons are represented by all of the dots? (1) the carbon valence electrons, only (3) the carbon and hydrogen valence electrons (2) the hydrogen valence electrons, only (4) all of the carbon and hydrogen electrons 9. Which symbol represents a particle that has the same total number of electrons as S 2? (1) O 2 (2) Si (3) Se 2 (4) Ar 10. The elements Li and F combine to form an ionic compound. The electron configurations in this compound are the same as the electron configurations of atoms in Group (1) 1 (2) 14 (3) 17 (4) Which is the correct electron-dot formula for a molecule of chlorine? Page 1

2 12. Which electron-dot diagram represents H 2? 13. As the difference in electronegativity between two atoms decreases, the tendency for the formation of covalent bonds (1) decreases (2) increases (3) remains the same 14. Which compound would have the greatest degree of ionic character? (1) Na 2 O (2) H 2 O (3) CO 2 (4) NO Which bond has the least ionic character? (1) KBr (2) HF (3) MgO (4) BrCl 16. Which type of bonding is usually exhibited when the electronegativity difference between two atoms is 1.1? (1) ionic (2) covalent (3) metallic (4) network 17. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to (1) attract the electrons in the bond between the atom and another atom (2) repel the electrons in the bond between the atom and another atom (3) attract the protons of another atom (4) repel the protons of another atom 18. An element with an electronegativity of 0.9 bonds with an element with an electronegativity of 3.1. Which phrase best describes the bond between these elements? (1) mostly ionic in character and formed between two nonmetals (2) mostly ionic in character and formed between a metal and a nonmetal (3) mostly covalent in character and formed between two nonmetal (4) mostly covalent in character and formed between a metal and a nonmetal 19. Which of the following elements has the greatest ability to attract electrons? (1) Li (2) Be (3) Na (4) Mg 20. Given the electron dot diagram: The electrons in the bond between hydrogen and fluorine are more strongly attracted to the atom of (1) hydrogen, which has the higher electronegativity (3) hydrogen, which has the lower electronegativity (2) fluorine, which has the higher electronegativity (4) fluorine, which has the lower electronegativity 21. Which bond is least polar? (1) As Cl (2) Bi Cl (3) P Cl (4) N Cl 22. Metallic bonding occurs between atoms of (1) sulfur (2) copper (3) fluorine (4) carbon Page 2

3 23. Based on your Reference Tables, the atoms of which of these elements have the strongest attraction for electrons in a chemical bond? (1) N (2) Na (3) P (4) Pt 24. Based on electronegativity values, which type of elements tends to have the greatest attraction for electrons in a bond? (1) metals (2) metalloids (3) nonmetals (4) noble gases 25. Which atom will form an ionic bond with a Br atom? (1) N (2) Li (3) O (4) C 26. Which ion contains the same total number of electrons as Cl? (1) S 2 (2) Br (3) Mg 2+ (4) Na Element X is in Group 2 and element Y is in Group 17. What happens when a compound is formed between these two atoms? (1) X loses electrons to Y to form an ionic bond. (3) X gains electrons from Y to form an ionic bond. (2) X loses electrons to Y to form a covalent bond. (4) X gains electrons from Y to form a covalent bond. 28. Which type of bond is formed when an atom of potassium transfers an electron to a bromine atom? (1) metallic (2) ionic (3) nonpolar covalent (4) polar covalent 29. A neutral atom with the electron configuration 2-6 would most likely form a bond with an atom having the configuration (1) 2 (2) 2-2 (3) 2-8 (4) Which formula represents an ionic compound? (1) NaCl (2) N 2 O (3) HCl (4) H 2 O 31. As a chlorine atom becomes a negative ion, the atom (1) gains an electron and its radius increases (3) loses an electron and its radius increases (2) gains an electron and its radius decreases (4) loses an electron and its radius decreases 32. A student determined the solubility of an unknown solid in various solvents as shown in the table below. Based on these solubility results, the unknown solid is best described as (1) ionic (2) nonpolar (3) network (4) metallic 33. Which substance contains metallic bonds? (1) Hg( ) (2) H 2 O( ) (3) NaCl(s) (4) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) Page 3

4 34. The data table below represents the properties determined by the analysis of substances A, B, C, and D. Which substance is an ionic compound? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 35. A substance that does not conduct electricity as a solid but does conduct electricity when melted is most likely classified as (1) an ionic compound (3) a metal (2) a molecular compound (4) a nonmetal 36. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? (1) CH 3 OH (2) C 6 H 14 (3) CaCl 2 (4) CCl Which pair of atoms is held together by a covalent bond? (1) HCl (2) LiCl (3) NaCl (4) KCl 38. In which compound do atoms form bonds by sharing electrons? (1) H 2 O (2) Na 2 O (3) CaO (4) MgO 39. Which formula represents a compound that is formed primarily by sharing electrons? (1) KCl (2) CaCl 2 (3) CrCl 3 (4) CCl Which type of chemical bond is formed between two atoms of bromine? (1) metallic (2) hydrogen (3) ionic (4) covalent 41. The bonds in the compound MgSO 4 can be described as (1) ionic, only (3) both ionic and covalent (2) covalent, only (4) neither ionic nor covalent 42. Which type of substance is soft, has a low melting point, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity? (1) network solid (2) molecular solid (3) metallic solid (4) ionic solid 43. The bonds present in silicon carbide (SiC) are (1) covalent (2) ionic (3) metallic (4) van der Waals Page 4

5 44. Which property best accounts for the conductivity of metals? (1) the relatively high first ionization energy (3) the free electrons in the valence energy levels (2) the malleability of most metals (4) the filled inner electron energy levels 45. Which substance at STP conducts electricity because the substance contains mobile electrons? (1) H (2) He (3) K (4) Kr 46. Metallic bonding occurs between metal atoms that have (1) filled energy levels and low ionization energies (3) unfilled energy levels and low ionization energies (2) filled energy levels and high ionization energies (4) unfilled energy levels and high ionization energies 47. Conductivity in a metal results from the metal atoms having (1) high electronegativity (3) highly mobile protons in the nucleus (2) high ionization energy (4) highly mobile electrons in the valence shell 48. Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and diamonds are best described as (1) molecular substances with coordinate covalent bonding (2) molecular substances with ionic bonding (3) network solids with covalent bonding (4) network solids with ionic bonding 49. Which electron-dot diagram represents a molecule that has a polar covalent bond? 50. Which type of bond is formed between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom in CH 3 OH? (1) ionic (2) electrovalent (3) polar covalent (4) nonpolar covalent 51. Which substance contains nonpolar covalent bonds? (1) H 2 (2) H 2 O (3) Ca(OH) 2 (4) CaO 52. Which bond is most polar? (1) H F (2) H Cl (3) H Br (4) H I 53. Which of these formulas contains the most polar bond? (1) H Br (2) H Cl (3) H F (4) H I 54. The bonds between hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule are classified as (1) polar covalent (2) nonpolar covalent (3) ionic (4) metallic 55. Which molecule contains a nonpolar covalent bond? Page 5

6 56. Base your answer to the following question on your knowledge of chemical bonding and on the Lewis electrondot diagrams of H 2 S, CO 2, and F 2 below. Explain, in terms of electronegativity, why a C O bond in CO 2 is more polar than the F F bond in F Which formula represents a nonpolar molecule? (1) CH 4 (2) HCl (3) H 2 O (4) NH The degree of polarity of a chemical bond in a molecule of a compound can be predicted by determining the difference in the (1) melting points of the elements in the compound (2) densities of the elements in the compound (3) electronegativities of the bonded atoms in a molecule of the compound (4) atomic masses of the bonded atoms in a molecule of the compound 59. Which molecule is polar and contains polar bonds? (1) CCl 4 (2) CO 2 (3) N 2 (4) NH Two fluorine atoms are held together by a covalent bond. Which statement correctly describes this bond? (1) It is polar and forms a polar molecule. (3) It is nonpolar and forms a polar molecule. (2) It is polar and forms a nonpolar molecule. (4) It is nonpolar and forms a nonpolar molecule. 61. Which structural formula represents a polar molecule? 62. Which of these substances has the strongest intermolecular forces? (1) H 2 O (2) H 2 S (3) H 2 Se (4) H 2 Te Page 6

7 63. Which electron-dot structure represents a non-polar molecule? 64. Molecules in a sample of NH 3 ( ) are held closely together by intermolecular forces (1) existing between ions (3) caused by different numbers of neutrons (2) existing between electrons (4) caused by unequal charge distribution 65. Which substance is correctly paired with its type of bonding? (1) NaBr nonpolar covalent (2) HCl nonpolar covalent (3) NH 3 polar covalent (4) Br 2 polar covalent 66. Which statement explains why low temperature and high pressure are required to liquefy chlorine gas? (1) Chlorine molecules have weak covalent bonds. (2) Chlorine molecules have strong covalent bonds. (3) Chlorine molecules have weak intermolecular forces of attraction. (4) Chlorine molecules have strong intermolecular forces of attraction. 67. Water is a polar molecule because it is bent and has a definite positive and negative side to it. a Draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for a molecule of water, H 2 O. b On your drawing indicate with a " + " the positive side and with a " " the negative side. c Describe one property of water that would change if the water molecule were a straight molecule and nonpolar. 68. Draw a correct Lewis electron-dot structure for each of the following. a An atom of hydrogen b An atom of nitrogen c A molecule of ammonia (NH 3 ) Page 7

8 69. Hydrogen chloride, HCl, a colorless, poisonous gas with an unpleasant, acrid odor. It is very soluble in water and readily soluble in alcohol and ether. It is not flammable, and the liquid is a poor conductor of electricity. a Draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for a molecule of hydrogen chloride, HCl. b Label your drawing with a " + " to indicate the positive side of this molecule. c Explain why HCl(g) is capable of being dissolved in water. 70. Base your answer to the following question on the balanced equation below. 2Na(s) + Cl 2 2NaCl(s) Explain, in terms of electrons, why the bonding in NaCl is ionic. Page 8

9 Answer Key substances Responses include, but are not limited to: The electronegativity difference in a carbonoxygen bond is greater than the electronegativity difference in a fluorinefluorine bond The EN difference for C and O is 0.9 and the EN difference for F and F is b) + next to H c) It's a polar molecule so it dissolves with the polar water molecule. 70. The sodium atom transfers its one valence electron to the chlorine atom b) drawing c) Answers will vary: lower F.P. or B.P. unable to dissolve polar

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