# CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

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1 1 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH A. The Method of Research 1. Type of research The type of this research is field research. It is design of research that combines literature study and survey based on experience and/or case study where researcher tries to identify significant variables and correlation among these variables in a situation of certain problem. 1 It uses quantitative approach that is a method which uses decision making, data interpretation and conclusions based on numerals obtained from the statistical analysis or quesioner. Quantitative approach has characteristic as conclusive. Basically, quantitative approach is used in inferential research and leaning the conclusive of its result on rejection error probabilitas of nil hypothesis. 2 Instrument to obtain the data is usually a test and the result is in form of numeral. It is used to obtain a number of ratio data, interval, ordinal or nominal. In quantitative research, there are two kinds of design. They are ex post facto and experimental design. Then, this research is included in ex post facto design which has a purpose as explanatory (causality) Variable of research Variable 4 must be operationally defined to be more easily in searching the relationship between one variable with other variable and in measurement. 1 Jonathan Sarwono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006, p Saifuddin Azwar, Metode Penelitian, Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1998, p The factors that differentiate that both designs is the ex post facto design does not happen manipulation dependent variable, whereas on experimental design, there is manipulation on dependent variable. The purpose of experimental design is to explore and describe, while the purpose of ex post facto is explanatory (causality). Ibid, p Variable is construct that its characteristics have been given a number or it means concept that has several values, in the form of quantitative or qualitative value that can be changed. The concept is a term that consists of one or more words that describe a generalization of the symptoms generally or abstractions about a phenomenon that formulated on the basis of a generalization of a number characteristics of the events, circumstances, groups, or individuals. While the definition of construct is like as concept s definition, the difference is construct is especially for something can be measured. Syofian Siregar, Statistika Deskriptif untuk Penelitian:

2 2 Operationalization of variables serves to: 1) identify criteria that are observed is defined, 2) indicates that a concept or object may be has more than one operational definition, 3) knowing that the operational definition is unique in situations where that definition should be used. 5 In this research, researcher divides variable of the research into two kinds, are: 1. Independent variable 6 (X) is mah}abbah 2. Dependent variable 7 (Y) is self efficacy 3. Operational definition 8 a. Independent variable The independent variable (X) in this research is mah}abbah. The writer takes Imam al-ghazali s thought that was described in his phenomenal book namely Ihya> Ulu>m al-di>n which is focus on chapter Kita>b al Mah}abbah wa al-syauq wa- al-uns wa al-rid}a>. Mah}abbah is sublime love, pure, and unconditionally to God that will be reached by truly keeps the commandments of God, sincerely accept His Qad}a> and Qadr, and left own will to seek a pleasure of God. The characteristics of the lover are: 9 a) He likes meeting his Beloved (Allah) b) He gives more priority to what Beloved likes c) He always remembers and calls the Beloved d) He feels peaceful by isolated and muna>jat with Allah and reading holy Qur an e) He does not feel sad about everything lost except Allah Dilengkapi Perhitungan Manual dan Aplikasi SPSS Versi 17, Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2010, p Jonathan Sarwono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006, p Independent variable is variable that gives influence in other variable. 7 Dependent variable is variable that gives respon or reaction when connected with the independent variable. 8 Operational definition is a definition that makes the variables being studied become operational in relevancy with measuring process of these variables. Operational definition makes an abstract concept to an operational concept to help researchers to take measurements easily. Jonathan Sarwono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006, p Imam al-ghazali, Ihya> Ulu>m al-di>n, Vol IV, Qa>hirah: Da>r al-h{adi>s, p

3 3 f) He feels pleasant and does not feel weight of obedience to God g) He cares and loves all the servants of God, but be tough on all the enemies of God h) It is hidden fear in love because of the respect and reverence i) Hides his love and he is reluctant to admit it j) He feels closed and sincere b. Dependent variable The dependent variable (Y) in this research is self efficacy, is beliefs in one s capability to mobilize motivation, cognitive resources, course of actions needed to meet given situation demands. It can be optimized or diminished by one or combination of four sources, are: 1. Mastery experience; 2. Social modeling; 3. Social persuasion; 4. Physical and emotional condition. 10 Self efficacy has three dimensions, are: a) Level (magnitude) Self efficacy related to an individual's ability to complete the tasks that the level of difficulties is different. The individual with high self efficacy will have a high confidence in his abilities. He is more optimistic and has high motivation in the face of duty. b) Generality Self efficacy helps individual to develop themselves, not static, but dynamic. Individual will have many options to be able to realize what action they want. c) Strength This dimension is related to one's strength or endurance. With high self efficacy, individual will be stronger in facing problem. Thus, there is power that will help the success of activities chosen by individual. 4. Technique of collecting data 10 Jess Feist & Gregory J. Feist, Teori Kepribadian, translator: Smita Prathita Sjahputri, Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Humanika, 2010, p. 213.

4 4 As objects that will be examined in this research are self efficacy and mah}abbah. The method that will be used in this research is scale. 11 It is arranged by the writer her own self which is self efficacy is based on Albert Bandura s theory while mah}abbah concept, the writer takes Imam al-ghazali s concept. a. Arranging of Scale The item of scale is divided into two kinds of item, favorable and unfavorable item. Favorable is questions that is concomitant with statement, while unfavorable item is questions that is not concomitant with statement. Score for every item of scale is among 0-4, is as on table below: Table 1 Score of Item Answer Answer Favorable Unfavorable Symbol Routine 4 0 Y Often 3 1 S Sometimes 2 2 K Rare 1 3 J Never 0 4 TP b. Evolving of Instrument To make easy in arranging of scale, it should be made the main points table of every variable. Both mah}abbah and self efficacy will be developed by looking every aspect or indicator that built these variables. It is done to make good scale. So, it can be a good instrument of research. Table 2 Points of Research Instrument Variable Characteristic Indicator/ No. Item Total 11 Scale is a data collection instrument that looks like a list of matches (questionnaire which is respondent in filling just give a check mark), but the alternative supplied is something gradual. The scale used to measure many aspects of personality or other mental health aspects. In Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation mentioned that the term scale in the measurement sense comes from the Latin word scale, meaning ladder or flight of stairs. Hence, anything with gradation can be thought of as scaled. Suharsimi Arikunto, Manajemen Penelitian, edition VII, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2005, p. 105.

5 5 Mah}abba h / Aspect Description Favorable Unfavorable 1. Likes - Death is - 6, 28 2 meeting the key to with his meet God Beloved and the (Allah) entrance to see Him. 2. Gives - Diligent in 12*, 15*, 1*, 2, 4 6 more obedience 17 priority to to God. what - Ignoring Beloved his-own likes wants. 3. Always remember s and calls the Beloved 4. Feels peaceful by isolated and - Like to remember and mention Him; - Love Muhammad SAW - Love everything related to Him. Be alone and feel good with Him 10*, 34* 7, 18*

6 6 muna>j at with Allah and reading holy Quran 5. Does not feel sad about everythin g lost except Allah 6. Feels pleasant and does not feel weight of obedience to God 7. Cares and loves all the servants of God, but be tough on all the enemies of God - Sad when he loses the opportunity to do z ikr and obedience to Him - Will not feel tired in performing obedience to God. - Love creature of God - Be tough on something that is hated by God 3*, 16 23, , 19, 25*, 30* 32* 11, 14, 21, 24, 26*, 29*, 37* 4 8

7 7 8. It is - Fear of 34*, 36 27* 3 hidden God fear in estrangeme love nt; because Fear of of the stopped and respect left of God and grace; Fear reverence of forgetting God; fear of love alternation. 9. Hides his - May not - 13*, 31 2 love and expressly he is manifest his reluctant love except to admit it only to the Beloved one. 10. Feels - Disappear - 5*, 8*, 22 3 closed in pleasure and rememberin sincere g the Beloved. Self Efficacy 1. Aspect of cognitive (selfconfidence ) a. Feel able to perform the duties 7, 15*, 27* 4, 6, 12, 13, 31 8

8 8 and obstacle s well b. Think that failure he faced is problem that he could pass c. Believe that he able to achieve what he wish 2. Aspect of affection a. Avoid saying 3, 32 9*, 17, 20, 21, 29 7 and thinking things that are patterne d failure b. Think it is useless in weeping

9 9 3. Aspect of Motivation al 4. Aspect Selection the destiny that only will make sad a. Prefer to show his success stories than failure stories b. View life side by positive thinking c. Think the failure he faced is as motivat or to be more success 8 1, 5*, 10, 22, 23, 26 a. Calm in 18*, 30 2, 11, 14, 16, 19, 24, 7 10

10 10 facing hard trouble b. Tends to think the ways to achieve success when in facing a difficult problem 25, 28 *) is not valid item B. Subject of Research Subject of this research is student of Ushuluddin faculty of IAIN Walisongo Semarang especially special program of Ushuluddin faculty (FUPK) period 2009 about 50 students. It is 50 % from populasi. Many opinions explain about sampling technique. Some said when the population less than 100, it is better if all has been recruited to be sample. So it called population research. But when the population is big, it can be taken % or % in certain consideration. 12 In this research, researcher takes 50 samples from 99 students as the sample. The population is only 99 students but researcher did not take all of population as the subject of the research. She only took 50 students based on theory that said by Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata in her book entitled Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. She writes: Generally, for correlation research, sum of sample (n) 30 samples is said big enough sample Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2006, p Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, Bandung: Rosda, 2005, p

11 11 It is also strengthened by Husaini Usman and Purnomo Setiady Akbar s theory. They said in their book entitled Pengantar Statistika: Second Edition : actually, there is no strict rule in sample size that will be required similarly in limitation that sample is small or big. Quality of the research is not determined by sample size but by the basis of theory strength that supports in sampling technique. There is no sample that is 100% representative, but total sampling (sum of the sample is same with sum of the population). 14 Technique that is used in this research is purposive sample. 15 It is done by collecting subject not based on stratum, random or region, but based on certain purpose. They have chosen in consideration they are special students that assumed cleverer and expected know more about mah}abbah than other student even regular student or student of other faculty because they were studying it in their faculty. It based on Bandura s theory that said positive suggestion or persuasion can make self efficacy up. C. Method of Instrument Analysis 1. Validity Test A scale is valid when it is able to measure what should be measured. 16 Fundamentally, validity is a state that describes the level of concerned instrument is able to measure what is being measured. There are two kinds of validity for the instrument of research, are logical validity and empirical validity. 17 An instrument is said has validity is when the instrument in a logical reason analysis is appropriate to content and aspects revealed. The instrument that is appropriate to the contents is already said has content validity, while the instrument which is in accordance with aspect is said have had construction validity. 14 Husaini Usman and Purnomo Setiady Akbar, Pengantar Statistika: Second Edition, Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2008, p Sukardi, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan: Kompetensi dan Praktiknya, Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2003, p Jonathan Sarwono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006, p Suharsimi Arikunto, Manajemen Penelitian, edition. VII, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2005, p. 167.

12 12 To obtain an instrument that has a logical validity, both the content and construction, the researcher made points when prepare the instrument in accordance with established criteria from the development of the theoretical framework of each variable to get components and indicators up to the preparation of the questionnaire items. On the other hand, researcher consults it with lecturers and who mastered in arranging instrument test. Measuring of instrument validity is done by testing the instrument to respondents except the subject of the research. Instrument is tested to 20 FUPK students of Ushuluddin faculty after period Further scores of that test are used as empirical data to examine the validity of the instrument by using the correlation equation Corrected Item-Total Correlation with SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Science). Based on validity test that have done, for mah}abbah, from 37 items there is 19 items that is valid. While self efficacy, from 32 items there is 28 items that clarified valid. With limitation of significant of correlation coefficient is Item is said valid when significant of correlation is < Item is said not valid when significant of correlation is > Valid item of mah}abbah is from Not valid item of mah}abbah is from Valid item of self efficacy is from , while not valid item of self efficacy is from Below is the summary of interpretation of instrument validity. (The complete result of validity test can be seen on attachment 4). Table 3 Validity Test of Mah{abbah No. Variable/ Item Pearson correlation Explanation 1. X Not Valid 2. X Valid 3. X Not Valid 4. X Valid 5. X Not Valid 6. X Valid

13 13 7. X Valid 8. X Not Valid 9. X Valid 10. X Not Valid 11. X Valid 12. X Not Valid 13. X Not Valid 14. X Valid 15. X Not Valid 16. X Valid 17. X Valid 18. X Not Valid 19. X Valid 20. X Valid 21. X Valid 22. X Valid 23. X Not Valid 24. X Not Valid 25. X Not Valid 26. X Not Valid 27. X Valid 28. X Not Valid 29. X Not Valid 30. X Valid 31. X Valid 32. X Not Valid 33. X Not Valid 34. X Valid 35. X Valid 36. X Not Valid

14 X Valid Table 4 Validity Test of Self Efficacy No. Variable/ Item Pearson Explanation Correlation 1. Y Valid 2. Y Valid 3. Y Valid 4. Y Valid 5. Y Not Valid 6. Y Valid 7. Y Valid 8. Y Valid 9. Y Not Valid 10. Y Valid 11. Y Valid 12. Y Valid 13. Y Valid 14. Y Valid 15. Y Not Valid 16. Y Valid 17. Y Valid 18. Y Not Valid 19. Y Valid 20. Y Valid 21. Y Valid 22. Y Valid 23. Y Valid 24. Y Valid 25. Y Valid

15 Y Valid 27. Y Not Valid 28. Y Valid 29. Y Valid 30. Y Valid 31. Y Valid 32. Y Valid 2. Reliability Test Reliability indicates consistency and stability of the result of the certain measurement scale. 18 Reliability testing is measurement that indicates how far instrument is reliable or in other words show how far the result of that measurement is consistent when measures two times or more of the same symptom. 19 Reliability test should be done only on those questions that is satisfy to the validity test and when it is not satisfied then no need to continue to reliability test. In this study the reliability test that used is consistency internal reliability which is done by trying the measuring instrument enough just once, then the data obtained were analyzed with certain technique. 20 The result of the analysis can be used to predict the reliability of measuring instruments. For reliability test, researcher is helped by SPSS program. The result of reliability test of instrument is below: Table 5 Reliability Test of Mah{abbah Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Jonathan Sarwono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006, p Syofian Siregar, Statistika Deskriptif untuk Penelitian: Dilengkapi Perhitungan Manual dan Aplikasi SPSS Versi 17, Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2010, p Ibid, p. 174.

16 16 Table 6 Reliability Test of Self Efficacy Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items From two tables above, known that reliability of mah}abbah is showed by Alpha Cronbach s score is and reliability of self efficacy is It means instrument; scale of mah}abbah and self efficacy is recognized reliable. D. Data Analysis Before the data is analyzed, researcher should to do the test of instrument that will be used for measuring subject. It consists of validity and reliability test. After the instrument is clarified that it is valid and reliable, it recently can be used to the subject. After the data from the subject is collected, then the data will be analyzed to test the truth of hypothesis. The Method of data analysis that will be used in this research is product moment analysis. It will be helped by SPSS computer program (Statistical Packages for Social Science) for a windows versi Then, it will be seen the result of coefficient of its correlation. Product moment coefficient of correlation is symbolized by (-1 r + 1). It means, when r = +1 means two variables (X and Y) have perfect positive and direct high linearity correlation. While when r = -1, it means these have negative and high linear correlation. All of data that is obtained by scale will be processed by using SPSS computer program (Statistical Packages for Social Science) for a windows versi 17.0.

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