Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union. Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

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1 Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

2 From Independent States to Republic State Constitutions By 1780, each state had its own constitution All limited power of government Limiting Power Elections gave the people control Divided government functions Bicameral Legislatures Two houses to separate powers

3 Forming a Republic Organizing power Most wanted weak central government Each state operates independently like small countries Only working together to wage war and deal with other nations

4 Planning a New Government 2 nd Continental Congress Articles of Confederation America s first constitution League of Friendship States kept most power Congress could not raise taxes, control trade, or force citizens to join the army March 1, 1781 Approved by all states and became U.S. Government

5 The Confederation Government Critical time for the new republic Articles of Confederation did not provide a strong enough government Congress had little authority 9 states had to agree to pass any law and all 13 had to agree to make changes to the Articles

6 New Land Policies 1784 Settlers move west Congress divides lands west of Appalachians into self-governing districts Districts could Petition to become a state Population had to be at least equal to the smallest state in the current union

7 The Ordinance of 1785 Divided territories North of the Ohio River Created townships 6 miles long by 6 miles wide Each township subdivided into 640 acre sections Sections were sold at public auctions, starting at 1 dollar per acre

8 The Northwest Ordinance 1787 Created a single territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi This land split into smaller territories Territories that had populations of at least 60,000 could petition for statehood Northwest Bill of Rights Guaranteed settlers freedom of religion and trial by jury Stated that there shall be neither slavery or involuntary servitude in said territory First attempt to stop slavery in the United States

9 Trouble on Two Fronts Financial Problems Money printed during war depreciated Congress and states printed new money Continentals had no real value Could not tax to pay debts Robert Morris Head of new Department of Finance Proposed 5% on imported goods 12 states approved Rhode Island refused and situation became worse

10 Problems with Britain British Troops Continued to occupy American territories Limited American merchants trade in West Indies John Adams 1785 Travels to London to discuss concerns British claim Americans violated terms of the Treaty of Paris States did not repay Loyalists for property taken from them during the war

11 Problems with Spain Westward Expansion Spain wanted to stop American expansion Refused American access to lower Mississippi American/Spanish Agreement Could not be reached because lower states refused Government s weakness made dealing with other nations difficult

12 Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union Section 2: Conventions and Compromise

13 A Call for Change Post war depression troubles U.S. Plantations damaged during war Trade suffers from British restriction Confederation government too weak to deal with nation s problems People call for change to the Articles of Confederation

14 Shays s Rebellion Farmers struggle Difficult to pay debts and state taxes State governments seized farmers land Daniel Shays Former continental army captain Led more than 1,000 Massachusetts farmers toward Springfield arsenal Massachusetts militia killed four farmers Uprising demonstrated the government s failure to control unrest and prevent violence

15 Issue of Slavery North and South Divide Pennsylvania and North by 1804 Eventually passed laws that gradually freed enslaved Africans Free African Americans still faced discrimination States south of Pennsylvania Relied on slave labor for plantation system Some southern owners freed slaves after the war

16 The Constitutional Convention May 1787-Proposed by Alexander Hamilton Changes needed to be made to meet the adequate needs of the Union G. Washington was not for convention until after Shays Rebellion Washington s and Benjamin Franklin s participation gave the convention more credibility among the people

17 Convention (continued) 55 delegates-all being white males Many well educated 26 had college degrees James Madison Careful note-taking documenting Earned him the title Father of the Constitution Gouverneur Morris wrote the final draft

18 Organization George Washington chosen to preside over the meetings. Each state would have one vote A simple majority vote would win Had to be at least 7 of 13 states present Not open to the public

19 The Virginia Plan Called for a two- house legislature Lower house elected by the people Upper house elected by the lower house A chief executive chosen by the legislature Would have a court system Number of representatives is proportional to a states population Small states opposed this plan

20 The New Jersey Plan William Patterson s alternative to Virginia Plan One-house legislature One vote for each state Congress could set taxes and regulate trade Designed to improve on the current Articles of the Confederation

21 Compromise Wins Out The Great Compromise Suggested by Roger Sherman to satisfy both large and small states Lower House House of Representatives Number of seats depend on states population Upper House The Senate Each state would have 2 members regardless of population The Three-Fifths Compromise Enslaved people would count for 3/5 of a person for taxes and House representation

22 Slave Trade Southern States Slavery essential to economy Northern States Banned slavery in their states Wanted to prohibit slavery nation-wide To keep Southern states in the Union, agreed that Congress should not interfere with slave trade in South

23 Bill of Rights Proposed by George Mason Some delegates worried that the new government could abuse power Most delegates believed constitution provided adequate protection of rights Mason s proposal was initially defeated

24 Approving the Constitution September 17, 1787 Delegates met to sign document Elbridge Gerry, Edmund Randolph, and George Mason refused to sign Approved draft sent to states for consideration 9 of the 13 states had to approve for the new government to go into effect

25 Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union Section 3: A New Plan of Government

26 Roots of the Constitution Studying History Wanted to avoid mistakes made by past European civilizations Used ideas from British Parliamentary system Learned from experience in colonial and state assemblies

27 European Influences The English Magna Carta (1215) Limited kings power Gave the elected parliament authority English Bill of Rights (1689) Enlightenment Thinkers John Locke Baron de Montesquieu

28 The Federal System Divided power between Nation and States Federal Government Regulate trade, control currency, raise an army, and declare war State Governments Establish local governments and schools, and set marriage and divorce laws Shared Powers Power to tax and handle criminal justice

29 The Supreme Law of the Land Constitution Became supreme authority No state could make laws or take actions that went against the constitution Federal Courts Settled any dispute between federal and state government based on the constitution

30 The New Government Branches of Government Article I Creates Legislative Branch Congress: Law-making Branch House of Representative and Senate Tax, print money, regulate trade, declare war and raise an army, and makes laws Article II Establishes Executive Branch Headed by President and V.P. Carries out nations laws and handles foreign relations Elected by Electoral College

31 Branches (cont.) Branches of Government Article III Judicial Branch Federal Court System: Supreme Court Hear and rule on cases involving the constitution, laws passed by congress, and disputes between states

32 System of Checks and Balances Built in by Framers to Balance Power Each branch has ways to restrict other branches No single branch can dominate Examples President can Veto a bill form congress, congress can vote to override presidential veto Supreme Court can rule acts of Congress and the Executive branch unconstitutional

33 National Citizens Federal Officials Answer to the people rather than the states Protected the personal freedoms of the people The World Watches New American Government demonstrated that positive change could be made through discussion and choice, rather than by force

34 Debate and Adoption Federalists and Anti-Federalists Federalists Supported the new Constitution George Washington and Benjamin Franklin Federalist Papers Anti-Federalists Opposed the Constitution Worried that central government would be too strong Antifederalist Papers

35 Protecting Rights Complaints About the Constitution Did not include Bill of Rights Many states would not ratify without one

36 Adopting the Constitution Delaware approves first (Dec. 7, 1787) By Jun. 2, 1788, 9 states had ratified Virginia and New York Two largest states had not yet approved Worried that it did not limit government enough All remaining states finally approve by 1790, hoping for Amendments Bill of Rights added in 1791

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