Middle East. Post 1945

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1 Middle East Post 1945

2 The Holy Land (Palestine-Israeli conflict) Decolonization begins shortly after WWII 1946 Britain recognizes Jordan s independence 1948 Britain s mandate over Palestine ends 1948 Israel is created (Zionist movement) Palestine never got a homeland (did not accept the UN partition)

3 Creation of the Arab League In order to promote Arab interests and to counter Israeli influence Egypt was the dominate figure early (they became a republic in 1953 Egypt s leader was Gamal Abdel Nasser (56-70) He offered guidance to other Arab states wanting independence Also during post WWII period, a move toward Islamic Fundamentalism also occurs (to counter western influence)

4 Arab-Israeli Conflict First conflict began before Israel was a country (1947) against (250,000 Arabs left or were expelled) Israel knew they would be attacked, so they set out to quickly strengthen the military, economy, and the government Arab-Israeli War: Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon (Morocco, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia also sent troops) Egypt gained control of Gaza, Jordan over East Jerusalem and West Bank. Another 700,000 Arabs fled Israel (Palestinian refugees still a major question) 1956 Israel joins with Britain and France in a war against Egypt over control of the Suez Canal. (the alliance wins, but the USA and USSR make them give it back to Egypt)

5 6 Day War 1967 Egypt, Syria, and Jordan cut off Israel, kick out the UN and mass troops on the border June 5, 1967, Israel launches attack against Egypt, Syria, and Jordan Israel quickly dominates the Arab forces within 6 days Israel occupies Sinai peninsula, Old Jerusalem (West Bank), and Golan Heights [US supported Israel USSR supported Arab Nations] US and USSR don t want to go to war so they try to solve situation diplomatically Israel would give territory back Israel wanted unequivocal recognition as a sovereign state

6 Yom Kippur War Oct Egypt and Syria attack Israel Israel is losing Israel counter-attacks crossing the Suez canal and getting within 25 miles of Damascus USSR threatens intervention USA gets Israel to stop UN arranged ceasefire. Jan 1974 Israel and Egypt sign agreement May 1974 Israel and Syria sign agreement First direct Israeli-Arab talks since 1948

7 Arabs come out of 73 war with improved morale They discovered the oil weapon OPEC led oil embargo on the West Oct 1973 embargo begins, embargo lifted March 1974 (targeted USA and Netherlands for their support of Israel during war) Price rose from $3 to $12 a barrel ($.38 to $.55 a gallon) (gasoline rationing no sales on weekends)

8 (tangent) OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Venezuela (Mexico, Norway, Russia follow OPEC s lead) US foreign dependence on oil: (thousands of barrels/day) 2,455 Canada 1,532 Mexico 1,485 Saudi Arabia 1,361 Venezuela 1,134 Nigeria 5,980 from OPEC nations, 7,489 non OPEC nations (The USA is the 3 rd largest producer of oil in world (Saudi Arabia, Russia, USA)

9 Egypt Israeli Detente Sept. 1975: Second pact land given back, agree not to use force against each other Nov. 1977: Egyptian Pres. Sadat flies to Jerusalem for talks Pres. Carter invites Sadat and P.M. Begin (Israel) to US Sept. 78: Camp David resulted in a framework for permanent peace treaty Israel gave back all of Sinai West Bank was still in question Egypt recognized Israel Borders were opened, ambassadors exchanged, Suez opened to Israel Sadat was assassinated Oct 6, 1981 by his own military

10 Beirut, Lebanon Large Christian and Muslim population 1970 s the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) under Yasser Arafat was HQ ed in Lebanon Civil War: Christians had held majority until Palestinians arrived by 1975, the balance shifted Christians supported by Syria vs. Muslims (& Palestinians) Ceasefire in Oct Israel began attacking PLO in Lebanon 1981 PLO launch rockets into Israel Israeli airstrikes into Beirut 1982: Israel invades Lebanon surround Beirut Palestinians leave with French, Italian, and US protection 1983: US Marine barracks bombed: 241 Americans killed (US pulls out) Christian president of Leb. Is killed (bomb) Lebanese Christians (with Israeli help) massacre hundreds Palestinian refugees By 1995 Beirut began to recover. Still have to deal with Syrian interference in their politics

11 Iran Prior to WWII, Britain and the USSR competed Post WWII, the USA replace Britain 1941: Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi is Shah (with British and Soviet help) After the war he asked that all foreigners leave USSR begins military build-up on border Iran s communist party becomes active (the Shah flees in 1953) 1954 the CIA backs a coup and restores the Shah for 25 yrs. Iran is an independent ally of USA. The Shah tries to rapidly modernize Iran - faces opposition

12 Iranian Revolution Shah leads a reign of terror for 7 years smashing the opposition The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini leads opposition Jan 1979, Shah flees Iran (dies in Egypt in 1980) Ayatollah Khomeini becomes leader Opposes Western culture and influence Created a theocratic state (the Koran) USA was the Great Satan Nov 1979: US embassy attacked 53 hostages taken held for 444 days (Carter loses election)

13 Iran Contra Affair Began as a weapons for hostage exchange (secret). Israel sold weapons to moderate Iranians Israel would then buy weapons from the USA in exchange the Iranian would try to get the release of 6 US hostages (held by Hezbollah) Ended up being a straight arms for hostages deal By 1985, a portion of the money was being used to support the Contras in Nicaragua

14 Iran-Iraq War For control of the Persian Gulf Iraq (Saddam Hussein) invaded Iran Iran was on the offensive form Iraq attacked USS Stark (killing 37) Iran (and Iraq) mined the Persian Gulf (USS Roberts hit a mine) USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air flight 655 killing 290 (accidentally) Iraq used chemical warfare against Iranian troops, civilians and their own Kurds Neither side gained territory

15 Persian Gulf War Iraq had long standing issues with Kuwait thought Kuwait was a province of Iraq Kuwait s borders (drawn by Britain) were meant to constrict Iraqi access to Persian Gulf these borders were continually in dispute Iraq attacked and annexed Kuwait in 1990 US led a coalition of 34 nations against Iraq February 1991 the war is over Iraq lost, but it was a negotiated peace

16 Osama bin Laden (briefly) Joins the Mujahideen and fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan beginning in 1979 Funneled Arab troops into Afghanistan wanted separate Arab units (not mixed with Afghans) forms al Qaeda Returns to Saudi Arabia in 1990 as a hero (who defeated the Soviets) Met with the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia at beginning of Iraq s invasion of Kuwait and told him not to count on non-muslim help Osama bin Laden hated the idea of westerners on Saudi soil (the holy places of Islam) thus began his attacks on the west Involvement in Bosnia, Sudan, Aden, Afghanistan (Taliban), and the US.

17 There exists a delicate balance of power in the Middle East. No country wants any other country to have to much power or influence The USA (and the rest of the world) also wants to maintain the balance of power in the region The idea of any one country becoming too powerful is a concern Balance of Power

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