# Outline 1.1 Graphs and Digraphs 1.2 Common Families of Graphs 1.4 Walks and Distance 1.5 Paths, Cycles, and Trees

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1 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Abstract. Chapter 1 introduces some basic terminology. 1.1 is concerned with the existence and construction of a graph with a given degree sequence. 1.2 presents some families of graphs to which frequent reference occurs throughout the course. 1.4 introduces the notion of distance, which is fundamental to many applications. 1.5 introduces paths, trees, and cycles, which are critical concepts to much of the theory. Outline 1.1 Graphs and Digraphs 1.2 Common Families of Graphs 1.4 Walks and Distance 1.5 Paths, Cycles, and Trees 1

2 2 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 1. Graphs and Digraphs terminology for graphical objects u w a b c d h f g k v p q r s A B Figure 1.1: Simple graph A; graph B. u w c d h g v D u w c d h g v G Figure 1.3: Digraph D; its underlying graph G.

3 Degree GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 3 k y x a b u v c h f g z d w Figure 1.9: A graph with degree sequence 6, 6, 4, 1, 1, 0. G H Figure 1.10: Both degree sequences are 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2.

4 4 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Proposition 1.1. A non-trivial simple graph G must have at least one pair of vertices whose degrees are equal. Proof. pigeonhole principle Theorem 1.2 (Euler s Degree-Sum Thm). The sum of the degrees of the vertices of a graph is twice the number of edges. Corollary 1.3. In a graph, the number of vertices having odd degree is an even number. Corollary 1.4. The degree sequence of a graph is a finite, non-increasing sequence of nonnegative integers whose sum is even.

5 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 5 General Graph with Given Degree Sequence v 7 v 5 v 2 v6 v 4 v 3 v 1 Figure 1.11: General graph with deg seq 5, 4, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0. Simple Graph with Given Degree Sequence < 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1 > Cor < 2, 1, 1, 1, 1 > Cor < 0, 0, 1, 1 > permute < 1, 1, 0, 0 > Cor < 0, 0, 0 > Figure 1.13: Simple graph with deg seq 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1.

6 6 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Havel-Hakimi Theorem Theorem 1.6. Let d 1, d 2,..., d n be a graphic sequence, with d 1 d 2... d n Then there is a simple graph with vertex-set {v 1,..., v n } s.t. deg(v i ) = d i for i = 1, 2,..., n with v 1 adjacent to vertices v 2,..., v d1 +1. Proof. Among all simple graphs with vertex-set V = {v 1, v 2,..., v n } and deg(v i ) = d i : i = 1, 2,..., n let G be a graph for which the number r = N G (v 1 ) {v 2,..., v d1 +1} is maximum. If r = d 1, then the conclusion follows. Alternatively, if r < d 1, then there is a vertex v s : 2 s d such that v 1 is not adjacent to v s, and vertex v t : t > d such that v 1 is adjacent to v t (since deg(v 1 ) = d 1 ).

7 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 7 Moreover, since deg(v s ) deg(v t ), vertex v k such that v k is adj to v s but not to v t, as on the left of Fig Let G be the graph obtained from G by replacing edges v 1 v t and v s v k with edges v 1 v s and v t v k, as on the right of Fig 1.14, so all degrees are all preserved. v 1 v 1 v d1 +1 v 2 v 3 v s vk v t v d1 +1 v 2 v 3 v s vk v t Figure 1.14: Switching adjacencies while preserving all degrees. Thus, N G(v 1 ) {v 2,..., v d1 +1} = r + 1, which contradicts the choice of graph G. Corollary 1.7 (Havel (1955) and Hakimi (1961)). A sequence d 1, d 2,..., d n of nonneg ints, such that d 1 d 2... d n, is graphic if and only if the sequence d2 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +2,..., d n is graphic. (See Exercises for proof.)

8 8 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Remark 1.1. Cor 1.7 yields a recursive algorithm that decides whether a non-increasing sequence is graphic. Algorithm: Recursive GraphicSequence( d 1, d 2,..., d n ) Input: a non-increasing sequence d 1, d 2,..., d n. Output: TRUE if the sequence is graphic; FALSE if it is not. If d 1 = 0 Return TRUE Else If d n < 0 Return FALSE Else Let a 1, a 2,..., a n 1 be a non-incr permutation of d 2 1,..., d d1 +1 1, d d1 +2,..., d n. Return GraphicSequence( a 1, a 2,..., a n 1 )

9 K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 9 2. Families of Graphs Figure 2.1: The first five complete graphs. Figure 2.2: Two bipartite graphs. Figure 2.4: The complete bipartite graph K 3,4.

10 10 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Tetrahedron Cube Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedron Figure 2.5: The five platonic graphs. Figure 2.6: The Petersen graph.

11 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 11 B 2 B 4 Figure 2.8: Bouquets B 2 and B 4. D D 3 4 Figure 2.9: The Dipoles D 3 and D 4. P 2 P 4 Figure 2.10: Path graphs P 2 and P 4.

12 12 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS C 1 C 2 C 4 Figure 2.11: Cycle graphs C 1, C 2, and C 4. Figure 2.12: Circular ladder graph CL 4.

13 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 13 Circulant Graphs Def 2.1. To the group of integers under addition modulo n and a set we associate the circulant graph Z n = {0, 1,..., n 1} S {1,..., n 1} circ(n : S) whose vertex set is Z n, such that two vertices i and j are adjacent if and only if there is a number s S such that i + s = j mod n or j + s = i mod n. In this regard, the elements of the set S are called connections. 4 circ(5 : 1, 2) circ(6 : 1, 2) circ(8 : 1, 4) Figure 2.13: Three circulant graphs.

14 14 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Intersection and Interval Graphs Def 2.2. A simple graph G with vertex set V G = {v 1, v 2,..., v n } is an intersection graph if there exists a family of sets F = {S 1, S 2,..., S n } s. t. vertex v i is adjacent to v j if and only i j and S i S j. Def 2.3. A simple graph G is an interval graph if it is an intersection graph corresponding to a family of intervals on the real line. Example 2.1. The graph G in Figure 2.14 is an interval graph for the following family of intervals: a (1, 3) b (2, 6) c (5, 8) d (4, 7) d c b a a b d c Figure 2.14: An interval graph.

15 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 15 Line Graphs Line graphs are a special case of intersection graphs. Def 2.4. The line graph L(G) of a graph G has a vertex for each edge of G, and two vertices in L(G) are adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges in G have a vertex in common. Thus, the line graph L(G) is the intersection graph corresponding to the endpoint sets of the edges of G. Example 2.2. Figure 2.15 shows a graph G and its line graph L(G). a b f a b f e d c e d c G L(G) Figure 2.15: A graph and its line graph.

16 16 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 4. Walks and Distance Def 4.1. A walk from v 0 to v n is an alternating sequence W = v 0, e 1, v 1, e 2,..., v n 1, e n, v n of vertices and edges, such that endpts(e i ) = {v i 1, v i }, for i = 1,..., n In a simple graph, there is only one edge beween two consecutive vertices of a walk, so one could abbreviate the walk as W = v 0, v 1,..., v n In a general graph, one might abbreviate as W = v 0, e 1, e 2,..., e n, v n Def 4.2. The length of a walk or directed walk is the number of edge-steps in the walk sequence. Def 4.3. A walk of length zero, i.e., with one vertex and no edges, is called a trivial walk. Def 4.4. A closed walk (or closed directed walk) is a nontrivial walk (or directed walk) that begins and ends at the same vertex. An open walk (or open directed walk) begins and ends at different vertices. Def 4.5. The distance d(s, t) from a vertex s to a vertex t in a graph G is the length of a shortest s-t walk if one exists; otherwise, d(s, t) =.

17 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 17 Eccentricity, Diameter, and Radius Def 4.6. The eccentricity of a vertex v, denoted ecc(v), is the distance from v to a vertex farthest from v. That is, ecc(v) = max x V G {d(v, x)} Def 4.7. The diameter of a graph is the max of its eccentricities, or, equivalently, the max distance between two vertices. i.e., diam(g) = max x V G {ecc(x)} = max {d(x, y)} x,y V G Def 4.8. The radius of a graph G, denoted rad(g), is the min of the vertex eccentricities. That is, rad(g) = min x V G {ecc(x)} Def 4.9. A central vertex v of a graph G is a vertex with min eccentricity. Thus, ecc(v) = rad(g). Example 4.7. The graph of Fig 4.7 below has diameter 4, achieved by the vertex pairs u, v and u, w. Vertices x and y have eccentricity 2 and all other vertices have greater eccentricity. Thus, the graph has radius 2 and central vertices x and y. x v u y w Figure 4.7: A graph with diameter 4 and radius 2.

18 18 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Connectedness Def Vertex v is reachable from vertex u if there is a walk from u to v. Def A graph is connected if for every pair of vertices u and v, there is a walk from u to v. Def A digraph is connected if its underlying graph is connected. Example 4.8. The non-connected graph in Figure 4.8 is made up of connected pieces called components. See 2.3. k y x a b u v c h f g z d w Figure 4.8: Non-connected graph with three components.

19 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Paths, Cycles, and Trees Def 5.1. A trail is a walk with no repeated edges. Def 5.2. A path is a trail with no repeated vertices (except possibly the initial and final vertices). Def 5.3. A walk, trail, or path is trivial if it has only one vertex and no edges. Example 5.1. In Fig 5.1, W = v, a, e, f, a, d, z is the edge sequence of a walk but not a trail, because edge a is repeated, and T = v, a, b, c, d, e, u is a trail but not a path, because vertex x is repeated. u e x d z f v a b y c W = <v, a, e, f, a, d, z> T = <v, a, b, c, d, e, u> Figure 5.1: Walk W is not a trail; trail T is not a path.

20 20 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Cycles Def 5.4. A nontrivial closed path is called a cycle. It is called an odd cycle or an even cycle, depending on the parity of its length. Def 5.5. An acyclic graph is a graph that has no cycles. Eulerian Graphs Def 5.6. An eulerian trail in a graph is a trail that contains every edge of that graph. Def 5.7. An eulerian tour is a closed eulerian trail. Def 5.8. An eulerian graph is a graph that has an eulerian tour. u c t f k z j y a d e g b v w h x i Figure 5.6: An eulerian graph.

21 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 21 Hamiltonian Graphs Def 5.9. A cycle that includes every vertex of a graph is call a hamiltonian cycle. Def A hamiltonian graph is a graph that has a hamiltonian cycle. ( 6.3 elaborates on hamiltonian graphs). u t z y v w x Figure 5.3: An hamiltonian graph.

22 22 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Girth Def The girth of a graph with at least one cycle is the length of a shortest cycle. The girth of an acyclic graph is undefined. Example 5.2. The girth of the graph in Figure 5.7 is 3 since there is a 3-cycle but no 2-cycle or 1-cycle. Figure 5.7: A graph with girth 3.

23 Trees GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS 23 Def A tree is a connected graph that has no cycles. tree non-tree non-tree Figure 5.8: A tree and two non-trees.

24 24 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Theorem 5.4. A graph G is bipartite iff it has no odd cycles. Proof. Nec ( ): Suppose G is bipartite. Since traversing each edge in a walk switches sides of the bipartition, it requires an even number of steps for a walk to return to the side from which it started. Thus, a cycle must have even length. Suff ( ): Let G be a graph with n 2 vertices and no odd cycles. W.l.o.g., assume that G is connected. Pick any vertex u of G, and define a partition (X, Y ) of V as follows: X = {x d(u, x) is even}; Y = {y d(u, y) is odd} Suppose two vertices v and w in one of the sets are joined by an edge e. Let P 1 be a shortest u-v path, and let P 2 be a shortest u-w path. By definition of the sets X and Y, the lengths of these paths are both even or both odd. Starting from vertex u, let x be the last vertex common to both paths (see Fig 5.9). u Figure 5.9: Figure for suff part of Thm 5.4 proof. x v e w Since P 1 and P 2 are both shortest paths, their u x sections have equal length. Thus, the lengths of the x v section of P 1 and the x w section of P 2 are either both even or both odd. But then the concatenation of those two sections with the edge e forms an odd cycle, contradicting the hypothesis. Hence, (X, Y ) is a bipartition of G.

25 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH MODELS Supplementary Exercises Exercise 1 A 20-vertex graph has 62 edges. Every vertex has degree 3 or 7. How many vertices have degree 3? Exercise 8 How many edges are in the hypercube graph Q 4? Exercise 11 In the circulant graph circ(24 : 1, 5), what vertices are at distance 2 from vertex 3? Def 7.1. The edge-complement of a simple graph G is the simple graph G on the same vertex set such that two vertices of G are adjacent if and only if they are not adjacent in G. Exercise 20 Let G be a simple bipartite graph with at least 5 vertices. Prove that G is not bipartite. (See 2.4.)

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