What is ecology? The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

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1 Animal Adaptations

2 What is ecology? The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

3 Adaptations

4 How do adaptations help animals survive in their environment? An adaptation is a body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. Adaptation can help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. All animals are adapted to live in certain habitats. Animals that cannot adapt will die out.

5 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats.

6 We can separate adaptations into two categories: Physical AND Behavioral

7 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral

8 Physical adaptations are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. Physical adaptations help an animal survive in its environment. A. Weinberg

9 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment

10 Physical adaptation Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding) The chameleon can change its color to match its surroundings. Can you do that?

11 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment Camouflage use of color in a surrounding

12 Physical adaptation Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly. Can you tell them apart? I m the Viceroy! Not poisonous Poisonous I m the Monarch!

13 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment Camouflage use of color in a surrounding Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism)

14 Physical adaptation Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

15 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment Camouflage use of color in a surrounding Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays)

16 Physical adaptations Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth) The elephant s trunk is a physical adaptation that helps it to clean itself, eat, drink, and to pick things up.

17 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment Camouflage use of color in a surrounding Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays) Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

18 Behavioral Adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs.

19 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment allow animals to respond to life needs. Camouflage use of color in a surrounding Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays) Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

20 Behavioral Adaptations are animals actions. Remember that Physical Adaptations are body structures. Each organism has unique methods of adapting to its environment by means of different actions.

21 body part or behavior that helps an animal survive in a particular environment. help an animal breathe, catch food, or hide. adapted to live in certain habitats. Physical Behavioral body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself, and to reproduce its species. help an animal survive in its environment allow animals to respond to life needs. animals actions Camouflage use of color in a surrounding Mimicry (looking or sounding like another living organism) Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays) Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)

22 Homeostasis Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment. Examples: The thickening of fur in winter. The seeking of shade in heat. The production of more red blood cells at high altitude.

23 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment

24 Endotherms vs. Ectotherms

25 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment Endotherms Ectotherms

26 Endotherms Endotherms are animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism. We call these animals warm-blooded. Maintain a constant body temperature regardless of changes in the surrounding temperature

27 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment Endotherms Ectotherms animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism Warmblooded Body temp the same regardless of weather

28 How do endothems adapt? Fat layers, fur, and feathers insulate the body and retain heat. Shivering muscles contract to increase body heat. Some animals hibernate. Hibernation enables animals to survive long periods of cold and lack of food. Canines, like this Brittany, use panting as a means of temperature regulation.

29 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment Endotherms Ectotherms animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism How do endothems adapt? Warmblooded Body temp the same regardless of weather Fat layers, fur, and feathers Shivering Muscles Hibernation

30 Ectotherms Ectotherms are animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings. We call these animals cold-blooded Body temperature fluctuates with changes in the surrounding temperature.

31 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment Endotherms Ectotherms animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism How do endothems adapt? animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings Body temp the same regardless of weather Fat layers, fur, and feathers Shivering Muscles Warmblooded Coldblooded Body Temp changes with weather Hibernation

32 How do ectotherms adapt? Most marine fish and invertebrates, however, live in water that stays the same temperature. When the weather is warm, they become active. They slow down when the temperature drops. To warm up, reptiles find sunny places, and stretch out for maximum exposure. If it gets too warm, lizards alternate between sun and shade. Amphibians warm up by moving into the sun or diving into warm water. They cool off by entering the shade.

33 Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the face of a varying external environment Endotherms Ectotherms animals that warm their bodies mainly from their own metabolism How do endothems adapt? animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings How do ectotherms adapt? Body temp the same regardless of weather Fat layers, fur, and feathers Shivering Muscles Warmblooded Coldblooded Body Temp changes with weather warm up by moving into the sun or diving into warm water weather is warm, they become active. They slow down when the temperature drops. Hibernation cool off by entering the shade

34 Example of Adaptation The shape of an animal s teeth is related to its diet. Herbivores, such as deer, have many molars for chewing tough grass and plants. Carnivores, such as lions, have sharp canines to kill and tear meat.

35 Who experiences adaptations? All species have experienced adaptation and will continue to slowly adapt as the next generations are born. We will identify certain species from each of these groups and the reasons for their success: Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians

36 Mammals Endothermic or warm-blooded All have some type of hair Some are very specialized, such as white polar bear fur Method of locomotion Care for young

37 Birds Leg Length Roseate Spoonbill (top right) Foot Webbing Laughing Gull (top left) Beak Shape Long Billed Curlew (bottom)

38 Ectothermic or coldblooded Scales Reptiles Some undergo hibernation and estivation (a type of hibernation when food/water become scarce) Lay eggs on land Leg structure and position

39 Amphibians Ectothermic Lay eggs in water Partially of fully webbed feet Have lungs or can absorb oxygen through their skin

40 Some animals use these methods of defense to protect themselves: Camouflage Snake Mimicry Mexican Milk Snake Bright colors Skunk and Poison Arrow Frog Hair projections Hedgehog quills Deer Antlers Animal Defense

41 Adaptation Applications: Lions Why are the eyes of a lion set in front of the head rather than on the sides? Answer: Eyes in front of the head allow for depth perception and ability to judge distances when hunting.

42 Adaptation Applications: Lions What is the purpose of the mane on a male lion? What is the reason for the lion s color? A thick mane helps the male to appear larger and serves as protection for the throat. The tawny brown coat color camouflages the animal and young among vegetation.

43 Adaptation Applications: Giraffe Why are giraffes able to go for long periods of time without water? Answer: Giraffes drink water when available, but can go weeks without it. They rely on morning dew and the water content of their food.

44 Adaptation Applications: Giraffe How are their long necks adapted to their lifestyle? Answer: This extra length is thought to have evolved to help the giraffe spot predators and other giraffes in the distance. Interestingly, giraffes and humans have the same number of vertebrate in their necks.

45 Adaptation Applications: Zebras How do zebras defend themselves? Capable of running up to 40 mph. Zebras defend themselves by kicking and biting. Coloration also plays a role in evading predators, although theories have not reached an agreement.

46 Plant Adaptations Most plants produce seeds. A plant embryo is called a seedling. Certain conditions will nourish the seed, allowing it to grow. Seeds can lie DORMANT and NOT GROW for many years, if the conditions are not right for growth.

47 Plant Adaptations GYMNOSPERMS are plants that do not use flowers to produce seeds. Examples are pine trees. Male pinecones produce POLLEN, (male sex cells) Female pinecones produce ) OVULES (female sex cells)

48 php/naturenotesvid/entry/f emale_male_pine_cones_long leaf/

49 Plant Adaptations For a seed to develop, it must be fertilized. Gymnosperms use the wind to blow pollen from male pine cones to females. POLLINATION is the movement of pollen.

50 Plant Adaptaions ANGIOSPERMS use flowers to produce seeds. Many have male and female parts in the same flower. The male parts produce pollen The female parts produce the ovules. Birds and insects help pollinate flowers.

51 Resources This PowerPoint is partially adapted from Ms. Weinberg. The original PowerPoint can be viewed at Animal-Adaptations-PPT It is also partially adapted from an animal adaptation powerpoint created by City of Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History the original can be viewed at aptations.ppt -Regulation-Internally-heated-animals.html -Regulation-Externally-heated-animals.html

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