DEEP FOUNDATIONS. Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef. Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 1

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1 DEEP FOUNDATIONS Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 1

2 Textbook: Tomlinson, J.J., Pile Design and Construction Practice, Garden City Press Ltd., Letchworth. Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual, 1978, Canadian Geotechnical Society, Montreal. Engineer Manual DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATIONS, EM Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 2

3 Why go deep? [A] Near surface soils inadequate weak relative to applied loads erodible watercourses, scour of soil [B] Load orientation lateral loading raked piles uplift loading - anchors [C] Settlement concerns Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 3

4 Types of Deep Foundations Deep foundations usually L/B > 5 L = pile length, B = dia. or breadth of pile 1. Driven Piles MATERIALS - wood, precast concrete, steel SECTIONS - octagons, solid circles, rings, H-sections LIMITATIONS Vibrations due to driving? Head room? Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 4

5 Pile material Steel; H- piles, Steel pipe Concrete; Site cast or Precast Wood; Timber Composite Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 5

6 DRIVEN PILING Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 6

7 Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 7

8 Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 8

9 Types of Deep Foundations 2. Bored Concrete Piles Large diameter? Increased base diameter? underreamed Excavation support? Bentonite slurry Limited practical depth Soil restrictions Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 9

10 Caisson Installation Sequence Hole drilled with a large drill rig Casing installed (typically) Bell or Tip enlargement (optional) Bottom inspected and tested Reinforced Concrete placement (& casing removal) Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 10

11 Site Cast Concrete Piles Cased Piles Uncased Piles Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 11

12 Bentonite slurry Weak soil, high WT Concrete displaces fluid Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 12

13 Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 13

14 Types of Deep Foundations 3. Other Driven cast in-situ piles driven tube pile, filled with concrete Continuous flight augur piles hollow augur string concrete slurry inserted through tip as string withdrawn Etc, etc,etc Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 14

15 Cast in-situ piling Reference Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 15

16 Types of Deep Foundations For construction, piles may be subdivided into: 1. Displacement (or large-displacement) piles 2. Small-displacement piles 3. Non-displacement piles Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 16

17 NON-DISPLACEMENT PILE Soil is removed The excavation may or may not be supported DISPLACEMENT PILE Soil is displaced within the adjoining soil mass Displaced volume pile volume Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 17

18 SINGLE PILE LOAD CAPACITY Capacity dependent on construction relaxation of field soil stresses? less contact with side soil, less support Bentonite slurry used? slippery side contact (smeared) Stress relaxation expected for DISPLACEMENT PILES Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 18

19 SITE INVESTIGATION FOR PILING 1. Soil strength and stiffness 2. Soil chemical analysis corrosion 3. Possible obstructions to installation 4. Potential for damage to adjoining structure due to ground heave 5. Vibrations Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 19

20 SITE INVESTIGATION FOR PILING After-construction effects of: 1. Expansive soil 2. Negative friction / downdrag 3. Slope instability Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 20

21 PILES - design 1. Geotechnical - strength and stiffness serviceability 2. Pile structural strength 3. Pile material durability Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 21

22 GEOTECHNICAL STRENGTH Vertical compression loading: ULTIMATE GEOTECHNICAL STRENGTH - or capacity, P u P u f s A s f b A b Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 22

23 f s = average, fully mobilized, skin friction (= INTERFACE friction and adhesion) f b = ultimate base bearing pressure Dependent upon SOIL TYPE SOIL PROFILE PILE MATERIAL INSTALLATION Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 23

24 Low load Ultimate load f s = max f s = max f s << max for the full length Base resistance, f b, mobilized Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 24

25 Calculations Circular pile, length, L: P u = f s ( Dl) + f b ( D b2 /4) where D b = diameter of base Note 1: f s may vary down the shaft (add contributions) Note 2: f b only at base Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 25

26 The equivalent factor of safety is usually between 2 and 2.5 for static analysis based on good soil data and site investigation Dr. Youssef Gomaa Youssef 26

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