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1 Nutrients 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

2 Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need to breathe? Why you need oxygen? You need oxygen in order for your body to USE the food that you eat! 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

3 Purpose of Cellular Respiration The food you eat cannot be used by cells directly. Cells have only one usable energy form, ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cellular respiration is a series of metabolic processes in which the energy found in carbohydrates (biochemical energy) is transferred to ATP Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

4 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- an important chemical compound which living things use to store energy. ATP is used to power chemical reactions, build molecules, and supply energy for your body s activities. ATP= Energy for your cells! 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

5 Structure of ATP Adenine P P P ATP is a nucleic acid with an adenine base, ribose, and not one but THREE phosphates. Ribose 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

6 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) You can think of ATP as a fully charged battery because a high energy bond is found between the phosphate groups. Adenine P P P Ribose 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

7 How do we get energy from ATP? Energy is released by breaking the high energy bond between the last two phosphates in ATP. Adenine Ribose P P P The outer phosphate bond is broken via hydrolysis (water is added). An enzyme known as ATPase is used to break the bond via hydrolysis. This forms a slightly different molecule, known as ADP.

8 Adenosine Diphosphate When energy is released from ATP, the high energy phosphate group bond is broken. The breaking of this bond releases energy. This creates a molecule known as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Adenine P P Ribose Because ADP has less bonds (one less phosphate); it contains less energy. ADP can be thought of as a partially charged battery.

9 Chemical Equation Equation for the release of energy as the cell uses energy: Simplified: ATP ADP + Energy + P

10 ATP ADP Cycle The lost phosphate group from ATP can be regained and transform back to ATP. This is done using an enzyme known as ATP Synthase Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

11 Cellular=occurs in the cell Respiration= breathing -inhale oxygen, a reactant of cell respiration -exhale carbon dioxide, a product of cell respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic processes that take place in cells to convert nutrients (glucose) into ATP. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria of all types of cells (plant, animal, bacteria, etc.)

12 Mitochondrion (singular) Mitochondria has a smooth outer membrane; a folded inner membrane. These folds are called cristae. The space inside the cristae is called the matrix.

13 In cellular respiration, animals use oxygen to break down food molecules and release carbon dioxide as a waste product into the atmosphere. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6 CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP

14 Cell respiration occurs in 3 stages: 1) Glycolysis Glyco refers to glucose; lysis= to break down or split 1) Kreb s Cycle (also known as Citric Acid Cycle) Named after German scientist Hans Adolf Kreb 3) Electron Transport Chain Oxygen is required to make lots of ATP

15 Electron carriers Recall that electron carriers are molecules that carry electrons from one place to another. By doing so, they are transferring energy. The electron carriers involved with cell respiration are NADH and FADH 2. NADH and FADH 2 are created during the first two steps of cellular respiration and their electrons are used during the final step- the electron transport chain. NADH and FADH 2 are used to make lots of ATP!

16 Stage One- Glycolysis splitting of a 6-carbon glucose into two pyruvates, each having 3 carbons. Glycolysis - occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell - anaerobic process (no oxygen required) - breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules (aka pyruvic acid) - carbon dioxide is released. - net of 2 ATP molecules are made Splitting of glucose.

17 Glycolysis Glucose is phosphorylated. In order to do this, 2 ATP molecules are required. In phosphorylating glucose, ATP releases energy and transforms into ADP (loses a phosphate to glucose). The glucose splits into two 3- carbon sugar phosphates.

18 Glycolysis Two NAD+ molecules oxidize the newly formed 3-carbon sugar phosphates. Recall glycolysis does not require oxygen; in this case oxidize simply means to take electrons away. The NAD+ take away electrons and hydrogen from a series of phosphoglyceraldehydes (PGAL) to make 2 NADH (an energy carrier).

19 The final step of glycolysis is the formation of After NAD+ removes electrons and hydrogen, some free phosphates remain. The phosphates are used to form ATP from ADP. Four ATP are produced, but remember it took two ATP molecules to start the process. This gives us a net of two ATP molecules produced. The removal of phosphate results in two 3-carbon pyruvates Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

20 Glycolysis Net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule Net yield of 2 NADH per glucose molecule Produces 2 Pyruvates.

21 Bridge Reactions The two pyruvate molecules are used indirectly for the next step of cell respiration, the Krebs cycle. They must further be broken down during what is known as the bridge reactions. pyruvate During the bridge reactions, pyruvate formed during glycolysis is broken down into Acetyl-CoA, which is required for the next step of cellular respiration. Acetyl- CoA

22 Before the pyruvates can be used, they must be further processed into Acetyl-CoA. This involves another oxidation step from NAD+. NAD+ steals electrons from pyruvate to form NADH. In stealing electrons, a carbon atom is also removed (the molecular structure is compromised anytime electrons are lost). Coenzyme-A is used to transform the remaining 2-carbon compound into Acetyl-CoA. One carbon atom is removed from each pyruvate. This forms one 2-Carbon compound and 1 CO 2 molecule.

23 Stage 2- The Krebs Cycle - occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria - aerobic process (oxygen required) -Acetyl CoA goes into cycle; CO 2 is released - energy carriers NADH and FADH 2 are produced - net of 2 ATP molecules are made 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

24 Net yield of 2 ATP Net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH 2 sent to ETC (electron transport chain). In this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO 2 is completed. CO 2 is released as waste (we exhale it) Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

25 Krebs Cycle What goes into the Krebs cycle? What comes out of the Krebs cycle?

26 Krebs Cycle Summary Requires Oxygen (Aerobic) Cycle of oxidation reactions that give off CO 2 and produce one ATP per cycle Turns twice per glucose molecule Produces two ATP Takes place in matrix of mitochondria Each turn of the Krebs Cycle produces 3 NADH, 1 FADH 2, and 2 CO 2 Therefore, For each Glucose molecule, the Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH 2, 4CO 2, and 2ATP

27 Stage 3- Electron Transport Chain -occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria -aerobic process (oxygen required- serves as final electron acceptor) -NADH and FADH 2 pass energized electrons to and from proteins of the mitochondrial membrane -net of 32 ATP molecules are made

28 Electron Transport Chain consists of a series of proteins and enzymes on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Electrons are released from NADH and from FADH 2 and as they are passed along the series of enzymes, they give up energy which is used to fuel a process known as Chemiosmosis is a process within the electron transport chain; it drives the production of ATP Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

29 During chemiosmosis, protons (H+) are moved across the inner mitochondrial membrane (from the matrix into the intermembrane space). This causes a voltage- as protons have a positive charge. One side of the membrane has a positive charge relative to the other. The voltage differential is used to make ATP. Just like nature-made battery packs.

30 During the electron transport chain, there is a net yield of 32 ATP per glucose molecule). ATP Synthase aids in ATP phosphorylation (adding phosphate to ADP to create ATP).

31 Oxygen is required for the ETC- aerobic process. 6 H 2 O molecules are formed when the electrons unite with O 2 at the end of electron transport chain. Without oxygen to serve as the final electron acceptor, the process stops.

32 Electron Transport Chain

33 Electron Transport Chain Summary Electrons and hydrogen ions from electron carriers are used 34 ATP Produced (total; net of 32) H 2 O Produced Occurs Across Inner Mitochondrial membrane NADH = 3 ATP s FADH 2 = 2 ATP s The Electron Transport Chain

34

35 Adding up ATP Step of Cell Respiration Net number of ATP molecules Glycolysis 2 Krebs cycle 2 Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 32 TOTAL: 36

36 Cell Respiration Video

37 Cellular Respiration How does this video relate to cell respiration? Just like in the game Mouse Trap, each step depends directly on the previous step. If one of the processes stopped, the next step would not be able to go on. Glucose (food) is required for glycolysis. Glycolysis results in pyruvate, which is broken down into acetyl CoA. Acetyl-CoA is necessary to begin the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle creates NADH and FADH2 (electron carriers) which are essential molecules for the electron transport chain.

38 What if there s not enough oxygen? No oxygen? Don t be silly! I m constantly breathing in O2 just fine! Prove it. Go jog 5 miles (cross country runners excluded). If you are making your body work harder than usual, your body will require MORE ATP, which requires more oxygen- but depending on what shape your in, this oxygen may not be available. How does it feel to be out of shape?

39 Fermentation If oxygen is not available, the Krebs cycle cannot occur. Aerobic respiration ceases; fermentation proceeds and ATP is produced in minimal amounts (2 ATP) There are two types of fermentation depending on the organism: alcoholic and lactic acid.

40 Alcoholic Fermentation Sugars are converted into cellular energy and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic wastes. Occurs in yeast when oxygen is not available This reaction occurs in the production of ethanol fuels, in the rising of bread dough, and brewing of beer and wine.

41 Fermentation is used in making food products and alcohol productsrequires yeast! 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

42 Lactic Acid Fermentation Anaerobic process by which sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproduct lactic acid. Occurs in some bacterial and animal cells such as muscle cells in the absence of oxygen. Lactic acid causes muscle soreness!

43 Cell Respiration Song!

44 Self Check 1. In order to produce energy, cells start with glycolysis. If oxygen is NOT present after glycolysis, what process occurs next? a) Electron Transport Chain b) Krebs Cycle c) Fermentation 2. If oxygen IS present after glycolysis, what process occurs next? a) Electron Transport Chain b) Krebs Cycle c)fermentation 3. A process that does NOT require oxygen is known as. anaerobic. 4. In glycolysis, glucose is broken into pyruvate molecules. 5. Where does the Krebs cycle occur? Mitochondria (matrix). 6. What gas is a waste product produced in the Krebs cycle? CO 2 (carbon dioxide)

45 7. What enzyme is used in the electron transport chain to create ATP? a. citric acid b. pyruvate c. ATPSynthase 8. Where does glycolyis occur? a. cytoplasm b. mitochondria c. chloroplast 9. Which process produces the largest amount of ATP? a. fermentation b. Krebs Cycle c. ETC 10. The oxygen required by cellular respiration is reduced and becomes part of which molecule? a. ATP b. CO 2 c. H 2 O 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

46 Copyright and Thanks This material is protected under the DMCA and is copyrighted under Vanessa Jason ( Biology Roots ) This is for single classroom use only. Not for public display, included any website (public or private). Thank you! 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

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