Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users

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1 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

2 Introduction Database Collection of related data Known facts that can be recorded and that have implicit meaning Miniworld or universe of discourse (UoD) Represents some aspect of the real world Logically coherent collection of data with inherent meaning Built for a specific purpose

3 Introduction (cont'd.) Example of a large commercial database Amazon.com Database management system (DBMS) Collection of programs Enables users to create and maintain a database Defining a database Specify the data types, structures, and constraints of the data to be stored

4 Introduction (cont'd.) Meta-data Database definition or descriptive information Stored by the DBMS in the form of a database catalog or dictionary Manipulating a database Query and update the database miniworld Generate reports

5 Introduction (cont'd.) Sharing a database Allow multiple users and programs to access the database simultaneously Application program Accesses database by sending queries to DBMS Query Causes some data to be retrieved

6 Introduction (cont'd.) Transaction May cause some data to be read and some data to be written into the database Protection includes: System protection Security protection Maintain the database system Allow the system to evolve as requirements change over time

7 An Example UNIVERSITY database Information concerning students, courses, and grades in a university environment Data records STUDENT COURSE SECTION GRADE_REPORT PREREQUISITE

8 An Example (cont'd.) Specify structure of records of each file by specifying data type for each data element String of alphabetic characters Integer Etc.

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10 An Example (cont'd.) Construct UNIVERSITY database Store data to represent each student, course, section, grade report, and prerequisite as a record in appropriate file Relationships among the records Manipulation involves querying and updating

11 An Example (cont'd.) Examples of queries: Retrieve the transcript List the names of students who took the section of the Database course offered in fall 2008 and their grades in that section List the prerequisites of the Database course

12 An Example (cont'd.) Examples of updates: Change the class of Smith to sophomore Create a new section for the Database course for this semester Enter a grade of A for Smith in the Database section of last semester

13 An Example (cont'd.) Phases for designing a database: Requirements specification and analysis Conceptual design Logical design Physical design

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15 Characteristics of the Database Approach Traditional file processing Each user defines and implements the files needed for a specific software application Database approach Single repository maintains data that is defined once and then accessed by various users

16 Characteristics of the Database Approach (cont'd.) Main characteristics of database approach Self-describing nature of a database system Insulation between programs and data, and data abstraction Support of multiple views of the data Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing

17 Self-Describing Nature of a Database System Database system contains complete definition of structure and constraints Meta-data Describes structure of the database Database catalog used by: DBMS software Database users who need information about database structure

18 Insulation Between Programs and Data Program-data independence Structure of data files is stored in DBMS catalog separately from access programs Program-operation independence Operations specified in two parts: Interface includes operation name and data types of its arguments Implementation can be changed without affecting the interface

19 Data Abstraction Data abstraction Allows program-data independence and program-operation independence Conceptual representation of data Does not include details of how data is stored or how operations are implemented Data model Type of data abstraction used to provide conceptual representation

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21 Support of Multiple Views of the View Data Subset of the database Contains virtual data derived from the database files but is not explicitly stored Multiuser DBMS Users have a variety of distinct applications Must provide facilities for defining multiple views

22 Sharing of Data and Multiuser Transaction Processing Allow multiple users to access the database at the same time Concurrency control software Ensure that several users trying to update the same data do so in a controlled manner Result of the updates is correct Online transaction processing (OLTP) application

23 Sharing of Data and Multiuser Transaction Processing (cont'd.) Transaction Central to many database applications Executing program or process that includes one or more database Isolation property Each transaction appears to execute in isolation from other transactions Atomicity property Either all the database operations in a transaction are executed or none are

24 Actors on the Scene Database administrators (DBA) are responsible for: Authorizing access to the database Coordinating and monitoring its use Acquiring software and hardware resources Database designers are responsible for: Identifying the data to be stored Choosing appropriate structures to represent and store this data

25 Actors on the Scene (cont'd.) End users People whose jobs require access to the database Types Casual end users Naive or parametric end users Sophisticated end users Standalone users

26 Actors on the Scene (cont'd.) System analysts Determine requirements of end users Application programmers Implement these specifications as programs

27 Workers behind the Scene DBMS system designers and implementers Design and implement the DBMS modules and interfaces as a software package Tool developers Design and implement tools Operators and maintenance personnel Responsible for running and maintenance of hardware and software environment for database system

28 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach (cont'd.) Providing storage structures and search techniques for efficient query processing Indexes Buffering and caching Query processing and optimization

29 A Brief History of Database Applications Early database applications using hierarchical and network systems Large numbers of records of similar structure Providing data abstraction and application flexibility with relational databases Separates physical storage of data from its conceptual representation Provides a mathematical foundation for data representation and querying

30 A Brief History of Database Applications (cont'd.) Object-oriented applications and the need for more complex databases Used in specialized applications: engineering design, multimedia publishing, and manufacturing systems Interchanging data on the Web for e- commerce using XML Extended markup language (XML) primary standard for interchanging data among various types of databases and Web pages

31 A Brief History of Database Applications (cont'd.) Extending database capabilities for new applications Extensions to better support specialized requirements for applications Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Customer relationship management (CRM) Databases versus information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) Deals with books, manuscripts, and various forms of library-based articles

32 Chapter 2 Database System Concepts and Architecture

33 Database System Concepts and Architecture Basic client/server DBMS architecture Client module Server module

34 Data Models, Schemas, and Data model Instances (cont'd.) Collection of concepts that describe the structure of a database Provides means to achieve data abstraction Basic operations Specify retrievals and updates on the database Dynamic aspect or behavior of a database application Allows the database designer to specify a set of valid operations allowed on database objects

35 Categories of Data Models High-level or conceptual data models Close to the way many users perceive data Low-level or physical data models Describe the details of how data is stored on computer storage media Representational data models Easily understood by end users Also similar to how data organized in computer storage

36 Entity Categories of Data Models (cont'd.) Represents a real-world object or concept Attribute Represents some property of interest Further describes an entity Relationship among two or more entities Represents an association among the entities Entity-Relationship model

37 Categories of Data Models (cont'd.) Relational data model Used most frequently in traditional commercial DBMSs Object data model New family of higher-level implementation data models Closer to conceptual data models

38 Categories of Data Models (cont'd.) Physical data models Describe how data is stored as files in the computer Access path Structure that makes the search for particular database records efficient Index Example of an access path Allows direct access to data using an index term or a keyword

39 Schemas, Instances, and Database State Database schema Description of a database Schema diagram Displays selected aspects of schema Schema construct Each object in the schema Database state or snapshot Data in database at a particular moment in time

40 Schemas, Instances, and Database State (cont'd.)

41 Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence Internal level Describes physical storage structure of the database Conceptual level Describes structure of the whole database for a community of users External or view level Describes part of the database that a particular user group is interested in

42 Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence (cont'd.)

43 Data Independence Capacity to change the schema at one level of a database system Without having to change the schema at the next higher level Types: Logical Physical

44 DBMS Languages Data definition language (DDL) Defines both schemas Storage definition language (SDL) Specifies the internal schema View definition language (VDL) Specifies user views/mappings to conceptual schema Data manipulation language (DML) Allows retrieval, insertion, deletion, modification

45 DBMS Languages (cont'd.) High-level or nonprocedural DML Can be used on its own to specify complex database operations concisely Set-at-a-time or set-oriented Low-level or procedural DML Must be embedded in a general-purpose programming language Record-at-a-time

46 DBMS Interfaces Menu-based interfaces for Web clients or browsing Forms-based interfaces Graphical user interfaces Natural language interfaces Speech input and output Interfaces for parametric users Interfaces for the DBA

47 The Database System Environment DBMS component modules Buffer management Stored data manager DDL compiler Interactive query interface Query compiler Query optimizer Precompiler

48 The Database System Environment (cont'd.) DBMS component modules Runtime database processor System catalog Concurrency control system Backup and recovery system

49

50 Database System Utilities Loading Load existing data files Backup Creates a backup copy of the database

51 Database System Utilities (cont'd.) Database storage reorganization Reorganize a set of database files into different file organizations Performance monitoring Monitors database usage and provides statistics to the DBA

52 Tools, Application Environments, and Communications Facilities CASE Tools Data dictionary (data repository) system Stores design decisions, usage standards, application program descriptions, and user information Application development environments Communications software

53 Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs Centralized DBMSs Architecture All DBMS functionality, application program execution, and user interface processing carried out on one machine

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55

56 Three-Tier and n-tier Architectures for Web Applications Application server or Web server Adds intermediate layer between client and the database server Runs application programs and stores business rules N-tier Divide the layers between the user and the stored data further into finer components

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58 Classification of Database Management Systems Data model Relational Object Hierarchical and network (legacy) Native XML DBMS Number of users Single-user Multiuser

59 Classification of Database Management Systems (cont'd.) Number of sites Centralized Distributed Cost Homogeneous Heterogeneous Open source Different types of licensing

60 Classification of Database Management Systems (cont'd.) Types of access path options General or special-purpose

61 Classification of Database Management Systems (cont'd.)

62 Chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints

63 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints Relational model First commercial implementations available in early 1980s Has been implemented in a large number of commercial system Hierarchical and network models Preceded the relational model

64 Relational Model Concepts Represents data as a collection of relations Table of values Row Represents a collection of related data values Fact that typically corresponds to a real-world entity or relationship Tuple Table name and column names Interpret the meaning of the values in each row attribute

65 Relational Model Concepts (cont d.)

66 Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations (cont d.) Relation schema R Denoted by R(A 1, A 2,...,A n ) Made up of a relation name R and a list of attributes, A 1, A 2,..., A n Attribute A i Name of a role played by some domain D in the relation schema R Degree (or arity) of a relation Number of attributes n of its relation schema

67 Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations (cont d.) Relation (or relation state) Set of n-tuples r = {t 1, t 2,..., t m } Each n-tuple t Ordered list of n values t =<v 1, v 2,..., v n Each value v i, 1 i n, is an element of dom(a i ) or is a special NULL value

68 Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations (cont d.) Relation (or relation state) r(r) Mathematical relation of degree n on the domains dom(a 1 ), dom(a 2 ),..., dom(a n ) Subset of the Cartesian product of the domains that define R: r(r) (dom(a 1 ) dom(a 2 )... dom(a n ))

69 Characteristics of Relations (cont d.)

70

71

72

73 Chapter 4 Basic SQL

74 Chapter 4 Outline SQL Data Definition and Data Types Specifying Constraints in SQL Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL Additional Features of SQL

75 Basic SQL SQL language Considered one of the major reasons for the commercial success of relational databases SQL Structured Query Language Statements for data definitions, queries, and updates (both DDL and DML) Core specification Plus specialized extensions

76 SQL Data Definition and Data Terminology: Types Table, row, and column used for relational model terms relation, tuple, and attribute CREATE statement Main SQL command for data definition

77 Schema and Catalog Concepts SQL schema in SQL Identified by a schema name Includes an authorization identifier and descriptors for each element Schema elements include Tables, constraints, views, domains, and other constructs Each statement in SQL ends with a semicolon

78 Schema and Catalog Concepts in SQL (cont d.) CREATE SCHEMA statement CREATE SCHEMA COMPANY AUTHORIZATION Jsmith ; Catalog Named collection of schemas in an SQL environment SQL environment Installation of an SQL-compliant RDBMS on a computer system

79 The CREATE TABLE Command in SQL Specify a new relation Provide name Specify attributes and initial constraints Can optionally specify schema: CREATE TABLE COMPANY.EMPLOYEE... or CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE...

80 The CREATE TABLE Command in SQL (cont d.) Base tables (base relations) Relation and its tuples are actually created and stored as a file by the DBMS Virtual relations Created through the CREATE VIEW statement

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82

83 Specifying Attribute Constraints and Attribute Defaults NOT NULL NULL is not permitted for a particular attribute Default value DEFAULT <value> CHECK clause Dnumber INT NOT NULL CHECK (Dnumber > 0 AND Dnumber < 21);

84

85 Specifying Key and Referential Integrity Constraints PRIMARY KEY clause Specifies one or more attributes that make up the primary key of a relation Dnumber INT PRIMARY KEY; UNIQUE clause Specifies alternate (secondary) keys Dname VARCHAR(15) UNIQUE;

86 Specifying Key and Referential Integrity Constraints (cont d.) FOREIGN KEY clause Default operation: reject update on violation Attach referential triggered action clause Options include SET NULL, CASCADE, and SET DEFAULT Action taken by the DBMS for SET NULL or SET DEFAULT is the same for both ON DELETE and ON UPDATE CASCADE option suitable for relationship relations

87 Giving Names to Constraints Keyword CONSTRAINT Name a constraint Useful for later altering

88 Specifying Constraints on Tuples Using CHECK CHECK clauses at the end of a CREATE TABLE statement Apply to each tuple individually CHECK (Dept_create_date <= Mgr_start_date);

89 Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL SELECT statement One basic statement for retrieving information from a database SQL allows a table to have two or more tuples that are identical in all their attribute values Unlike relational model Multiset or bag behavior

90 The SELECT-FROM-WHERE Structure of Basic SQL Queries Basic form of the SELECT statement:

91 The SELECT-FROM-WHERE Structure of Basic SQL Queries (cont d.) Logical comparison operators =, <, <=, >, >=, and <> Projection attributes Attributes whose values are to be retrieved Selection condition Boolean condition that must be true for any retrieved tuple

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93

94 Additional Features of SQL Techniques for specifying complex retrieval queries Writing programs in various programming languages that include SQL statements Set of commands for specifying physical database design parameters, file structures for relations, and access paths Transaction control commands

95 Chapter 5 More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema Modification

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