UNIT 4 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE SPONCH. What is SPONCH?

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1 UNIT 4 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE SPONCH What is SPONCH? 1

2 SPONCH 6 most important elements to life S= Sulfur P= Phosphorus O= Oxygen N= Nitrogen C= Carbon H= Hydrogen Periodic Table of Elements Organized table of elements discovered so far Organized according to atomic structure and chemical characteristics 2

3 CARBON the building block of life! DRAW Carbon Carbon is able to bond with up to four other elements or form double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms. Because of the unique bonding properties, there are millions of different organic chemicals. Each one has unique properties (functions). Carbon Inorganic compounds are substances that don t have carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds, like minerals, metals, and salts. Organic compounds contain CARBON atoms and are made by living things. Most matter in your body that is not water is made of organic compounds. 3

4 MACROMOLECULES- LARGE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 4 Main Groups of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids CARBOHYDRATES Provide ENERGY source for cells (1 gram = 4 Calories) Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in ratio of 1:2:1 Monomer is monosaccharide (glucose - C 6 H 12 O 6, fructose) Animals store glucose in form of polysaccharide glycogen and plants store glucose in form of starch Found in fruits, vegetables, grains 4

5 Two linked = disaccharides Examples = sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose) Polymer = polysaccharides Examples = glycogen (animals) starch (plants) 5

6 Cellulose (fiber) polysaccharide that provides structural support for plants, humans cannot digest for nutrients; aids in digestion LIPIDS MONOMERS = fatty acids Saturated-animal fats, butter, lard, grease Unsaturated-most plant oils, olive oil, fish oils 6

7 TYPES OF LIPIDS TRIGLYCERIDES PHOSPHOLIPIDS WAXES STEROIDS POLYMER FUNCTIONS TRIGLYCERIDES insulation and energy storage (1 gram = 9 Calories) PHOSPHOLIPIDS main component in cell membranes 7

8 WAXES ear wax, beeswax, lanolin, protection from water loss in plants STEROIDS - (Examples: cholesterol, Vitamin D, estrogen, cortisone, chlorophyll) stimulate bone and muscle growth, development of reproductive organs, sexual function, antiinflammatory, essential in brain function, plant pigments HARDENING OF THE ARTERIES Adaquate amounts of lipids are essential to a balanced diet. Eating too many foods with fats, such as cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, can cause a build up in arteries What other factors contribute to arteriosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries)? 8

9 PROTEINS Monomers = amino acids Peptide = short chain of amino acids Polypeptide = long chain of amino acids Humans must have 20 different amino acids, but can produce only 10; others must be from food we eat Structure is very important ph and temperature can affect shape Food sources high in protein include legumes, eggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meat (1 gram = 4 Calories) FUNCTIONS of PROTEINS Structural (bones, ligaments, skin) collagen, protein fibers Defense against infection- antibodies Hormones insulin, prolactin Transport hemoglobin (carries oxygen) Histones spools around which DNA winds ENZYMES!!! speed up reactions in body, help break down molecules 9

10 Enzyme Lock and Key Model Enzymes (special type of protein) Usually end in -ase (lipase,catalase) Act as catalysts (speed up reactions) Lower activation energy (amt of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur) 3D shape of enzyme is very important! Factors that can affect enzyme shape/activity: ph level temperature enzyme concentration (amt of enzyme present) 10

11 ph Scale indicates the concentrion of H+ ions in water Section 2-2 Acids have higher concentration of H+, bases have higher concentration of OH- The higher the ph, the more BASIC the solution. The lower the ph, the more ACIDIC the solution. Increasingly Basic Neutral Increasingly Acidic Oven cleaner Bleach Ammonia solution Soap Sea water Human blood Pure water Milk Normal rainfall Acid rain Tomato juice Lemon juice Stomach acid NUCLEIC ACIDS Monomer nucleotide (a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate group) DNA found in nucleus of plant and animal cells, double-stranded; contains information, determines proteins made (organisms characteristics), directs cell activities RNA single-stranded; stores, transfers info from DNA to make proteins, can act as enzymes Both made of nucleotides (thousands of linked monomers) Found in all cells 11

12 Concept Map Section 2-3 include that consist of that consist of that consist of that consist of which contain which contain which contain which contain 12

13 Concept Map Section 2-3 Carbon Compounds include Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins that consist of Monosaccharides (sugars) which include that consist of that consist of that consist of Fatty acids Nucleotides Amino Acids which include which include which include Glucose cellulose Butter, oil testosterone DNA RNA Collagen Hemoglobin enzymes 13

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