# MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS HEREDITY

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1 AP BIOLOGY HEREDITY ACTIVITY #1 NAME DATE HOUR MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction division. It is this first division that reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid and separates the homologous pairs. Meiosis II, the second division, separates the sister chromatids. The result is four haploid gametes. Mitotic cell division produces new cells genetically identical to the parent cell. Meiosis increases genetic variation in the population. Each diploid cell undergoing meiosis can produce 2 n different chromosomal combinations, where n is the haploid number. In humans the number is 2 23, which is more than eight million different combinations. Actually, the potential variation is even greater because, during meiosis I, each pair of chromosomes (homologous chromosomes) comes together in a process known as synapsis. Chromatids of homologous chromosomes may exchange parts in a process called crossing over. The relative distance between two genes on a given chromosome can be estimated by calculating the percentage of crossing over that takes place between them. PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS In this exercise you will study the process of meiosis using chromosome simulation kits. Your kit should contain two strands of beads of one color and two strands of another color. A homologous pair of chromosomes is represented by one strand of each color, with one of each pair coming from each parent. The second strands of each color are to be used as chromatids for each of these chromosomes. Heredity Activity #1 page 1

2 Interphase: Place one strand of each color near the center of your work area. (Recall that chromosomes at this stage would exist as diffuse chromatin and not as visible structures.) DNA synthesis occurs during interphase and each chromosome, originally composed of one strand, is now made up of two strands, or chromatids, joined together at the centromere region. Simulate DNA replication by bringing the magnetic centromere region of one strand in contact with the centromere region of the other of the same color. Do the same with its homolog. Summary: DNA Replication Prophase I: Homologous chromosomes come together and synapse along their entire length. This pairing or synapsis of homologous chromosomes represents the first big difference between mitosis and meiosis. A tetrad, consisting of four chromatids, is formed. Entwine the two chromosomes to simulate synapsis and the process of crossing over. Crossing over can be simulated by popping the beads apart on one chromatid, at the fifth bead or "gene," and doing the same with the other chromatid. Reconnect the beads to those of the other color. Proceed through prophase I of meiosis and note how crossing over results in recombination of genetic information. Summary: Synapsis and Crossing Over Heredity Activity #1 page 2

3 Metaphase I: The crossed-over tetrads line up in the center of the cell. Position the chromosomes near the middle of the cell. Summary: Tetrads align on equator Anaphase I: During anaphase I, the homologous chromosomes separate and are "pulled" to opposite sides of the cell. This represents a second significant difference between the events of mitosis and meiosis. Summary: Tetrads separate Chromosome number reduced Telophase I: Place each chromosome at opposite sides of the cell. Centriole duplication is completed in telophase in preparation for the next division. Formation of a nuclear envelope and division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis) often occur at this time to produce two cells, but this is not always the case. Notice that each chromosome within the two daughter cells still consist of two chromatids. Summary: 2 Haploid cells formed Each chromosome composed of 2 chromatids Heredity Activity #1 page 3

4 Meiosis II: A second meiotic division is necessary to separate the chromatids of the chromosomes in the two daughter cells formed by this first division. This will reduce the amount of DNA to one strand per chromosome. This second division is called meiosis II. It resembles mitosis except that only one homolog from each homologous pair of chromosomes is present in each daughter cell undergoing meiosis II. The following simulation procedures apply to haploid nuclei produced by meiosis 1. Interphase II (Interkinesis): The amount of time spent "at rest" following telophase I depends on the type of organism, the formation of new nuclear envelopes, and the degree of chromosomal uncoiling. Because interphase II does not necessarily resemble interphase I, it is often given a different name - interkinesis. DNA replication does not occur during interkinesis. This represents a third difference between mitosis and meiosis. Prophase II: No DNA replication occurs. Replicated centrioles (not shown) separate and move to opposite sides of the chromosome groups. Metaphase II: Orient the chromosomes so they are centered in the middle of each daughter cell. Heredity Activity #1 page 4

5 Anaphase II: The centromere regions of the chromatids now appear to be separate. Separate the chromatids of the chromosomes and pull the daughter chromosomes toward the opposite sides of each daughter cell. Now that each chromatid has its own visibly separate centromere region, it can be called a chromosome. Summary: Chromatids separate Telophase II: Place the chromosomes at opposite sides of the dividing cell. At this time a nuclear envelope forms and, in our simulation, the cytoplasm divides. Heredity Activity #1 page 5

6 Analysis and Investigation: 1. Complete the following chart comparing mitosis and meiosis. Chromosome number in parent cells (2n or n) Number of DNA replications Mitosis Meiosis Number of divisions Number of daughter cells produced Chromosome number of daughter cells (2n or n) Purpose 2. How are Meiosis I and Meiosis II different? Meiosis I Meiosis II 3. How do oogenesis and spermatogenesis differ? Meiosis I Meiosis II Heredity Activity #1 page 6

7 4. Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction? PART II: CROSSING OVER DURING MEIOSIS IN SORDARIA Sordaria fimicola is an ascomycete fungus that can be used to demonstrate the results of crossing over during meiosis. Sordaria is a haploid organism for most of its life cycle. It becomes diploid only when the fusion of the mycelia (filamentlike groups of cells) of two different strains results in the fusion of the two different types of haploid nuclei to form a diploid nucleus. The diploid nucleus must then undergo meiosis to resume its haploid state. Meiosis, followed by mitosis, in Sordaria results in the formation of eight haploid ascospores contained within a sac called an ascus (plural, asci). Many asci are contained within a fruiting body called a perithecium. When ascospores are mature the ascus ruptures, releasing the ascospores. Each ascospore can develop into a new haploid fungus. The life cycle of Sordaria fimicola is shown at the right. Heredity Activity #1 page 7

8 To observe crossing over in Sordaria, one must make hybrids between wildtype and mutant strains of Sordaria. Wild-type Sordaria have black ascospores (+). One mutant strain has tan spores (tn). When mycelia of these two different strains come together and undergo meiosis, the asci that develop will contain four black ascospores and four tan ascospores. The arrangement of the spores directly reflects whether or not crossing over has occurred. In the diagram below, no crossing over has occurred. FORMATION OF NONCROSSOVER ASCI Two homologous chromosomes line up at metaphase I of meiosis. The two chromatids of one chromosome each carry the gene for tan spore color (tn) and the two chromatids of the other chromosome carry the gene for wild-type spore color (+). The first meiotic division (Meiosis I) results in two cells each containing just one type of spore color gene (either tan or wild-type). Therefore, segregation of these genes has occurred at the first meiotic division (Meiosis I). The second meiotic division (Meiosis II) results in four cells, each with the haploid number of chromosomes (1n). A mitotic division simply duplicates these cells, resulting in 8 spores. They are arranged in the 4:4 pattern. Heredity Activity #1 page 8

9 The diagram below shows the results of crossing over between the centromere of the chromosome and the gene for ascospore color. MEIOSIS WITH CROSSING OVER In this example, crossing over has occurred in the region between the gene for spore color and the centromere. The homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis I. This time, the Meiosis I results in two cells, each containing both genes (1 tan, 1 wild-type); therefore, the genes for spore color have not yet segregated. Meiosis II results in segregation of the two types of genes for spore color. A mitotic division results in 8 spores arranged in the 2:2:2:2 or 2:4:2 pattern. Any one of these spore arrangements would indicate that crossing over has occurred between the gene for spore coat color and the centromere. 5. Examine each of the Sordaria pictures. For each picture, count the number of asci that do not show crossing over and the number showing crossing over. Number of asci not showing crossing over Number of asci showing crossing over Total Asci Heredity Activity #1 page 9

10 The frequency of crossing over appears to be governed largely by the distance between genes, or in this case, between the gene for spore coat color and the centromere. The probability of a crossover occurring between two particular genes on the same chromosome (linked genes) increases as the distance between those genes becomes larger. The frequency of crossover, therefore, appears to be directly proportional to the distance between genes. A map unit is an arbitrary unit of measure used to describe relative distances between linked genes. The number of map units between two genes or between a gene and the centromere is equal to the percentage of recombinants. Customary units cannot be used because we cannot directly visualize genes with the light microscope. However, due to the relationship between distance and crossover frequency, we may use the map unit. 6. Using the data you collected in #1, determine the distance between the gene for spore color and the centromere. Calculate the percent of crossovers by dividing the number of crossover asci (2:2:2:2 or 2:4:2) by the total number of asci x 100%. % of Crossovers = 7. To calculate the map distance, divide the percentage of crossover asci by 2. The percentage of crossover asci is divided by 2 because only half of the spores in each ascus are the result of a crossover event. Map Distance = 8. Draw a pair of chromosomes in Meiosis I and Meiosis II, and show how you would get a 2:4:2 arrangement of ascospores by crossing over. Use the diagram on page 9 for help. Heredity Activity #1 page 10

11 Part III: Questions Note: Use pages to complete these questions. 9. Match the term with the correct definition or description. Transmission of traits to offspring; Continuity of biological traits from one generation to the next Inherited differences among individuals within a species Study of heredity and variation A. Variation B. Heredity C. Genetics 10. Describe the relationship among the following terms: genes, DNA, chromosomes. 11. Determine if each of the following is true of ASexual or Sexual reproduction. 1 parent 2 parents offspring gets all its genes from one parent offspring gets ½ of its from each parent offspring is a clone of the parent results in greater genetic variation offspring vary genetically from siblings and parent Heredity Activity #1 page 11

12 12. Match the term with the correct definition. A. Autosome B. Diploid C. Fertilization D. Gamete E. Haploid F. Homologous chromosomes G. Karyotype H. Meiosis I. Sex chromosome J. Somatic cell K. Zygote Body cells; cells other than sex cells Display or photomicrograph of an individual s somatic-cell metaphase chromosomes arranged in standard sequence Pair of chromosomes that have the same size, centromere position and staining pattern A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome Dissimilar chromosomes that determine an individuals sex; X and Y Two sets of chromosomes; 2n One set of chromosomes; 1n Haploid reproductive cell; egg or sperm Cell division that produces haploid cells Fusion of egg and sperm; restores the diploid chromosome number Fertilized egg; diploid cell produced by the fusion of 2 haploid gametes 13. Classify each of the following characteristics as true of the Animal, Fungi, or Plant sexual life cycle. gametes produced by meiosis gametes produced by mitosis gametes are the only haploid stage multicellular organism is diploid zygote is the only diploid stage multicellular organism is haploid alternation of generations Heredity Activity #1 page 12

13 multicellular haploid stage is called the gametophyte multicellular diploid stage is called the sporophyte spores produced by meiosis 14. Match the characteristics with the correct phase. A. Interphase I D. Anaphase I B. Prophase I E. Metaphase II C. Metaphase I F. Anaphase II Centromeres split, sister chromatids separate; single stranded chromosomes pulled to opposite poles Chromosomes replicate Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator (metaphase plate) Chromosomes, consisting of two sister chromatids, line up singly at the metaphase plate Synapsis of homologous chromosomes; crossing over at chiasmata; spindle forms Homologous chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite poles 15. Identify the phase of meiosis represented by each of the following diagrams. Heredity Activity #1 page 13

14 16. Classify each of the following characteristics as true of MItosis or MEiosis. 1 division 2 divisions produces 2 daughter cells produces 4 daughter cells process used to produce gametes in animals maintains chromosome number cuts chromosome number in half produces cells that are clones of the mother cell creates genetic variation 17. Explain how each of the following is a source of genetic variation in a sexually reproducing population. Independent Assortment Crossing Over Random Fertilization Heredity Activity #1 page 14

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