# CIS 536/636 Introduction to Computer Graphics. Kansas State University. CIS 536/636 Introduction to Computer Graphics

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1 2 Lecture Outline Animation 2 of 3: Rotations, Quaternions Dynamics & Kinematics William H. Hsu Department of Computing and Information Sciences, KSU KSOL course pages: / Public mirror web site: Instructor home page: Readings: Today: Chapter 17, esp , Eberly 2 e see Next class: Chapter 10, 13, , Eberly 2 e Ross s Maya tutorials: PolyFacecom s Maya character modeling tutorials: Wikipedia, Flight Dynamics: Reading for Last Class: Eberly 2 e (736), Flash handout Reading for Today: , Eberly 2 e Reading for Next Class: Chapter 10, 13, , Eberly 2 e Previously: Evaluators, Piecewise Polynomial Curves, Bicubic Surfaces Last Time: Maya & Animation Preliminaries Ross Tutorials Maya interface: navigation, menus, tools, primitives Ross tutorials (http://bit.ly/dfptwq) Preview of character models: PolyFacecom (http://bit.ly/h6tzrd) Today: Rotations in Animation Flight dynamics: roll, pitch, yaw Matrix, angles (fixed, Euler, axis), quaternions, exponential maps Dynamics: forward (trajectories, simulation), inverse ( e.g., ballistics) Kinematics: forward, inverse Next Time: Videos Part 4 Modeling & Simulation 3 Where We Are 4 References: Maya Character Rigging Aaron Ross Founder, Digital Arts Guild Jim Lammers President Trinity Animation Larry Neuberger Associate Professor, Alfred State SUNY College of Technology Online Instructor, Art Institute of Pittsburgh 5 Acknowledgements: CGA Rotations, Dynamics & Kinematics 6 Spaces & Transformations Rick Parent Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Ohio State University David C. Brogan Visiting Assistant Professor, Computer Science Department, University of Virginia Susquehanna International Group (SIG) Steve Rotenberg Visiting Lecturer Graphics Lab University of California San Diego CEO/Chief Scientist, PixelActive

2 7 Display Pipeline 8 Rotations [1]: Orientation Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD 9 Rotations [2]: Representing Position 10 Rotations [3]: Euler s Theorem Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD 11 Rotations [4]: Euler Angles 12 Representing Orientations Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD

3 13 Working with Fixed Angles & Rotation Matrices (RMs) 14 Transformations in Pipeline 15 Error Considerations 16 Six Ways to Represent Orientations 17 Representing 3 Rotational Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) 18 Method 1 Transformation Matrix [1] 4 4 Homogeneous TMs Adapted from slides D. Brogan, University of Virginia CS 445/645,,

4 19 Method 1 Transformation Matrix [2]: Translation 20 Method 1 Transformation Matrix [3]: Rotation about x, y, z Rotation about x axis (Roll) x Rotation about y axis (Pitch) y 2006 Wikipedia, Flight Dynamics z Rotation about z axis (Yaw) 21 Method 2 Fixed Angles [1] 22 Method 2 Fixed Angles [2]: Gimbal Lock 23 Method 2 Fixed Angles [3]: Order of Rotations 24 Method 2 Fixed Angles [4]: Interpolating Fixed Angles

5 25 Method 2 Fixed Angles [5]: Gimbal Lock Illustrated 26 Method 3 Euler Angles [1] Gimbal Lock: Term Derived from Mechanical Problem in Gimbal Gimbal: Mechanism That Supports Compass, Gyroscope Anticz.com 2001 M. Brown Gimbal Lock 2006 Wikipedia (Rendered using POV-Ray) Adapted from slides D. Brogan, University of Virginia CS 551, Computer Animation, 27 Method 3 Euler Angles [2] 28 Method 4 Axis-Angle [1] Adapted from slides D. Brogan, University of Virginia CS 445/645,, 29 Method 4 Axis-Angle [2] 30 Method 4 Axis-Angle [3]: Axis-Angle to Series of Rotations Given r vector in space to rotate n unit-length axis in space about which to rotate amount about n to rotate Solve r rotated vector n r r Adapted from slides D. Brogan, University of Virginia CS 445/645,,

6 31 Method 4 Axis-Angle [4]: Axis-Angle to Rotation Matrix 32 Method 5 Quaternions [1] 33 Method 5 Quaternions [2]: Arithmetic 34 Method 5 Quaternions [3]: Inverse & Normalization 35 Method 5 Quaternions [4]: Representation 36 Method 5 Quaternions [5]: Geometric Operations

7 37 Method 5 Quaternions [6]: Unit Quaternion Conversions 38 Method 5 Quaternions [7]: Properties 39 Method 6 Exponential Maps 40 Quaternions [1]: Matrix to Quaternion Original paper, Journal of Graphics Tools : Grassia (1998), Wikipedia: Exponential Map, Wikipedia: Rotation Matrix, Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD 41 Quaternions [2]: Axis-Angle to Quaternion 42 Dynamics & Kinematics Adapted from slides S. Rotenberg, UCSD Dynamics: Study of Motion & Changes in Motion Forward: model forces over time to find state, e.g., Given: initial position p 0, velocity v 0, gravitational constants Calculate: position p t at time t Inverse: given state and constraints, calculate forces, e.g., Given: desired position p t at time t, gravitational constants Calculate: position p 0, velocity v 0 needed Wikipedia: (see also: Analytical dynamics ) For non-particle objects: rigid-body dynamics ( Kinematics: Study of Motion without Regard to Causative Forces Modeling systems e.g., articulated figure Forward: from angles to position ( Inverse: finding angles given desired position ( Wikipedia: Forward Kinematics 2009 Wikipedia

8 43 Summary 44 Terminology Reading for Next Class: Chapter 10, 13, , Eberly 2 e Last Time: Maya & CGA, Ross Tutorials ( Maya interface: navigation, menus, tools, primitives GUI, viewports, transforms, nodes, attributes, deformers, scenes Object modeling and rigging; driven keys, blend shape Today: Rotations in Animation Flight dynamics: roll, pitch, yaw Matrix, angles (fixed, Euler, axis), quaternions, exponential maps Dynamics: forward (trajectories, simulation), inverse ( e.g., ballistics) Kinematics: forward, inverse Previous Videos (#3): Morphing & Other Special Effects (SFX) Next Set of Videos (#4): Modeling & Simulation Next Class: Animation for Simulation, Visualization Lab 4: Unreal Wiki Tutorial, Modeling/Rigging ( Maya Software for 3-D Modeling & Animation Shelves and hotkeys, viewports Channel box, deformers controlling complex vertex meshes Rigging Character Models: Defining Components of Articulated Figure Joints axis of rotation, angular degree(s) of freedom (DOFs) Bones attached to joints, rotate about joint axis Dynamics (Motion under Forces) vs. Kinematics (Articulated Motion) Roll (Rotation about x), Pitch (Rotation about y), Yaw (Rotation about z) Today: Six Degrees of Rotation Matrix what we studied before: 4 4 Homogeneous TMs Fixed angles global basis Euler angles rotate around local axes (themselves rotated) Axis-angle rotate around arbitrary axis Quaternions different representation of arbitrary rotation Exponential maps 3-D representation related to quaternions

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