Lecture 2: Tree of Life and Evolution. How is All Life Connected?

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1 Lecture 2: Tree of Life and Evolution How is All Life Connected?

2 What Does It Mean to Say That Something Is Alive? All living organisms share five fundamental characteristics Energy All organisms acquire and use energy. Cells All organisms are made up of membrane-bound cells. Information All organisms process hereditary information encoded in genes as well as information from the environment. Replication All organisms are capable of reproduction. Evolution Populations of organisms are continually evolving.

3 All Living Things are Composed of Cells Cells come from other cells. Genome within a cell carries the information to make more cells All parts of the cell (including genome) are replicated during cell division Cells need to acquire and utilize energy to grow, divide, communicate

4 Unity of Cells A cell is a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution. The amazing diversity of life are all made from cells that have a fundamentally similar chemistry and operate according to the same basic principles.

5 Diversity of Cells However, cells are not all alike, in fact they can be widely different. Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes and vary no less widely in their functions.

6 SIMILAR BUT DIFFERENT..

7 Grouping Cells According to morphology, there are two broad groupings of life: 1. Prokaryotes, which lack a membrane-bound nucleus 2. Eukaryotes, which have such a nucleus According to phylogeny, there are three domains: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya eukaryotic prokaryotic

8 Microscopy was used to determine the morphology of cells - establishing that there were two major types of cells: Prokaryotic (prokaryotes) lack a membrane enclosed nucleus. Eukaryotic (eukaryotes) have a membrane enclosed nucleus.

9 Grouping of organisms according to their relationship to each other (phylogeny) showed that there are actually three divisions: Bacteria Archaea Eukaryote

10 Grouping Cells According to morphology, there are two broad groupings of life: 1. Prokaryotes, which lack a membrane-bound nucleus 2. Eukaryotes, which have such a nucleus According to phylogeny, there are three domains: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya eukaryotic prokaryotic

11 Prokaryotes Are the Most Diverse of Cells Contain essentially no organelles or nucleus. Typically spherical, rod-like, or corkscrew shaped and small. Often have a protective cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane. Most live as single celled organisms but some can join together to form clumps and clusters.

12 Prokaryotic Cells Structural Overview All prokaryotes lack a membrane-bound nucleus. Recent advances in microscopy reveal complexity in prokaryotic structure. Archaeal cell structure is relatively poorly understood. Bacterial cells vary greatly in size and shape, but most bacteria contain several structural similarities: Plasma membrane A single chromosome Ribosomes, which synthesize proteins Stiff cell wall

13 Prokaryotic chromosomes are found in a localized area of the cell called the nucleoid. Represents 20% of the cell s volume Genetic material is not separated by a membrane They also carry genetic information in plasmids which are extra chromosomal pieces of DNA. Often, these plasmids contain genes that confer antibiotic resistance to the organism.

14 Prokaryotic Cells Internal Structure In addition to the nucleoid chromosome and plasmids, other structures are contained within the cytoplasm: All prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes, consisting of RNA molecules and protein, for protein synthesis. Some prokaryotes have membrane-enclosed compartments that qualify as organelles ( little organs ). An organelle is a membrane-bound compartment inside the cell that contains enzymes or structures specialized for a particular function. Most prokaryotes have a cell wall. Bacterial and archaeal cell walls are a tough, fibrous layer that surrounds the plasma membrane.

15

16 Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Compared Four key differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have been identified:

17 Eukaryotic Cells Are generally bigger and more elaborate than bacteria and archae. Some live as single celled organisms like yeast, but all more complex multicellular organisms including plants, animals and fungi are made of eukaryotic cells. Possession of a nucleus also goes with possession of a variety of other organelles that perform specialized functions.

18 Eukaryotic Cells The relatively large size of the eukaryotic cell makes it difficult for molecules to diffuse across the entire cell. This problem is partially solved by breaking up the large cell volume into several smaller membrane-bound organelles.

19 Note size comparison

20 Eukaryotic Cells Processing of genetic information Protein export ribosome Protein synthesis Energy production Protein turn-over (degradation)

21 Genome and Genomic Changes CENTRAL DOGMA

22 Genome and Genomic Changes Genome = DNA sequence of entire organism. - Changes in the DNA Sequence (mutations) occur due to: Replication errors DNA damage and repair - changes in the genome will be passed on to progeny - Some changes in the genome (mutations) result in changes in cell shape, structure, function - Beneficial traits are retained and detrimental traits discarded Thus heredity, the inheritance of differences, is an intrinsic property of life.

23 Genomic Changes over Billions of Years = Evolution = New Species Emerge Competition between living species for resources More competitive species prevails Genomic changes can help or hurt survival chances (FITNESS) Changes that are suitable for survival are retained by selection and passed along to next generation If this happens over long periods of time, then enough changes accumulate to generate new species (a new species cannot generte viable offspring with other species).

24 ALL SPECIES HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR Node How is comparison done/phylogenetic tree built? PHYLOGENETIC TREE

25 ALL SPECIES HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR 1. GGATTCGATCCCCGTC 2. GGTTTCGATCCCCGTC 3. GCTTTAAATCCCGCCG 4. GATATTAATGGCGAGT Bacteria Archaea 4 Eukarya PHYLOGENETIC TREE

26 How did Eukaryotic cells arise from Prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells Nucleus 1 µm Prokaryotic cells 0.1 µm

27 ALL SPECIES HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR Figure 1-29 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)

28 Mitochondria (cellular organelle) was a prokaryote Figure 1-19 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)

29 Chloroplast (cellular organelle) was a prokaryote Figure 1-21 Essential Cell Biology ( Garland Science 2010)

30 Summary Key Points: Cell theory all cells come from other cells. Cell structure common features of all cells. Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells differences. Function of key organelles (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosome). Natural selection. Origin of diversity. Selection for fitness. How to determine evolutionary tree from DNA sequence data. Can you: Draw and label a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. Explain one possible theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells, and how you might test that theory. Describe how new species evolve. Determine an evolutionary tree from sequence data.

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