1 Think about chemical patterns Chapter 4: Chemical patterns Answers Who was Dmitri Mendeleev and how was he able to predict the future? What are metalloids? Why is the petrol used for most vehicles unleaded? Why do we talk about shells when describing electrons? Why are you more likely to find pure gold on or near the Earth s surface than pure copper or iron? What is the connection between the reactivity of metals and the ancient Roman Empire? How is it possible to write aluminium nitrate using only four letters? Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian chemist who produced a periodic table of elements in the late nineteenth century. The table ordered the elements in rows and columns, according to increasing atomic weight. He left spaces for undiscovered elements and, from their positions in the table, he could predict their properties. Metalloids (or more commonly semi-metals) are elements that have some properties similar to metals and some similar to nonmetals. Leaded petrol was replaced by unleaded petrol so that lead in the exhaust did not contaminate the environment. The electron shells are energy levels that radiate outwards. Electrons occupy these shells. The lowest energy level or K shell is closest to the nucleus. Higher energy shells form concentric layers with greater radii. Copper and iron are more reactive than gold. Copper and iron will react with other elements to form compounds. Gold is quite unreactive and rarely reacts with other elements. In ancient Rome, ores were imported and smelted to produce metals. The less reactive the metal, the easier it was to smelt the ore to produce the metal. The ores of reactive metals could not be smelted because the amount of energy required was too great. The metals that were produced (such as gold, silver, copper, lead) had a variety of uses, including coinage, jewellery and tool. Using chemical symbols, the formula is Al(NO 3 ) 3, thus four letters A. l, N and O are used. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 1
2 Your quest 1. (a) Electron (b) Neutrons and protons (c) Charged = protons and electrons; uncharged = neutrons (d) Protons (e) Electrons (f) Electrons 2. (a) Carbon (b) Protons (c) Carbon 3. Positive 4. Individual student research. 5. (a) Hydrogen and oxygen (b) Silicon (c) Sodium (d) Sodium and chlorine (e) Mercury Understanding and inquiring 4.1 Patterns, order and organisation: The periodic table 1. (a) True (b) True (c) True (d) True 2. (a) Magnesium (b) Fluorine (c) Potassium (d) Argon 3. The diagram should show the following. Noble gases group 18 Alkali metals group 1 Alkaline earth metals group 2 Halogens group 17 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2
3 Transition metals between groups 2 and (a) A, D, I (b) B, E, G, H, J (c) H, J (d) A, I (e) Group 1: B, E; Group 16: D, F, K; Group 18: A, I (f) Second period: B, C, D, A; Third period: G, F; Fourth period: H, K, I; Sixth period: E, L (g) B, E (h) L 5. The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. However, many elements exist as isotopes; that is, their atoms may contain a different number of neutrons. Therefore, an average, or weighted mean, is calculated to take this into account.the weighted mean is called the relative atomic mass. 6. As you go across the periodic table from left to right, the metallic character of the elements decreases. Non-metals are found on the upper right-hand side of the table In the periodic table, the elements are in groups that have similar chemical properties. This shows the periodicity, or repeating pattern, of the elements chemical properties. Using the table, it is possible to make accurate predictions about the properties of elements in the same group. 9. Noble gases (group 18) 10. to 15. Responses will vary. 16. to 17. ebookplus activity John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 3
4 4.2 Small but important 1. Shells 2. (a) 2 (b) 8 (c) 18 (d) The last shell that contains 1 to 8 electrons; it is called the valence shell 4. The group number of an electron can be used to determine the number of outer shell electrons. Group 1: 1 outer shell electron Group 2: 2 outer shell electrons Groups 3 12: these elements have variable valencies; commonly, these elements have 1,2,3 or 4 electrons in their valence shell Group 13 18: outer shell electrons = group number 10 eg. group 14 has = 4 outer shell electrons; group 17 has = 7 outer shell electrons 5. The period number tells us the number of electron shells around the nucleus. 6. (a) Carbon (b) Helium (c) Phosphorus (d) Calcium 7. (a) 2, 3 (b) 2, 8 (c) 2, 8, 8, 1 (d) 2, 7 (e) 2, 8, 4 8. (a) Metal. Elements with 1, 2 or 3 outershell electrons prefer to lose electrons to achieve a stable electronic shell arrangement. (b) Non-metal. Elements with 5, 6 or 7 electrons in the outershell prefer to gain electrons to achieve a stable electron shell arrangement. (c) Eight electrons in the outer shell is very stable. These are the noble gases and they are the most unreactive elements in the Periodic table. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 4
5 9. The colours of various flames containing metal ions is evidence of the existence of electron shells. When a metal ion is heated in a flame, electrons can be promoted up into a higher, unfilled energy level, and they then fall back to a more stable shell and emit light of a characteristic wavelength. Different colours are associated with differing amounts of energy released as the electron moves from a higher to a lower shell. 10. Student's own research 11. Student's own work 12. ebookplus activity 4.3 When atoms meet 1. Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons in order to achieve a full outer shell of electrons, which is a very stable arrangement. 2. A positively charged ion is called a cation. 3. A negatively charged ion is called an anion. 4. Most ionic compounds are solid at room temperature; they have high melting points; they usually dissolve in water to form aqueous solutions, and these solutions usually conduct electricity. 5. Metal and non-metal elements combine to form ionic compounds. 6. (a) Na + (b) N 3 (c) K + (d) F 7. (a) 4 electrons lost (b) 1 electron gained (c) 3 electrons lost (d) 2 electrons gained John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 5
6 8. (a) (b) (c) (d) 9. Individual student response 10. ebookplus activity 4.4 When sharing works best 1. Non-metal elements combine to form covalent compounds. 2. A covalent bond occurs when two atoms share their outer shell electrons. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 6
7 3. An electron dot diagram represents the symbol for the atom and the arrangement of the outer shell electrons. 4. Most covalent compounds exist as gases, liquids or solids with low melting points. They do not usually conduct electricity and are usually insoluble in water. 5. In a single covalent bond, two electrons are involved. In a triple covalent bond, six electrons are involved. 6. (a) Double bonds (b) Single bonds (c) One triple bond, two single bonds 7. 8 The noble gases do not form covalent bonds because their outer shells are complete, each with eight electrons. There is no need to share electrons with other atoms to achieve a stable outer shell. 9 Oxygen and carbon dioxide are both molecules because, in both cases, atoms are held together as a unit by the sharing of electrons. 10. Individual research 11. Individual research 12 ebookplus activity 4.5 How reactive? 1. Hydrogen 2. Iron is a reactive metal that combines with oxygen and water to form a variety of iron 3. The active metals of the periodic table are on the left. They readily lose their valence or outer-shell electrons to form a stable octet. As you move across the table, the John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 7
8 elements become less metallic and more non-metallic. Non metals prefer to gain electrons than lose them. Metals, such as sodium and potassium, have one valence electron, which is readily lost. Therefore, they are very reactive. 4. Individual experiment. Students will repeat investigation 4.4 or 4.5 using the alloys provided. 5. Individual student research 6. Individual student research 4.6 Finding the right formula 1 A chemical formula is a shorthand way of writing the name of a compound or molecular element. 2 The molecular formula is a way of describing the number and type of atoms that join to form a molecule. 3 The formula of a compound tells us the number and type of atoms that it consists of. 4 Na, H, K, Pb, Cl, I, S 5 (a) Hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen (b) Sodium, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen (c) Iron and sulfur 6 The valency of an element is equal to the number of electrons that each atom would need to gain, lose or share in order to fill its outer shell. 7 (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 8 Sodium = 1; hydrogen = 1; lead = 2; chlorine = 1; iodine = 1; magnesium = 2; sulfur = 2 9 NaCl sodium chloride; Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 aluminium sulfate; NaOH sodium hydroxide; AlCl 3 aluminium chloride; Na 3 N sodium nitride; Al(OH) 3 aluminium hydroxide; Na 2 O sodium oxide; AlN aluminium nitride; Na 2 SO 4 sodium sulfate; Al 2 O 3 aluminium oxide; CuO copper (II) oxide; Li 3 N lithium nitride; Cu(OH) 2 copper (II) hydroxide; LiCl lithium chloride; Cu 3 N 2 copper (II) nitride; LiOH lithium hydroxide; CuSO 4 copper (II) sulfate; Li 2 O lithium oxide; John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 8
9 CuCl 2 copper (II) chloride; Li 2 SO 4 lithium sulfate; Fe(OH) 3 iron (III) hydroxide; FeCl 3 iron (III) chloride; FeN iron (III) nitride; Fe 2 O 3 iron (III) oxide; Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 iron (III) sulfate 10 Chlorine and sodium both have a valency of 1. The electrovalency of chlorine is 1 and the electrovalency of sodium is +1. Electrovalency is different to valency because it takes the charge of the ion into account. 11 (a) O 2 (b) Cl 2 (c) Pb (d) NO (e) ZnO (f) K 2 SO 4 (g) Ca(OH) 2 12 (a) Ammonium chloride (b) Potassium iodide (c) Aluminium nitrate (d) Iron hydroxide (e) Potassium hydrogen carbonate (f) Magnesium carbonate (g) Hydrogen nitrate (nitric acid) 13 Group 18 is not listed because these elements do not require any electrons to fill their outer shell. They are already complete; therefore, they have a valency of zero. 14. Individual and group discussion 15. Individual work or group work. 16 ebookplus activity John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 9
10 4.7 Concepts and Mind Maps 1 (a) (b) Student's own work. The following is an example. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 10
11 2. (a)/(b) Student work. The following is a simple concept map. 3. The following is one possible response; students may elect to relate the three concepts to positions in the periodic table. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 11
12 4. One possible response: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 12
13 Looking back 1. The elements belong to families or groups. By arranging them in the form of a periodic table, the family relationship can be seen. Each member of a family has the same number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties. No knowledge of the relationship is gained by arranging the elements in a simple table. 2. The group number tells us how to determine the number of outer shell electrons in an atom of that element. For groups 1 and 2, the number of outer shell electrons is 1 and 2 respectively. For Groups 13 to 18, the number of outer shell electrons is the group number minus 10. The period number tells us how many electron shell are present. Thus, period 3 contains elements that have 3 shells of electrons. 3. The properties of elements show gradations as one moves down a group and across a period. When Mendeleev produced a periodic table, the element germanium was not known and so he left a space in his table. By using the known properties of surrounding elements, he was able to accurately predict the properties of the missing element. This assisted scientists to discover the element. 4. Water is a compound and not an element. 5. (a) Z = 14, A = 28, p = 14, n = 14, e = 14 (b) Z = 24, A = 52, p = 24 n = 28, e = 2 4 (c) Z = 79, A = 197, p = 79, n = 118, e = 79 (d) Z = 82, A = 206, p = 82, n = 124, e = 82 (e) Z = 94, A = 242, p = 94, n = 148, e = (noble gases) 7. Shiny, malleable, ductile, good heat conductor, good electrical conductor 8. Dull, brittle, heat insulator, electrical insulator, low melting points 9. (a) More reactive (b) Less reactive 10. (a) Increases (b) Increases (c) Decreases (d) Decreases 11. Metalloids have properties that are often in between those of metals and non-metals. Silicon, for example, is shiny like a metal but is only a semi-conductor of electricity. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 13
14 Note: This question has errors and needs correction as shown: Answers to revised question: (a) 12 (b) 24 (c) 12 (d) Some have a different neutron number (i.e. they are isotopes of magnesium) John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 14
15 (a) Neon (b) Mg 2+ or Al 3+ (c) F or O (a) Li atoms lose one electron and F atoms gain one electron. The lithium ion and the fluoride ion form lithium fluoride (b) Na atoms lose one electron each to form sodium ions. Oxygen atoms gain two electrons to form the oxide ion. Two sodium ions and one oxide ion forms sodium oxide. 17. (a) Hydrogen atoms and chlorine atoms each donate one outer shell electron to form a shared pair or covalent bond. This results in the formation of hydrogen chloride (b) Nitrogen atoms have three outer shell electrons and hydrogen atoms have one outer shell electron. Three covalent bonds are formed when electrons from each atom are shared to form three shared pairs. 18. Ionic compounds are composed of oppositely charged ions. In the solid state the ionic compounds do not conduct, but when melted or dissolved in water they do electrically conduct. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points. Covalent compounds are made up of neutral atoms bonded together by covalent bonds. They do not conduct in the solid, melted or dissolved states. Covalent compounds have low melting points. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 15
16 19. Gold is a very stable metal and quite unreactive. It is less likely to react with other materials in the environment compared with copper. Over long periods of geological time, most copper has formed compounds but gold is present today as the pure element. 20. Potassium, sodium and calcium are very reactive elements and combine with air or water to form compounds. No samples of these metals exist in the crust today. On the other hand, metals like gold, silver and copper are far less reactive and so some ore bodies are present today which contain the pure metal. 21. (a) O 2 (b) CO 2 (c) Al 2 O 3 (d) NaF (e) CaCO 3 (f) ZnCl 2 (g) Fe 2 S 3 (h) SO 2 (i) C (j) Pb John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 16
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