Advancing Healthy Adolescent Development and Well-Being. n Charlyn Harper Browne, PhD n

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1 Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being n Charyn Harper Browne, PhD n SEPTEMBER 2014

2 Youth Thrive: Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being 2014, Center for the Study of Socia Poicy The Center for the Study of Socia Poicy (CSSP) works to secure equa opportunities and better futures for a chidren and famiies, especiay those most often eft behind. Underying a of the work is a vision of chid, famiy, and community we-being. It s a unifying framework for the many poicy, systems reform, and community change activities in which CSSP engages. Center for the Study of Socia Poicy 1575 Eye Street, Suite Broadway Suite 1504 Washington, DC New York, NY teephone teephone fax fax Acknowedgment The author gratefuy acknowedges the hep of the foowing individuas in review of this report: Susan Notkin, Judith Metzer, Judy Langford, and Francie Zimmerman, coeagues with the Center for the Study of Socia Poicy (CSSP), and Rose Ann Renteria, a coeague at PHILLIPS programs. This report is in the pubic domain. Permission to reproduce is not necessary. Suggested citation: Harper Browne, C. (2014, September). Youth Thrive: Advancing heathy adoescent deveopment and we-being. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Socia Poicy. This report and other documents about the Youth Thrive framework are avaiabe at

3 Contents n n n Background... 1 Status of Youth In and Aging Out of Foster Care... 2 Estabishing the Youth Thrive Framework... 2 Purpose of This Report... 3 The Foundationa Ideas of the Youth Thrive Framework... 4 The Strengths-Based Perspective... 4 The Bioogy of Stress... 5 Resiience Theory... 7 The Positive Youth Deveopment Perspective... 8 Focus on We-Being The Nature of Risk, Protective, and Promotive Factors The Youth Thrive Protective and Promotive Factors Framework Thriving Youth Resiience Socia Connections Knowedge of Adoescent Deveopment Cognitive and Socia-Emotiona Competence Concrete Support in Times of Need Integrating the Youth Thrive Framework in Poicy and Practice Concusion References... 37

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5 Youth Thrive: Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being n Charyn Harper Browne, PhD n Background n n n Adoescence is considered by many scientists to be the second most critica and the second most vunerabe deveopmenta period in the ifespan, surpassed in importance by eary chidhood (see, e.g., Dah, 2004; Moretti & Peed, 2004). Adoescence is a period of significant bioogica, neuroogica, psychoogica, socia, emotiona, and cognitive change; it is aso a period associated with risk for many behaviora, socia, and heath-reated probems. Recent advances in the bioogica and socia sciences have yieded much new knowedge about adoescence as a unique deveopmenta period (Dah, 2004). However, we sti know a ot more about what goes wrong in adoescence and why, and a ot ess about how to prevent probems and how to get young peope back on track (Richter, 2006, p. 7). A report from the United Nations Chidren s Fund (2011) emphasized that adoescence was not ony a period of great vunerabiity but aso an age of opportunity for chidren, and a pivota time for us to buid on their deveopment in the first decade of ife, to hep them navigate risks and vunerabiities, and to set them on the path to fufiing their potentia (p. 2). The Center for the Study of Socia Poicy (CSSP) introduced its Youth Thrive Protective and Promotive Factors Framework in 2011 as a strengths-based initiative to examine how a youth and young aduts, ages 9-26 years od, can be supported to advance heathy deveopment and we-being and reduce the ikeihood or impact of negative ife experiences. The overa focus on a youth is consistent with Pittman s notion that probem-free does not mean fuy prepared (Pittman, Irby, Toman, Yohaem, & Ferber, 2003, p. 6). Pittman ed the charge to shift the paradigm in youth work from preventing and fixing behavior deficits to buiding and nurturing a the beiefs, behaviors, knowedge, attributes, and skis that resut in a heathy and productive adoescence and aduthood (Act for Youth Center of Exceence, 2014, para. 1). The Youth Thrive framework is a strengths-based initiative to examine how a youth can be supported in ways that advance heathy deveopment and webeing and reduce the ikeihood or impact of negative ife experiences. According to Resnick (2005), advancing heathy adoescent deveopment and we-being is an intentiona, deiberate process of providing support, reationships, experiences, and opportunities that promote positive outcomes for young peope, most broady viewed as enhancing the capacity to be happy, heathy, and successfu (p. 398). Athough the Youth Thrive initiative is concerned with promoting positive outcomes for a youth, CSSP is committed to improving the ives of the most vunerabe chidren, youth, and famiies. Thus, Youth Thrive s initia efforts focused on youth receiving chid wefare services, in particuar youth in or emancipated from the foster care system. Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being 1

6 Status of Youth In and Aging Out of Foster Care CSSP beieves that by integrating the Youth Thrive framework into poicy and practice the deveopmenta needs of young peope invoved in the chid wefare system wi be better attended to, and that these youth wi receive the supports and experiences necessary to ensure enhanced opportunities for productive and secure ives (Notkin, 2011, p. 2). According to the Adoption and Foster Care Anaysis and Reporting System, approximatey 50% of the foster care popuation in fisca year 2012 (191,277) were youth ages 9-20 (U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services, Administration for Chidren and Famiies, Administration on Chidren, Youth and Famiies, Chidren s Bureau, 2013). These youth must cope with the physica and psychoogica trauma associated with matreatment, abandonment, or other circumstances that resuted in their out-of-home pacement, and the consequent separation from their famiy. It is not surprising, then, that youth in foster care are incuded within the popuation of chidren considered to have specia heath care needs (Lopez & Aen, 2007), defined by the federa Materna and Chid Heath Bureau as those who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physica, deveopmenta, behaviora, or emotiona condition and who aso require heath and reated services of a type or amount beyond that required by chidren generay (Chid and Adoescent Heath Measurement Initiative, 2012, p. 1). Youth [in and] transitioning from foster care need and deserve the same opportunities, experiences, and high expectations as a other youth in the community (Langford & Badeau, 2013, p. 10). Severa studies have found youth who age-out 1 of the foster care system are more ikey than their peers with no foster care history to experience homeessness; substance use and abuse; compromised physica and menta heath; pregnancy and parenting; educationa and forma training deficits; underempoyment, unempoyment, or dependence on pubic assistance; invovement with the crimina justice system; and sexua and physica victimization (see, e.g., Casey Famiy Programs, 2008; Courtney, 2009; Courtney & Dworsky, 2006; Courtney et a., 2007; Courtney, Piiavin, Grogan-Kayor, & Nesmith, 2001; Daining & DePanfiis, 2007; Gardner, 2008; Jonson-Reid & Barth, 2000; Langford & Badeau, 2013; Lenz-Rashid, 2004; Longitudina Study on Chid Abuse and Negect, n.d.; Lopez & Aen, 2007; Massinga & Pecora, 2004; Nationa Data Archive on Chid Abuse and Negect, ; Pecora et a., 2003; Reiy, 2003; Rowand, 2011; Unrau & Grinne, 2005). Research aso shows that adoescence is a period of unique deveopmenta needs and earning opportunities during which much can be done to better serve oder chidren whie they are in care and to provide them with better opportunities as they transition out of the system (Massinga & Pecora, 2004, p. 151). Whie CSSP acknowedges youth in and transitioning out of care have unique chaenges and needs, at the same time CSSP supports a normacy perspective put forth by Langford and Badeau (2013): Youth [in and] transitioning from foster care need and deserve the same opportunities, experiences, and high expectations as a other youth in the community (p. 10). Estabishing the Youth Thrive Framework CSSP estabished three goas in response to the very troubing findings about the status of youth in and emancipated from the foster care system: (a) to synthesize research on positive youth deveopment, resiience, brain deveopment, and the impact of trauma as we as seek advice from experts in chid wefare, neuroscience, and youth deveopment, advocacy, and poicy; (b) to gain an understanding about pathways to heathy adoescent deveopment and we-being; and (c) to estabish a unifying set of principes that wi in turn transate into recommendations to guide poicy makers and practitioners in their work with vunerabe youth (Notkin, 2011, p. 1). 1 Youth who age out are those who exit care at the age of majority (18-21 depending on the state), without the support of a egay recognized permanent connection. 2 advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being

7 Key Terms n Cognitive and Socia-Emotiona Competence: Acquiring skis and attitudes that are essentia for forming an independent identity and having a productive, responsibe, and satisfying aduthood n Concrete Support in Times of Need: Understanding the importance of asking for hep and advocating for onesef; receiving a quaity of service designed to preserve youths dignity, provide opportunities for ski deveopment, and promote heathy deveopment n Knowedge of Adoescent Deveopment: Understanding the unique aspects of adoescent deveopment; impementing deveopmentay and contextuay appropriate best practices n Socia Connections: Having heathy, sustained reationships with peope, institutions, the community, and a force greater than onesef n Youth Resiience: Managing stress and functioning we when faced with stressors, chaenges, or adversity; the outcome is persona growth and positive change The Youth Thrive framework is based on five interreated protective and promotive factors that studies show are reated to a decreased ikeihood of negative outcomes and an increased ikeihood of positive outcomes as adoescents transition to aduthood. The five factors are (a) youth resiience, (b) socia connections, (c) knowedge of adoescent deveopment, (d) cognitive and socia-emotiona competence, and (e) concrete support in times of need. In addition to deineating and disseminating the evidence that informed the Youth Thrive framework, strategies, poicies, and toos for supporting the buiding of the protective and promotive factors in day-to-day practice with youth are currenty being deveoped. Thrive Protective and Promotive Factors Framework. This synthesis refects CSSP s theory of change, which affirms the necessity of working in a domains of the socia ecoogy individua, famiy and reationa, community, societa, and poicy in order to make a difference in the ives of famiies and chidren (see Figure 1). CSSP s theory of change puts famiies and chidren in the center of a mutifaceted mode that incudes buiding protective factors for famiies, reducing risk factors for chidren, strengthening oca communities, and connecting a of this to systems change and poicy and infusing it with a fierce commitment to equity across ines of race, ethnicity, and cuture. (Center for the Study of Socia Poicy, 2013a, para. 3) Purpose of This Report The Youth Thrive initiative began at a time when advances in the fieds of neuroscience, deveopmenta psychoogy, and trauma burgeoned. These advances in knowedge have contributed to a paradigm shift in understanding adoescent deveopment and behavior, the deveopmenta impacts of trauma, and the pathways to heathy growth and deveopment. Around the same time, there was a growing emphasis at the federa eve for chid wefare agencies to eevate their attention to the we-being needs of chidren and youth in foster care. The purpose of this report is to provide a synthesis of the ideas and research from the neurobioogica, behaviora, and socia sciences that inform the Youth Figure 1. CSSP s Theory of Change Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being 3

8 The next section of this report examines the ideas and research that serve as the foundation of the Youth Thrive framework. This discussion is foowed by a synthesis of the research that provides the evidence base for the theoretica articuation of the Youth Thrive protective and promotive factors. The report concudes with the current appications of this framework through Youth Thrive s work. The Foundationa Ideas of the Youth Thrive Framework n n n The Youth Thrive framework is grounded in six foundationa ideas: (a) the strengths-based perspective, (b) the bioogy of stress, (c) resiience theory, (d) the Positive Youth Deveopment perspective, (e) a focus on we-being, and (f) the nature of risk, protective, and promotive factors. Foundationa Idea 1: The Strengths-Based Perspective Youth Thrive is a strengths-based framework. That is, Youth Thrive is grounded in the beief that a youth possess and have the abiity to use strengths. Epstein (2004) conceived youths strengths as emotiona and behaviora skis, competencies, and characteristics that create a sense of persona accompishment; contribute to satisfying reationships with famiy members, peers, and aduts; enhance one s abiity to dea with adversity and stress; and promote one s persona, socia, and academic deveopment (p. 4). Thus, identifying and buiding upon a youth s strengths is regarded as essentia for heathy adoescent deveopment and we-being. For more than 40 years, socia science researchers and heping professions practitioners have promoted the idea of a strengths-based approach to thinking about and working with chidren, youth, and famiies as an aternative to a deficits-based mode (Bundo, 2001; Brun & Rapp, 2001; Cox, 2006; Leadbeater, Scheenbach, Maton, & Dodgen, 2004; Manthey, Knowes, Asher, & Wahab, 2011; Saeebey, 2000). A deficit perspective defines individuas, famiies, and communities in negative terms by primariy focusing Youths Strengths Emotiona and behaviora skis, competencies, and characteristics that create a sense of persona accompishment; contribute to satisfying reationships with famiy members, peers, and aduts; enhance one s abiity to dea with adversity and stress; and promote one s persona, socia, and academic deveopment (Epstein, 2004, p. 4). on probems that need to be fixed by experts (Centre for Chid We-Being, 2011; Maton et a., 2004). This emphasis impicity communicates ow expectations of the identified individuas, famiies, and communities and a high probabiity of hepessness or faiure (Abrams & Cebaos, 2012; Centre for Chid We-Being, 2011). Looking at chidren and famiies through a deficit ens obscures a recognition of their capacities and strengths, as we as their individuaity and uniqueness (Benard, 1996, p. 1) and crippes the individua s abiity to transcend ife chaenges (Brun & Rapp, 2001, p. 279). Grant and Cade (2009) asserted, This focus on the negative... further infuences [heping professionas ] attitudes toward those who receive services, so that we see [them] as somehow very different from us, and we interpret [their] actions, feeings, experiences, and beiefs from a pathoogica framework (p. 425). Furthermore, a deficit approach tends to resut in practices, programs, poicies, and systems that are punitive and stigmatizing (Nationa Technica Assistance and Evauation Center for Systems of Care, 2008; Wadfoge, 2000). Deficitsbased socia poicies often disempower individuas, famiies, and communities facing truy difficut situations and seek soutions by diagnosing, fixing, punishing, or simpy ignoring those affected.... Beyond that, they are framed as the objects of poicies, rather than the active participants in the creation of soutions (Maton et a., 2004, p. 5). The meaning of strengths-based seems intuitive so the phrase coud easiy become a sogan without substance. Manthey and coeagues (2011) stated: 4 advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being

9 There has been recent concern that socia work agencies, programs, practices, and therapies that caim to be strength-based often misperceive what it means.... [It] does not mean someone is merey being nice or ignoring probems (p. 126). Rather, a strengths-based approach is an overa phiosophica view that requires a different way of thinking about chidren, famiies, and communities in order to effectivey impement strengths-based practice, research, and poicy (Grant & Cade; 2009; Saeebey, 2000, 2006). Numerous researchers have chaenged the criticism that a strengths-based way of thinking and working minimizes the rea or perceived adversities individuas, famiies, or communities may be experiencing (see, e.g., Grant & Cade, 2009; Maton et a., 2004; Sander, Ayers, Suter, Schutz, & Twohey-Jacobs, 2004). O Conne (2006) asserted, the [strengths-based] paradigm does not eiminate the need to address barriers such as poverty, abuse, negect, and other hardships that are very rea and devastating for too many chidren and youth (p. 6). Simiary, Grant and Cade (2009) stated: In contrast to the notion that the strengths perspective gosses over probems, we consider that it chaenges practitioners to combine an understanding of the potentias of individuas with an acute sensitivity to the barriers they may face (p. 426). Sander and coeagues (2004) argued, the goas of buiding strengths and preventing probems are synergistic: A poicy that promotes strengths may aso provide the most sustainabe and effective approach to reducing probem outcomes (p. 31). Foundationa Idea 2: The Bioogy of Stress The Youth Thrive framework is aso informed by the research on the bioogy of stress in that understanding the bioogy of the stress response is criticay important in forging reationships and creating environments that support the deveopment of resiience in youth. Key to this understanding is that adverse chidhood experiences can have consequences for physica, socia, emotiona, and cognitive deveopment through adoescence and into aduthood; adverse chidhood experiences aso can have ong-term effects on physica and menta heath (Centers for Disease Contro and Prevention, Nationa Center for Injury Prevention and Contro, Division of Vioence Prevention, 2014a; Feitti, 2002; Gunnar, Herrera, & Hostinar, 2009; Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid, 2005/2014; Shonkoff & Garner, 2012). Chidren exposed to consistent, predictabe, nurturing, and enriched experiences deveop neurobioogica capabiities that increase their chances for heath, happiness, productivity, and creativity, whie chidren exposed to negectfu, chaotic, and terrorizing environments have an increased risk of significant probems in a domains of functioning (Perry & Hambrick, 2008, p. 40). The word stress is used in everyday conversations to refer to feeing overwhemed, worried, tense, or sad; it is aso used to refer to the chaenging ife experiences that trigger these feeings. Many heath psychoogists refer to the experiences that are perceived to be chaenging or threatening as stressors and to the bioogica and emotiona responses to such events as stress (Baron, 2001). Across the ifespan, young chidren, adoescents, and aduts are faced with stressors that can be perceived as mid, moderate, or traumatic. When faced with a chaenge or threat, the brain automaticay triggers a series of bodiy changes such as increased heart rate, bood pressure, and production of stress hormones. These changes are caed the stress response system. The Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid (2005/2014) cassified three types of stress responses in young chidren: positive, toerabe, and toxic. Positive, toerabe, and toxic stress responses are differentiated by the frequency, intensity, and duration of the stressor, as we as the avaiabiity of a caring, supportive adut (Middebrooks & Audage, 2008; Shonkoff & Garner, 2012). The Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid s cassification of stress responses is regarded in this report as appicabe across the ifespan and as reevant for the deveopment of resiience (see Tabe 1). Positive Stress. Positive stress is experienced when youth are faced with chaenging ife events that resut in brief stress reactions such as increased heart rate and mid changes in hormone eves (Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid 2005/2014). Positive stress is beneficia to young chidren and adoescents (Easterbrooks, Ginsberg, & Lerner, 2013; Middebrooks & Audage, 2008; Shonkoff & Garner, 2012) for two reasons. First, earning how to cope with positive stress is necessary for the deveopment of a heathy stress response system. Citing the Nationa Scientific Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being 5

10 TABLE 1. Cassification of Stress Responses (Adapted from the Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid, 2005/2014) Type of Stress Response Exampes of Stressors Stress Response System Positive Being frustrated; getting immunized; first day of a new job; meeting new peope; faiing a test Brief increases in heart rate, bood pressure, or mid changes in stress hormone eves Toerabe Toxic Death of a oved one; frightening accident; serious iness; prejudice and discrimination Chid abuse and negect; famiy vioence; materna depression; parenta addiction; persistent poverty; racism Leve and duration of activation of the stress response system is based on the presence of supportive reationships and environments Strong, frequent, proonged activation of the stress response system in the absence of supportive reationships and environments disrupts eary brain deveopment and can resut in heath, emotiona, and behaviora probems ater in ife Counci on the Deveoping Chid, Easterbrooks and coeagues (2013) stated positive stress occurs in the context of stabe and supportive reationships. Such reationships hep bring... stress hormones back within a norma range so that chidren can deveop a sense of mastery and sef-contro (p. 102). Second, exposure to experiences that create positive stress is considered to be necessary for heathy deveopment because youth have the opportunity to earn how to effectivey manage stress, reguate emotions, and deveop the socia, behaviora, and cognitive coping resources needed to overcome these obstaces (Gunnar et a., 2009, p. 4). Youth who have never had to address chaenges, incuding never experiencing faiure, are not fuy prepared for aduthood. Toerabe Stress. Toerabe stress is experienced when youth are faced with more severe chaenges or adversity that resut in bodiy changes that are Key Terms n Positive Stress: Bioogica and emotiona responses that resut from brief negative experiences (e.g., first day at new schoo; faiing a test); necessary for the deveopment of a heathy stress response system n Stress: Bioogica and emotiona responses to chaenging, threatening, or traumatic experiences n Stress Response System: The series of bodiy changes, triggered automaticay by the brain (e.g., increased heart rate, bood pressure, production of stress hormones) that occur when faced with a chaenge or threat n Stressor: An experience that is perceived to be chaenging, threatening, or traumatic n Toerabe Stress: Bioogica and emotiona responses that resut from more intense negative experiences (e.g., death of a oved one; frightening accident); may become toxic if not buffered by supportive reationships and environments n Toxic Stress: Bioogica and emotiona responses that resut from strong, frequent, proonged adversity (e.g., chid abuse and negect, famiy vioence) n Youth Resiience: Managing stress and functioning we when faced with stressors, chaenges, or 6 advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being

11 stronger, onger-asting, and have the potentia to become toxic if not experienced in the context of supportive reationships and environments (Easterbrooks et a., 2013; Middebrooks & Audage, 2008; Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid, 2005/2014). The essentia characteristic that makes this form of stress response toerabe is the extent to which protective adut reationships faciitate the chid s adaptive coping and a sense of contro, thereby reducing the physioogic stress response and promoting a return to baseine status (Shonkoff & Garner, 2012, p. 236). Toxic Stress. Toxic stress is experienced when there is intense and sustained activation of the stress response system due to exposure to horrific, uncontroabe events or conditions such as sexua abuse, negect, or exposure to vioence and supportive reationships and environments are not avaiabe (Middebrooks & Audage, 2008; Shonkoff & Garner, 2012). Extensive research on the bioogy of stress now shows that heathy deveopment can be deraied by excessive or proonged activation of stress response systems in the body and the brain, with damaging effects on earning, behavior, and heath across the ifespan (Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid, 2005/2014, p. 1). The Nationa Scientific Counci on the Deveoping Chid identified severa damaging effects of toxic stress on eary brain deveopment that, without intervention, may compromise adoescent and adut functioning (see text box beow). Damaging Effects of Toxic Stress on Eary Brain Deveopment n Deveopment of a smaer brain n Low threshod for stress that resuts in being overy reactive to upsetting, chaenging, or adverse experiences n Heightened fear, anxiety, and impusive responses n Impaired reasoning, panning, and behavior contro n Cognitive deficits n Suppressed immune system causing vunerabiity to chronic heath probems Athough advances in neuroscience and toxic stress studies have increased understanding about how the reverberations of chidhood trauma may compromise adut functioning (Pynoos, Steinberg, & Goenjian, 2007, p. 331), research has aso shown, even when stress is toxic, supportive parenting, positive peer reationships, and the avaiabiity and use of community resources can foster positive adaptation (Easterbrooks et a., 2013, p. 102). Thus, appropriate support and intervention can hep in returning the stress response system back to its norma baseine (Middebrooks & Audage, 2008, p. 4). Foundationa Idea 3: Resiience Theory The Youth Thrive framework grows out of resiience theory. Resiience theory provides researchers and practitioners with a conceptua mode that can hep them understand how youth overcome adversity and how we can use that knowedge to enhance strengths and buid the positive aspects of their ives (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005, p. 413). Research on resiience has paraeed and been a derivative of strengthsbased research (Leadbeater et a., 2004). The eary studies of chidren who manifested heathy rather than pathoogica adaptation in the presence of mutipe risk factors conceived this phenomena as a personaity trait possessed by some individuas and not by others (Benard, 2004; Fraser, Kirby, & Smokowski, 2004; Wright & Masten, 2006). Further, eary researchers assumed there was something extraordinary about these chidren (Masten, 2001) and abeed them invunerabe, invincibe, or stress-resistant (see, e.g., Anthony, 1974; Anthony & Coher, 1987; Garmezy, 1987; Garmezy & Neuchterein, 1972; Pines, 1975; Wyman et a., 1999). But these characterizations were miseading. There is itte evidence to support the impication that some chidren are simpy not vunerabe to the effects of risk factors.... On baance, the term invunerabiity has been superseded by the broader concept of resiience (Fraser et a., 2004, p. 22). Luthar (2003) defined resiience as the manifestation of positive adaptation despite significant ife adversity. Resiience is not a chid attribute that can be directy measured; rather it is a process or phenomenon that is inferred from the dua coexisting conditions of high adversity and reativey positive Advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being 7

12 adaptation in spite of this (p. xxix). There are four ideas that are fundamenta to the way numerous eading researchers conceive resiience, and that guide this report (see, e.g., Luthar, 2003; Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000; Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Masten, 2001; Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990; Masten & Powe, 2003; Rutter, 2007; Wright & Masten, 2006), specificay: n Resiience is a process and an outcome; it is not a personaity trait n Resiience is contextua with respect to setting, point in time, cuture, and socia factors n Resiience refects a person s pattern of positive adaptive behavior in response to current or past risk factors or adversity n Resiience resuts in persona growth and positive change In conceptuaizing resiience as contextua, researchers acknowedge that individuas may demonstrate adaptive behavior in response to negative experiences at one point in time or in one setting, but not at other times or in a settings; thus, resiience is not absoute (Masten & Powe, 2003). The contextua aspect of resiience aso means that it is necessary to extend concepts of resiience and strengths-buiding to famiy, institutiona, neighborhood, and community eves of anaysis (Maton et a., 2004, p. 15). In this regard, it is important to investigate cutura, socia, poitica, and ideoogica factors (e.g., both priviege and inequities based on race, ethnicity, cass, gender, and sexua As our society is increasingy becoming muticutura, it has become essentia to discover the processes contributing to resiient adaptation in individuas from diverse cutura, ethnic, and racia backgrounds. Knowedge of these divergent deveopmenta pathways can enabe scientists to impement more cuturay sensitive preventive intervention strategies to foster the deveopment of resiient adaptation within diverse exosystemic contexts (Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000, p. 857). orientation) in the context of a resiience framework (Fraser et a., 2004; Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000, Maton et a., 2004; Ungar, 2005; Wright & Masten, 2006). Foundationa Idea 4: The Positive Youth Deveopment Perspective The Youth Thrive framework refects the core ideas of the Positive Youth Deveopment (PYD) perspective. The PYD perspective is a strengths-based phiosophy and an approach to poicies and programs designed to promote and enhance adoescent deveopment and we-being (Benson & Saito, 2001; Benson et a., 2006; Lerner, 2009; Whitock, 2004; Zarrett & Lerner, 2008). Whitock emphasized that the PYD perspective is a community strategy, not just a program strategy.... It is important to create deveopmentay attentive communities not just deveopmentay attentive programs [p. 2].... Young peope thrive when they are deveopmentay supported across a sectors of the community schoo, youth serving agencies, faith organizations, community governance, business, juvenie justice system and more (p. 1). The PYD phiosophy and approach acknowedges that many youth are faced with chaenges and trauma that may resut in probem behaviors and adverse outcomes. Centra to the PYD perspective is the idea that it appies to youth in genera and not singuary to troubed or at-risk youth. The PYD perspective reaffirms the need to invest fuy in a youth. It urges us not to ignore the need to support those not in obvious troube, whie chaenging us not to imit the expectations and range of supports offered to those who are (Pittman et a., 2003, p. 6). The PYD perspective does not conceive efforts to support adoescents as primariy heping them to overcome deficits and risk. Instead, it recognizes that a adoescents have strengths and that chidren and youth wi deveop in positive ways when these strengths are aigned with resources for heathy deveopment in the various settings in which adoescents ive and interact (Zarrett & Lerner, 2008, p. 1). Various PYD approaches are said to share severa essentia characteristics (see, e.g., Hamiton, Hamiton, & Pittman, 2003; Lerner & Lerner, 2011; Nationa Research Counci and Institute of Medicine, 2002; Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 2003a, 2003b; Sesma, Mannes, & Scaes, 2006; Whitock, 2004), specificay: 8 advancing Heathy Adoescent Deveopment and We-Being

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