Prelude to War. What do you know? Manifest Destiny. John Tyler s Presidency 3/20/2009

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1 What do you know? Prelude to War Westward Expansion & Sectional Conflict, Why did the Alamo occur and why should we remember it? What was the consequences of US victory in the Mexican-American War? What was the Compromise of 1850 and did it work? What were the consequences of popular sovereignty? 2 John Tyler s Presidency President by Default Remembering Tippecanoe Rouge Whig States Righter, lower tariffs, keep BUS dead Sought to annex Texas Belonged to Mexico Spirit of Trails West Oregon Trail Opened up the West Mormon Trail Religious freedom California Trail Gold rush Santa Fe Trail Silver mines & trade 3 4 1

2 Texas Revolution US citizens invited to settle 30,000 white, 5,000 black by 1836 Contentions: slavery & Catholicism Declared independence (1836) Santa Anna restricted Americans Fighting broke out Remember the Alamo 1,500 Mexican troops killed Americans Texas Revolution cont d Sam Houston Battle of San Jacinto Texas Independence Texas Annexation Whigs blocked Texas statehood Spread of slavery Congress promised not to intervene 5 6 Election of 1844 Henry Clay (Whig) James K. Polk (Democrat) James G. Birney (Liberty Party) Clay and Birney opposed annexing Polk supported Texas statehood Polk squeezed out a victory Tyler requests annexation Received a joint resolution for annexation Texas became a state (1845) 7 3-pronged agenda Reduce Tariffs Oregon Fifty-four Forty or Fight! Oregon Treaty (1846) California US tries to buy Mexican land John Slidell-$25 million John C. Fremont-California science mission Zachary Taylor-2,000 troops to Rio Grande 8 2

3 Mexican-American War ( ) Mexican troops attack Taylor s force Polk asks for War American blood has been shed on American soil! US-Mexican War cont d US troops took N. Mexico & AZ (summer 1846) Fremont w/ navy seized California (early 1847) Battle of Buena Vista (Feb 1847) US took No. Mexico Siege of Veracruz Mexico City (Fall 1847) 9 10 US-Mexican War ( ) US-Mexican War cont d Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) Mexico gave up California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado & Wyoming Mexico dropped Texas Rio Grande border US paid $15 million for territory

4 US-Mexican War cont d Lincoln s spot resolution Legacy of the War 12,000 US dead Fought in the name of Fueled arguments about the spread of slavery Election of 1848 Lewis Cass popular sovereignty Zachary Taylor war hero, ignored slave issue Martin Van Buren Free Soil party, abolition A veritable Who s Who of the Civil War received their training in the US-Mexican War: Compromise of 1850 California to be a free state All others decided by popular sovereignty Texas gave up claims of eastern New Mexico Washington D.C. abolished slave trade Congress passed Fugitive Slave Law North had to return runaway slaves to the South Taylor opposed the compromise but died in Millard Fillmore took over and signed the bill. 15 Importance of the Compromise North gained political advantage West moves toward free soil Averted war allowing northern industrialization Northern Reaction to the Compromise Helped fuel radical abolition Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman 19 missions, freed 300 slaves 16 4

5 Flames of sectionalism were fanned by Uncle Tom s Cabin Abolitionist work by Harriet Beecher Stowe Upset most pro-slavery southerners When Lincoln met Stowe in 1863 he commented, So you re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war! 17 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Created present-day states Popular sovereignty: let the people decide issue of slavery Missouri Compromise revoked Riots broke out Slavers from MO seized land in KA Northerners also seized land Pottawatomie Massacre John Brown killed 5 slavers (civil war in KA) 18 Section Difficulties Caning of Charles Sumner Dred Scott Case (1857) MO slave sued master for freedom Lived with master in free territory Supreme Court ruled against freedom Slaves property, MO Compromise unconstitutional Northerners angered Lincoln-Douglass Debates Series of debates between A. Lincoln and Stephen Douglass (KA-NB fame) Lincoln-slavery wrong but union needs to be saved Douglass-people in the West should decide the slave issue Popular sovereignty

6 John Brown s Raid (1859) Brown raided federal arsenal at Harper s Ferry, VA Hoped to encourage a massive slave revolt Brown trapped and surrendered after much bloodshed Speedy trial hanged Further divided America Now what do you know? Why did the Alamo occur and why should we remember it? What was the consequences of US victory in the Mexican-American War? What was the Compromise of 1850 and did it work? What were the consequences of popular sovereignty?

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