Ch 8 - Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution

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1 Ch 8 - Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution Chapter 8 1

2 Ch 8.1 What do the goals and principles of the Constitution mean to us today? 2

3 Preamble The Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution The Preamble states the purpose of the Constitution There are 6 goals outlined in the Preamble Goals: things the framers hoped to achieve 3

4 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 4

5 To form a more perfect Union What does this mean? To stop thinking of themselves as separate states but as one nation 5

6 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 6

7 Establish Justice What does this mean? Provide a common system to settle disputes. Provide equal protection to all citizens 7

8 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 8

9 Insure Domestic Tranquility What does this mean? Peace and Order Helping out in times of national need to keep peace and order 9

10 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 10

11 Provide for the Common Defense What does this mean? Protect citizens from foreign attack Make an army and navy 11

12 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 12

13 Promote the General Welfare What does this mean? Provide for the well-being of all citizens 13

14 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 14

15 Secure the Blessings of Liberty What does this mean? Freedom To hold on to what the Americans had fought so hard to achieve 15

16 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 16

17 Ourselves and our Posterity Posterity: all future generations 17

18 We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 18

19 Principles The Constitution rests on seven basic principles 1. Popular Sovereignty 2. Limited Government 3. Separation of Powers 4. Checks and Balances 5. Federalism 6. Republicanism 7. Individual Rights 19

20 Popular Sovereignty The people hold the power in the government We the People popular = People sovereignty = ruling 20

21 Limited Government The government has only the powers the Constitution gives it Government officials are not above the law 21

22 Separation of Powers Government power is divided between three branches so that no one branch becomes too powerful Legislative - Congress Makes the laws Executive - President Carries out the laws Judicial Supreme Court Interprets the laws 22

23 Checks and Balances Each branch has some power over the others 23

24 Federalism Power is divided (or shared) between the federal (national) and the state governments Federal/National Coin money make treaties declare war Shared Power Taxes State Set up public education marriage licenses certificates for lawyers, doctors and teachers 24

25 Republicanism Citizens elect representatives to make decisions for the nation Voting 25

26 Individual Rights The Constitution protects the rights of individuals Examples: freedom of speech and religion 26

27 8.1 Exit Ticket write whole Q and A Chapter 8, Section 1 6. One goal of the Constitution is to protect domestic tranquillity, which means a) freedom. b) well-being of all citizens. c) peace and order at home. d) nonmilitary control. 7. Under a system of checks and balances, a) each branch of government can check the actions of the other two. b) power is divided among three branches of government. c) power is divided between the federal government and the states. d) the national government has only the powers the Constitution gives it. 27

28 8.1 Exit Ticket write whole Q and A Chapter 8, Section 1 6. One goal of the Constitution is to protect domestic tranquillity, which means a) freedom. b) well-being of all citizens. c) peace and order at home. d) nonmilitary control. 7. Under a system of checks and balances, a) each branch of government can check the actions of the other two. b) power is divided among three branches of government. c) power is divided between the federal government and the states. d) the national government has only the powers the Constitution gives it. 28

29 Ch 8.2 How does the Constitution help our government do its jobs? 29

30 Articles The main body of the Constitution is divided into seven sections, called articles. Article I: Legislative Article II: Executive Article III: Judicial Article IV: Relations among the states and between states and federal govt Article V: Amendments Article VI: National Supremacy Article VII: Ratification 30

31 Article I Legislative Branch This article sets up the Congress The main goal of the Legislative Branch is to make the laws It describes the powers and limits on the Legislative Branch 31

32 Congress is divided into 2 houses (bicameral) Senate 2 per state; equal 100 today House of Representatives based on population 435 today Congress meets in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC 32

33 Powers of Congress 1) Introduce bills 2) Make and approve laws 3) Collect taxes, borrow $ 4) Regulate trade 5) Declare war How it checks up on the Executive Branch: Congress can - Override executive veto of a law Approve presidential choices for Executive office positions (ex: Cabinet members) Judicial Branch: Congress can - Approve executive choices for Judicial office position (ex: Supreme Court justices) 33

34 Article II Executive Branch This article explains the powers of the President and the Vice President. The main goal of the Executive Branch is to carry out (execute) the laws. The Presidential Cabinet are the inner circle of people who are also part of the Executive Branch and help the president execute the law. Examples: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Defense Department of Education Department of Transportation 34

35 President Barack H. Obama Elected every 4 years Can serve 2 terms The White House President's Cabinet Vice President Joseph Biden 35

36 Powers of Executive 1) Propose laws 2) Approve/sign bills into law, or veto 3) Foreign treaties 4) Appoint judges and other high officials 5) Commander in Chief of armed forces How it checks up on the Legislative Branch: The President can - veto a bill passed by Congress Judicial Branch: The President can - Appoint judges to the Supreme Court Grant pardons to, or excuse, federal offenders 36

37 Article III Judicial Branch Article III sets up the Supreme Court The main goal of the Judicial Branch is to interpret, or make sense of the laws, or Decide what the Constitution means The Supreme Court is made up of 1 chief Justice and 8 associate justices The justices are picked by the President and approved by the Senate 37

38 Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito Stephen Breyer Anthony Kennedy Ruth Bader Ginsburg Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas John Paul Stevens Chief Justice John Roberts 38

39 Powers of Judicial 1) Judge and decide if laws are unconstitutional 2) Judge and decide if an executive action is unconstitutional How it checks up on the Legislative Branch: The Supreme Court can - 1) Same as Power #1 Executive Branch: The Supreme Court can - 1) Same as Power #2 39

40 8.2 Exit Ticket write whole Q and A 25. Which of these is an example of the system of checks and balances? A. Congress can regulate industry. B. Governors can pardon federal prisoners. C. The president can veto bills passed by Congress. D. The Supreme Court can impeach members of Congress. 26. Which principle of the US Constitution provides that each branch has its own legal duties? A. Limited government B. Federalism C. Popular Sovereignty D. Separation of Powers 40

41 Ch 8.3 How can the Constitution be changed? 41

42 Article IV Relations Among the States We will skip this one! 42

43 Article V Amending the Proposal Constitution Ratification Proposal by 2/3rds vote of both houses of Congress Used successfully 26 times Passage by 3/4ths of state legislatures Proposal by 2/3rds vote of national convention called by Congress on request of 2/3rds of state legislatures Passage by 3/4ths of special state conventions The Constitution can be amended or changed in one of 2 ways 43

44 Article VI National Supremacy The Constitution is the supreme law of the land This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. MEANING, when state and federal law conflict the federal law is supreme 44

45 Article VII Ratification of the Constitution Explains the process for ratifying the Constitution 9 out of 13 of the original states had to ratify in order for the Constitution to be adopted The Constitution was ratified in

46 Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments added to the Constitution. Congress drafted a series of amendments in 1789 and sent them to the states for approval. James Madison wrote 12 amendments that were approved by Congress; 10 were approved by the states The purpose of the Bill of Rights was to protect individual 46 liberties

47 1 st Amendment Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition. There are limits: -Harmful speech -Cannot print what is not true -Harmful practices of religion -Riots 47

48 2 nd Amendment Right to Bear Arms, or carry guns 3 rd Amendment Protection from lodging soldiers in Private Homes 48

49 4 th Amendment Protects you from illegal Searches and Seizures of property 5 th Amendment (Rights of the Accused) - Grand Jury - Double Jeopardy - Self-Incrimination - Due Process of Law - Just Compensation 49

50 6 th Amendment Right to a speedy trial in criminal cases 7 th Amendment Right to a jury trial in civil court cases (non-criminal; related to money or property) 8 th Amendment Protects accused persons against excessive imprisonment bail punishment 50

51 9 th Amendment Powers Reserved to the People You have more rights than those listed in the Bill of Rights Example: Right to privacy 10 th Amendment Powers Reserved to the States Any powers not assigned to the U.S. gov t by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states. Example: Education 51

52 Amendments After the BoR - Since the Bill of Rights the Constitution has been amended only 17 times. - Many of the later amendments reflect the changing attitudes about equality and the expansion of democracy. - The 13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments are known as the Civil War Amendments. 52

53 13 th Amendment (1865) Abolition of slavery 14 th Amendment (1868) Rights of citizens 1. all persons born or naturalized are citizens 2. no state shall deny citizens their rights 15 th Amendment (1870) voting rights you cannot deny someone the right to vote based on race 53

54 19 th Amendment (1920) women s suffrage (right to vote) you cannot deny someone s right to vote based on gender 26 th Amendment (1971) Voting age dropped from 21 to age 18 54

55 8.3 Exit Ticket write whole Q and A 47. Which of the following best summarizes the Bill of Rights? A. The Bill of Rights defines unalienable rights. B. The Bill of Rights guarantees certain rights and offers protection against government abuses. C. The Bill of Rights merely explains the other parts of the Constitution. D. The Bill of Rights focuses on the rights of the accused. 48. What does the Bill of Rights guarantee before a person may be deprived his or her unalienable rights? A. Freedom of speech B. Trial by jury C. Search and seizure D. Due process 55

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