Odborna praâce. Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Brno

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1 rocïnõâk24 ORTODONCIE Databa ze trojrozmeï rnyâ ch modeluê oblicï eje deï tõâ a jejõâ vyuzï itõâ v ortodoncii Database of 3D models of children's faces and its use in orthodontics Mgr. Marie JandovaÂ, Mgr. et Mgr. Zuzana KotulanovaÂ, RNDr. Petra UrbanovaÂ, Ph.D. LaboratorÏ morfologie aforenznõâ antropologie, U stav antropologie, PrÏõÂrodoveÏ deckaâ fakulta, Masarykova univerzitabrno Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Brno Souhrn Lidsky oblicï ej, nejvõâce viditelnaâ cï aâ st lidskeâ ho teï la, podaâ vaâ informace o identiteï sveâ ho nositele, zdravotnõâm stavu a soucï asneï podleâ haâ vysokyâ m estetickyâ m pozï adavkuê m.je prïedmeï tem zkoumaâ nõâ mnoha klinickyâ ch oboruê, vcï etneï ortodoncie, ve kteryâ ch jsou tradicï nõâ metody studia staâ le võâce doplnï ovaâ ny o pokrocï ileâ zaâ znamoveâ metody spojeneâ s pocï õâtacï ovou podporou. CõÂlem cï laâ nku je nastõânit mozï nosti novyâ ch technologiõâ, mezi neï zï patrïõâ mimo jineâ optickeâ 3D skenovaâ nõâ doplneï neâ o vytvaâ rïenõâ digitaâ lnõâch databaâ zõâ trojrozmeï rnyâ ch (3D) modeluê, azaâ rovenï prïedstavit databaâ zi 3D modeluê deï tskyâ ch oblicï ejuê, jezï vznikaâ v raâ mci projektu LaboratorÏe morfologie a forenznõâ antropologie U stavu antropologie PrÏõÂrodoveÏ deckeâ fakulty Masarykovy univerzity. Jedna se o modely porïõâzeneâ stereofotogrammetrickyâ m prïõâstrojem Vectra M1. Do databaâ ze bylo doposud zahrnuto 992 jedincuê mladsï õâch 18 let, ke kteryâ m jsou k dispozici zaâ kladnõâ demografickeâ a biologickeâ uâ daje jako je datum narozenõâ, pohlavõâ, mõâsto narozenõâ a trvaleâho bydlisï teï, naâ rodnost, vyâ sï ka postavy nebo teï lesnaâ hmotnost. PocÏ etneï bohataâ a staâ le se rozruê stajõâcõâ databaâ ze pokryâ vaâ sï irokeâ spektrum variability lidskeâ ho oblicï eje a umozïnï uje tak dalsï õâ vyuzï itõâ v antropologii a v klinickyâ ch leâ karïskyâ ch oborech (Ortodoncie 2015, 24, cï. 1, s ). Abstract Human face, the most visible part of a human body, gives information about the identity of the person, their health condition, and at the same time it is subject to high esthetic demands. Human face is the subject of research of a number of clinical fields, including orthodontics. Traditional forms of research are innovated by advanced recording methods related to computer support. The aim of the work is to survey new technologies, including optical 3D scanning and creation of digital databases of 3D models, and to introduce the 3D models of children`s faces database that is being developed at Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology, Department of Anthropology of Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno. The models are made with stereophotogrammetric 3D imaging system Vectra M1. The database already includes 992 individuals below 18 years together with basic demographic and biological data (e.g. date of birth, sex, place of birth and permanent address, nationality, body height or body weight). The continually growing database covers a wide spectrum of variability of human face, and can be used in anthopology and clinical medicine (Ortodoncie 2015, 24, No. 1, p ). KlõÂcÏ ovaâ slova: 3D modely, morfologie oblicï eje, variabilita oblicï eje, cï eskaâ populace Key words: 3D models, face morphology, face variability, Czech population

2 ORTODONCIE rocïnõâk24 U vod Lidsky oblicï ej je zdrojem velkeâ ho mnozï stvõâ informacõâ o sveâ m nositeli, slouzï õâ jako vodõâtko pro urcï enõâ pohlavõâ, veï ku cï i aktuaâ lnõâho zdravotnõâho nebo emocï nõâho stavu. Je duê lezï itou slozï kou nonverbaâ lnõâ komunikace av neposlednõâ rïadeï takeâ zaâ kladem individuaâ lnõâho rozpoznaâvaâ nõâ jedincuê [1, 2]. Studiu oblicï eje se veï nuje mnoho oboruê, patrïõâ mezi neï kognitivnõâ psychologie, neuroveï dy, ortodoncie, klinickeâ obory atakeâ antropologie [3-10]. Biologicke vlastnosti lidskeâ ho oblicï eje je mozïneâ zkoumat z hlediska jeho variability, mezipopulacïnõâch rozdõâluê, sexuaâ lnõâho dimorfismu cï iveï kovyâ ch zmeï n. TradicÏ nõâ metodou zkoumaânõâ teï chto rozdõâluê je meï rïenõâ, tj. somatometrie, jejõâmizï vyâ stupy jsou cï õâselneâ hodnoty standardizovanyâ ch rozmeï ruê [11]. U klasickeâ prïõâmeâ somatometrie jsou rozmeï ry meïrïeny prïõâmo naoblicï eji jedince, neprïõâmaâ somatometrie vyuzïõâvaâ k zõâskaâ nõâ rozmeïruê naprïõâklad standardizovaneâ fotografie s meïrïõâtkem [12]. VyuzÏ itõâ fotografickeâ ho zaâ znamu je v leâ karïskeâ dokumentaci a vyâzkumu velmi rozsïõârïeneâ. V soucï asneâ dobeï je vsï ak klasickaâ prïõâmaâ i neprïõâmaâ somatometrie doplnï ovaâ na nebo dokonce nahrazovaâ naruê znyâmi 3D snõâmacõâmi zarïõâzenõâmi. 3D zaâ znam oblicï eje nebo celeâ postavy umozïnï uje podobneï jako klasickaâ fotografie bezkontaktnõâ hodnocenõâ teï lesnyâ ch znakuê (metrickyâ ch, tvarovyâ ch i vizuaâ lnõâch) aprïinaâ sï õâ tõâm celou rïadu vyâ hod pro vysï etrïovaneâ ho i vysï etrïujõâcõâho. TrojrozmeÏ rnaâ snõâmacõâ zarïõâzenõâ mohou byâ t rozdeï lena do dvou hlavnõâch kategoriõâ: bezkontaktnõâ (naprï. laseroveâ aoptickeâ skenery, stereofotogrammetrickeâ prïõâstroje) akontaktnõâ prïõâstroje (naprï. elektromagnetickeâ aelektromechanickeâ digitizeâ ry) [13]. ZatõÂmco kontaktnõâ prïõâstroje jsou vhodneâ pro zaâ znam stabilnõâch nehybnyâ ch objektuê, pro zaâ znam lidskeâ ho teï lapacientuê, vcï etneï oblicï eje, se pouzï õâvajõâ bezkontaktnõâ optickeâ prïõâstroje, u kteryâ ch je nositelem informace odrazï eneâ sveï tlo. Digita lnõâ data zõâskanaâ pomocõâ 3D snõâmacõâch zarïõâzenõâ jsou naâ sledneï pouzï itak vytvorïenõâ trojrozmeï r- nyâch virtuaâ lnõâch objektuê, u kteryâch je vedle tvaru povrchu teï lavysï etrïovaneâ ho zaznamenaâ nai jeho vneï jsï õâ texturanebo barva(obr. 1). TrojrozmeÏ rneâ digitaâ lnõâ modely mohou byât podle prïaânõâprïevedeny do fyzickeâ podoby pomocõâ technologie 3D tisku. Tato rychle se rozvõâjejõâcõâ technologie prïedstavuje velkyâ potenciaâ l pro mnoho medicõânskyâ ch oboruê [14], ortodoncii nevyjõâmaje [15]. SÏ irokeâ vyuzï itõâ 3D zaâ znamuê lidskeâ ho teï lavede k vytvaâ rïenõâ digitaâ lnõâch databaâ zõâ trojrozmeï rnyâ ch modeluê. Obvykle anonymizovaneâ skeny jedincuê ve standardizovaneâ pozici jsou doplneï ny o zaâ kladnõâ biologickeâ informace, jako je pohlavõâ, veï k nebo naâ rodnost. V teâto podobeï pak slouzïõâ jako zdroj cennyâch informacõâ o tvarovyâ ch vlastnostech, mõârïe podobnosti nebo rozdõâlnosti Introduction Human face is the source of information about the person; it serves as the clue determining sex, age, actual health or emotional condition. Human face is an important part of non-verbal communication, and the basis for individual identification [1, 2]. Human face is the subject of study of anumber of fields, e.g. cognitive psychology, neuroscience, orthodontics, clinical fields and anthropology [3-10]. Biological characteristics of human face may be examined from the viewpoint of its variability, differences between populations, sexual dimorphism, and changes related to age. The traditional approach to the study of the differences is represented by measurement, i.e. somatometry, the outcome of which are numerical values of standardized dimensions [11]. In the traditional direct somatometry the dimensions are measured directly in an individual's face. The indirect somatometry uses e.g. standardized photographs with a scale [12]. Photographs are widely used in medical documentation and research. Nowadays, the traditional direct and indirect somatometry is supplemented - or even substituted - with various 3D devices. Face or body 3D scans enable the non-contact evaluation of body parameters (metric, shape, as well as visual), and thus represent a number of advantages for the examiner and the examined. 3D imaging systems may be divided into two main categories: non-contact (e.g. laser and optical scanners, stereophotogrammetric devices), and contact (e.g. electromagnetic and electromechanical digitizers) [13]. While the contact devices are suitable for the recording of stable motionless objects, non-contact optical devices are used to scan human body and face. The vehicle of information transfer in the latter is reflected light. Digital data obtained through 3D devices are then used to create 3D virtual objects, recording not only the body surface shape, but also its outer texture or colour (Fig. 1). 3D digital models may be transformed into a physical form by 3D print technology. This rapidly developing technology shows a great potential for a number of medical specializations [14], including orthodontics [15]. The wide range of use of 3D scans of human body results in creation of 3D models digital databases. Usually anonymous scans of individuals in standardized positions are supplemented with basic biological information (e.g. age, sex, nationality). They serve as the source of invaluable information on shape characteristics, rate of resemblance or difference between individuals, impact of external factors, or as the basis for mathematical representation of the norm of the given population [16-20]

3 rocïnõâk24 ORTODONCIE mezi jednotlivci, vlivu vneï jsï õâch faktoruê prostrïedõâ nebo jako zaâ klad pro vytvorïenõâ matematickeâ ho vyjaâdrïenõâ normy daneâ populace [16-20]. Databa ze trojrozmeï rnyâ ch modeluê oblicï eje deï tõâ S ohledem nasoucï asneâ trendy apotrïeby bylo v roce 2012 v LaboratorÏi morfologie aforenznõâ antropologie U stavu antropologie PrÏõÂrodoveÏ deckeâ fakulty Masarykovy univerzity ( zahaâ jeno budovaâ nõâ databaâ ze 3D modeluê lidskyâ ch oblicï ejuê cï eskyâch probanduê. K tomuto uâcï elu je vyuzïõâvaânprïõâstroj VectraM1 (od vyâ robce Canfield Scientific, Inc., obr. 1), kteryâ funguje naprincipu stereofotogrammetrie [21]. VectraM1 porïizuje snõâmky pomocõâ dvou odlisïneï orientovanyâ ch kamer, na jejichzï zaâ kladeï je naâ sledneï rekonstruovaâ n vyâ slednyâ trojrozmeï rnyâ model. Vy hodou je velmi rychlyâ akvalitnõâ zaâ znam morfologie i textury oblicï eje s rozlisï enõâm 12 Mpx [22]. V polovineï roku 2013 byl do laboratorïe porïõâzen prïõâstroj VectraXT (obr. 2) od stejneâ ho vyâ robce, kteryâ funguje nashodneâ m principu jako Vectra M1. Novy prïõâstroj je vsï ak vybaven celkem sï esti kamerami, cïõâmzï snõâmaâ mnohem veï tsï õâ rozsah teï la. Vedle nastavenõâ pro zaâ znam oblicï eje umozïnï uje zachytit azï polovinu lidskeâ ho teï la(trupu, dolnõâch koncï etin). Nevy hodou prïõâstroje VectraXT jsou veï tsï õâ rozmeï ry atõâm vysï sï õâ naâ roky naprïepravu prïi pouzïõâvaâ nõâ mimo prostory laboratorïe. PrÏi budovaâ nõâ databaâ ze se cï aâ st projektu zameï rïilana zaâ znam oblicï eje deï tõâ ve veï ku od 6 do 18 let. K tomuto uâcï elu jsme oslovili peï t brneï nskyâch zaâ kladnõâch sï kol, s nimizï bylanaâ sledneï navaâ zaâ naspolupraâ ce. Jejich prostrïednictvõâm byly rodicï uê m (zaâ konnyâm zaâ stupcuê m) adeï tem prïedaâ ny informace o projektu, informovanyâ souhlas a dotaznõâk. Pomocõ dotaznõâku byly zjisït'ovaâny zaâ kladnõâ uâ daje o deï tech - pohlavõâ, datum narozenõâ, mõâsto narozenõâ, meï sto bydlisï teï a naâ rodnost. Pokud rodicï e a deï ti souhlasili se zarïazenõâm do databaâ ze, dorucï ili do sï koly vyplneï nyâ dotaznõâk a podepsanyâ informovanyâ souhlas. Celkem bylo v peï ti sï kolaâ ch rozdaâ no cca1 700 dotaznõâkuê ainformovanyâ ch souhlasuê, souhlas se zarïazenõâm do databaâ ze byl zõâskaâ n pro cca deï tõâ (64,5 %). Z toho byl u jedneâ sï koly zõâskaân souhlas pouze od 5 rodicïuê (z 300 mozïnyâch), cozï bylo zaprïõâcï ineï no neduê veï rou vzniklou nazaâ kladeï sï patnyâch zkusï enostõâ s prïedchozõâm sï kolnõâm fotografovaânõâm deï tõâ. CÏ aâ st deï tõâ(prïiblizï neï 10%)na sledneï nebyla do databaâ ze zarïazena z duê vodu absence ve sï kole v den porïizovaânõâ 3D zaâ znamuê. DalsÏõÂch42deÏ tõâ (4,2 %) bylo naskenovaâno 3D models of children's faces database With regard to current trends and needs, in 2012 the Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology of the Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University ( started to create the database of 3D models of human faces of Czech probands. Vectra M1 imaging system is employed (Canfield Scientific, Inc., Fig. 1), working on the stereophotogrammetric principle [21]. Vectra M1 makes shots with two differently oriented cameras, and the resulting 3D model is reconstructed from the shots. The advantage is seen in a very fast and high quality recording of face morphology and texture in 12 Mpx resolution [22]. In 2013 the laboratory purchased Vectra XT (Fig. 2), the device by the same manufacturer working on the same principle as Vectra M1. However, the new Vectra Obr. 1. Sche mapostupu prïi vytvaârïenõâ vyâsledneâ ho 3D modelu s vyuzï itõâm prïõâstroje VectraM1. Hrube modely jsou nejprve upraveny tak, zï e jsou odstraneï ny technicky nevyhovujõâcõâ cï aâ sti. Upravene dõâlcï õâ modely jsou naâ sledneï spojeny do vyâsledneâ ho modelu. Fig. 1. Scheme of the process of creating the resulting 3D model with Vectra M1. First, the technically inappropriate parts are cut off. The partial models are then joined into the resulting model

4 ORTODONCIE rocïnõâk24 Obr. 2. Uka zkaskenovaâ nõâ dõâteï te v LaboratorÏi morfologie aforenznõâ antropologie, vlevo prïõâstrojem VectraM1 avpravo prïõâstrojem VectraXT. Fig. 2. An example of a child scanning at the Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology: Vectra M1 (left), Vectra XT (right). mimo spolupraâcisesï kolami, avsï ak pruêbeï h skenovaânõâ byl obdobnyâ. Samotny sbeï r dat probõâhal v obdobõâ od konce ledna do cï ervna2013 prïõâmo v prostoraâch zaâ kladnõâch sï kol, v mõâstnostech poskytnutyâch sï kolou (volnaâ ucï ebna, sï kolnõâ druzï ina). Za kladnõâm pozï adavkem na tyto mõâstnosti byl prïõâstup dennõâho sveï tlas mozïnostõâ jeho regulace pomocõâ zï aluziõâ. Skenova nõâ probõâhalo v dopolednõâch hodinaâ ch. DõÂky pouzï itõâ vestaveï nyâch zaâ bleskovyâch sveï tel jsou skenery Vectrarobustnõ vuê cï i zmeï naâ m okolnõâch sveï telnyâ ch podmõânek. Na rocï neï jsï õâ regulace sveïtelnyâch podmõânek proto nebylanutnaâ. DeÏ tem byly nejprve upraveny vlasy tak, aby neprïekryâvaly cï elo ausï nõâboltce, daâ le byly pozïaâdaâ ny o odstraneïnõâ naâusï nic, bryâlõâ ao zachovaâ nõâ neutraâ lnõâho vyârazu aotevrïenyâch ocï õâ po dobu snõâmaâ nõâ. Samotne snõâmaâ nõâ oblicï eje probõâhalo vsedeï naotocï neâ stolicï ce (obr. 2). Kamery Vectry M1 jsou optimalizovaâ ny pro urcï itou vzdaâ lenost objektu (oblicï eje) od kamer, jezï je prïesneï urcï ovaâ napomocõâ sveï telneâ ho zameï rïovacõâho zarïõâzenõâ, ktereâ je soucï aâ stõâ prïõâstroje. PrÏed zahaâ jenõâm snõâmaâ nõâ byly deïtidoteâ to vzdaâ lenosti (prïiblizïneï 70 cm od kamer) nastaveny. Spolu s 3D zaâ znamem byla u deïtõâdaâlemeïrïena vyâsï kapostavy ateï lesnaâ hmotnost. Cely proces u jednoho dõâteï te trval 5 azï 10 minut. Na sledneï deï ti dostaly has got six cameras so that a greater part of body is scanned. Apart from face scanning it can record a half of human body (torso, lower limbs). The disadvantage of Vectra XT is in its dimensions and therefore greater demands on transport when it is used outside the lab. When creating the database, the part of the project focused on scanning the faces of children between 6 and 18 years. We addressed five elementary schools in Brno. Parents (legal representatives) and children were informed about the project; they were given an informed consent form and a questionnaire. The questionnaire summarized basic data on children (sex, date of birth, place of birth, permanent address and nationality). In case parents and children agreed to cooperate they sent the filled in questionnaire and signed informed consent to the respective school. We distributed approx. 1,700 questionnaires and informed consents, 1,100 (64.5%) children and young adults (their legal representatives) agreed to participate in the project. In one case only five parents (out of 300 addressed) agreed to participate in the project. The low number was due to their distrust resulting from the previous bad experience with taking photographs of the children. Approx. 10% of children were not included in the database due to their non-attendance at school on

5 rocïnõâk24 ORTODONCIE prïõâstupoveâ heslo do speciaâ lneï vytvorïeneâ internetoveâ schraâ nky, ze ktereâ bylo mozïneâ si staâ hnout pohyblivyâ 3D model vlastnõâho oblicï eje ve formaâ tu pdf av podobeï jednoducheâ aplikace pro dotykovaâ za rïõâzenõâ (mobilnõâ telefon, tablet). Pro potrïeby databaâ ze i dalsï õâho vyuzï itõâ bylo vyzï adovaâ no, aby 3D model zobrazoval oblicï ej i z profilu spolu s usï nõâmi boltci. PrÏõÂstroj VectraM1 maâ uâ hel zaâbeï ru 100 a tak nenõâ schopen zachytit najednou celyâ oblicïej vcï etneï usï nõâch boltcuê. KazÏdy jedinec byl proto snõâmaân nejen zeprïedu, ale i z obou poloprofiluê. SoucÏ asneï prïi skenovaâ nõâ dochaâ zõâ v perifernõâch oblastech skenu (ty cï aâ sti oblicï eje, ktereâ se beï hem skenovaâ nõâ nenachaâ zõâ v ideaâ lnõâ pozici vuê cï i kameraâm prïõâstroje) ke vzniku artefaktuê ve formeï mõârneï deformovanyâ ch nebo rozmazanyâch cïaâ stõâ. PrÏed tõâm nezï byly trïi dõâlcï õâ modely spojeny do modelu jedineâ ho, byly nejprve orïezaâ ny technicky nevyhovujõâcõâ cï aâ sti modeluê. U poloprofiluê se jednalo prïedevsï õâm o odvraâ cenou cïaâ st oblicï eje ao cïaâ sti okolo ocï õâ au zobrazenõâ zeprïedu pak o postrannõâ cïaâ sti nosu. Takto upraveneâ trojrozmeï rneâ modely byly naâ sledneï spojeny v programu MeshLab, v1.3.2, kde byl pro rekonstrukci povrchu z boduê pouzï it algoritmus vyhlazenõâ (Poisson filtr) s nastavenyâ mi parametry tak, aby bylo zachovaâ no co nejvõâce detailuê (obr. 1). Ve snaze podchytit faktory ovlivnï ujõâcõâ vyâ voj a variabilitu oblicï eje deï tõâ byl rodicï uê m deï tskyâ ch probanduê po probeï hnuteâ m snõâmaâ nõâ poskytnut elektronickyâ dotaznõâk, zjisï t'ujõâcõâ informace o zï ivotnõâch podmõânkaâ ch dõâteï te. Dotazova n byl typ bydlenõâ, vzdeïlaâ nõâ rodicïuê, pocïet sourozencuê aporïadõâ narozenõâ, stravovacõâ naâ vyky, jak cï asto je dõâteï mimo meï sto, zdase rodicï e rozvedli nebo jestli jsou rodicï e kurïaâ ci. ZodpoveÏ zenõâ tohoto dotaznõâku bylo dobrovolneâ anepodminï ovalo zacï leneï nõâ do databaâ ze. Demograficke slozï enõâ databaâ ze 3D modeluê oblicï eje V staâ le se rozsïirïujõâcõâ databaâ zi je v soucï asnosti celkem jedincuê zaznamenanyâch prïõâstrojem Vectra M1, cï aâ st (6,4 %) soucï asneï i prïõâstrojem VectraXT. Z celkem 992 jedincuê mladsï õâch 18 let bylo ve sï kolaâ ch skenovaâ no 535 dõâvek a442 chlapcuê. Jejich oblicï ej byl zaznamenaâ n pouze prïõâstrojem VectraM1. PrÏesny veï k jedincuê byl urcï en odecï tenõâm data narozenõâ od data porïõâzenõâ 3D modelu. NejveÏ tsï õâ zastoupenõâ majõâ deïti ve veï ku od 7 do 12 let (84,6 %). Celkem 85,5 % deï tskyâ ch probanduê je z Brna(395 chlapcuê a454 dõâvek) apouze 28 deï tõâ (2,8 %) maâ trvaleâ bydlisïteï v jineâ cï aâ sti republiky nezï v Jihomoravske m kraji. Celkem 24 deï tõâ (2,4 %) maâ jinou nezï cï eskou nebo moravskou naâ rodnost, acï koliv trvaleâ bydlisï teï majõâ na uâ zemõâ CÏ eskeâ republiky. V databaâzi je 21 deï tõâ (2,1 %), jezï se narodily v zahranicï õâ,z cï ehozï 4 jedinci se narodili ve Slo- the day when 3D records were made. Additional 42 children (4.2%) were scanned outside the cooperation with schools; however, the procedure was similar. The data were collected from the end of January 2013 till June 2013 on the schools premises (in lecture rooms, school club rooms, etc.). The recording was made by daylight (in the morning hours) that could be regulated with blinds. Thanks to the built-in photoflash Vectra scanners are resistant to the changes of the light condition. Therefore, a more demanding regulation of light was not necessary. The hair of the children was adjusted so that it did not cover the forehead and earlobes; they were asked to remove earrings, glasses, and to maintain a neutral expression and open eyes during the scanning. They sat on a swivel chair (Fig. 2). Vectra M1 cameras are optimized for a given distance of an object (face) from the cameras. The distance is precisely set with the help of ranging light assembly that is a part of Vectra M1. In case of this recording, the distance between a child and the cameras was about 70 cm. We also measured body height and weight. The whole process took between 5 and 10 minutes per a child. Subsequently, the children were given the password for the special website from which they can download the movable 3D model of one's own face in pdf format, and in the form of a simple application for touch devices (smart phone, tablet, etc.). It was required (for the database as well as for the following use) that the 3D model represent a face also from profile together with earlobes. The angle of view of Vectra M1 is 100, and thus it is not possible to record the overall face including earlobes at once. Therefore, each proband was recorded en face and from both half-profiles. During the process of scanning there - in peripheral areas of the scan - artefacts occur in the form of moderately distorted or blurred parts. Before the three partial models were unified into one, the unsatisfactory parts of models were cut off. In half-profiles it was the reverse part of a face, areas around the eyes. In en face scans they were lateral parts of anose. The modified 3D models were subsequently joined in the programme MeshLab, v for the reconstruction of asurface out of points we used Poisson filter the parameters of which were set to maintain as many details as possible (Fig. 1). To register the factors affecting the development and variability of a child's face, we provided the parents (after the scanning was completed) with the electronic questionnaire on the child's living conditions. The questions included the type of housing, parents' education, number of siblings and their order, eating habits, how much time the child spends outside the town, whether the parents are divorced or whether they smoke. This questionnaire was voluntary and was not a precondition to include the child in the database

6 ORTODONCIE rocïnõâk24 venskeâ republice. Databa ze takeâ obsahuje 10 paâ ruê dvojcï at. Jedna se o peï t paâ ruê se smõâsï enyâ m pohlavõâm, cï tyrïi paâ ry dõâvek ajeden paâ r chlapcuê. DodatecÏny dotaznõâk zjisï t'ujõâcõâ zï ivotnõâ podmõânky dõâteï te vyplnili rodicï e celkem pro 99 deï tõâ (10,1 %). Prakticke vyuzï itõâ databaâ ze Modely deï tskyâ ch oblicï ejuê v databaâ zi slouzï õâ primaâ rneï jako vstupnõâ data k pruê rïezoveâ studii vyâ voje velikosti atvaru oblicï eje soucï asneâ cï eskeâ populace. Prima rnõâm cõâlem je sledovat obecneâ trendy vyâ voje oblicï eje, bez zameï rïenõâ navyâ voj individuaâ lnõâ. Z tohoto duê vodu bylo prïistoupeno ke studii pruê rïezoveâ, nikoliv longitudinaâ lnõâ nebo semilongitudinaâ lnõâ, ktereâ jsou cï a- soveï, technicky a organizacï neï naâ rocï neï jsï õâ. NacÏ asovaâ nõâ, rychlost a charakter zmeï n morfologie oblicï eje v pruê beï hu ruê stu dõâteï te jsou individuaâ lneï, pohlavneï apopulacï neï specifickeâ [22]. Analy zy oblicï ejuê povedou k vytvorïenõâ predikcï nõâch pravidel ruê stu avyâ voje kraniofaciaâ lnõâ oblasti cï eskyâch jedincuê odsï esti let do dospeïlosti, kdy sledovanyâ mi parametry budou zmeï ny tvaru i velikosti oblicï eje ajeho cïaâ stõâ. S ohledem nasexuaâ lnõâ dimorfismus lidskeâ ho oblicï eje budou veï koveâ zmeï ny predikovaâ ny zvlaâ sï t' pro chlapce a dõâvky. PredikcÏ nõâ pravidlaslouzïõâjak k odhadu veï ku jedince, tak k predikci ruêstu avyâ voje konkreâ tnõâho oblicï eje, cozï je vyuzï itelneâ praâveï v klinickeâ praxi, at' jizï chirurgii nebo ortodoncii [23-25]. Modely z databaâ zõâ lze vyuzï õât rovneïzï pro formovaânõâ pruê meï rnyâ ch tvaruê oblicï eje. Studie analyzujõâcõâ pruêmeï rneâ oblicï eje zjisï t'ujõâ naprï. sexuaâ lnõâ dimorfismus deï tõâ urcï iteâhoveï ku [26] nebo pruêmeï rneâ oblicï eje chaâ pou jako matematickeâ vyjaâ drïenõâ populacï nõâ normy aporovnaâ vajõâ ji s jedinci s disproporcï nõâm oblicï ejem. Tento postup lze aplikovat v ortodoncii prïi diagnostice nebo leâcïbeï [27]. Srovna nõâ modeluê maâ pro klinickou praxi velkyâ potenciaâ l vyuzï itõâ. Jednak muêzïe byât formou subjektivnõâho vizuaâ lnõâho hodnocenõâ, kdy leâ karï hodnotõâ mõâru a charakter deformit oblicï eje oproti pruê meï rneâ mu oblicï eji nebo srovnaâvaâ model oblicï eje pacienta prïed apo leâcï ebneâm zaâ kroku, prïicï emzï pro veïtsïõânaâ zornost jsou modely zobrazovaâ ny vedle sebe [28]. VyÂhodou pouzïitõâ3d modeluê v tomto prïõâpadeï takeâ je, zïe leâkarï nenõâ omezen nadobu prïõâtomnosti pacienta prïi vysï etrïenõâ. KvantitativneÏ je srovnaâ nõâ modeluê analyzovaâ no pomocõâ superpozice modeluê aznaâ zorneï nõâ zmeï n prostrïednictvõâm 3D barevnyâch map. Barevne mapy jsou grafickou reprezentacõâ vzdaâ lenostõâ mezi dveï manasebe prïilozï enyâ mi 3D modely ajsou vyuzï itelneâ prïi prïedoperacï nõâm posouzenõâ aplaâ novaâ nõâ operace, hodnocenõâ vyâ sledkuê operace [29]. DalsÏ õâ objektivnõâ metody hodnocenõâ morfologie oblicï eje v klinickeâ praxi jsou zalozï eny naprï. navyuzïitõâ tzv. vyâ znacï nyâ ch boduê (landmarkuê ), ktereâ jsou umõâsteï ny Demographics of the 3D face models database In the ever extending database there are currently 1,738 individuals scanned with Vectra M1, a part of them (6.4%) scanned also by Vectra XT. There are 992 people under 18 years; 535 girls and 442 boys were scanned at school. Their faces were scanned only by VectraM1. The precise age of each individual was calculated as subtraction of the date of birth from the date the 3D model was scanned. Majority of children is between 7 and 12 years (84.6%). 85.5% of the probands come from Brno (395 boys and 454 girls), and only 28 children (2.8%) has a permanent address outside the South Moravian region. 24 children (2.4%) is of different nationality (nor Czech or Moravian), though they reside on the territory of the Czech Republic. There are 21 children (2.1%) born abroad (4 of them in the Slovak Republic). There are also 10 pairs of twins in the database: 5 pairs of mixed gender, 4 pairs of girls, and one pair of boys. The additional questionnaire focusing on the living conditions was filled in for 99 children (10.1%). Applications of the database Models of children's faces in the database serve primarily as the input data for the comprehensive review on the development of face size and shape of the current Czech population. The primary aim is to follow the general trends in the face development without focusing on the development of an individual. Therefore we opted for the summary report, not for longitudinal or semilongitudinal research that is more demanding from the viewpoint of time, technology and organization. Timing, quickness and character of the changes in face morphology during a child growth are individually, sexually, and population specific [22]. Faces analyses will lead to creation of prediction rules of growth and development of craniofacial area of the Czech individuals from the age of six to their adulthood. The parameters monitored will be the changes in shape and size of face and its parts. With regard to sexual dimorphism of a human face, the age changes will be predicted separately for boys and for girls. Prediction rules serve to estimate the age of an individual and to predict the growth and development of a given face, which may be used in clinical practice, either surgical or orthodontic [23-25]. Models from the databases may be also used to form average shapes of face. Studies analyzing average faces examine e.g. sexual dimorphism in children of a given age [26], or they deal with average faces as the mathematical representation of the population norm and compare the norm with individuals of disproportionate face. The procedure may be also applied in orthodontic diagnostics or treatment [27]. Comparison of models has a wide potential use in clinical practice. It

7 rocïnõâk24 ORTODONCIE naprïesneï definovanyâ ch mõâstech 3D modeluê apoteâ kvantitativneï a statisticky zpracovaâ ny [30]. VsÏ echny tyto formy hodnocenõâ 3D modeluê jsou zakomponovaâ ny do programu Fidentis Analytik [31] vyvõâjeneâ m napracovisï ti autoruê. SoucÏ asnou testovacõâ verzi programu lze bezplatneï staâ hnout naadrese ZaÂveÏr Databa ze 3D modeluê deï tskeâ ho oblicï eje vytvaâ rïenaâ LaboratorÏõ morfologie aforenznõâ antropologie poskytuje informace o morfologii kraniofaciaâ lnõâ oblasti cï eskyâchdeï tõâ a nabõâzõâ tak mnoho mozï nostõâ praktickeâ ho vyuzï itõâ v oborech, ktereâ vztahujõâ sveâ vyâ stupy k populacïnõâm avyâ vojovyâ m standarduê m ajsou odkaâ zaâ ny na pocï etneâ referencï nõâ databaâ ze antropometrickyâ ch astatistickyâch uâ dajuê. VytvorÏenõ 3D modeluê je rychleâ a na probandy neklade vysokeâ cï asoveâ naâ roky, jak by tomu bylo u tradicï nõâho meï rïenõâ. VytvorÏena databaâ ze je jizï dnes relativneï rozsaâ hlaâ apruê beï zïneï dochaâ zõâ k jejõâmu dalsï õâmu rozsïirïovaâ nõâ. S ohledem nacitlivost biometrickyâch informacõâ obsazïenyâch v databaâ zi, je vstup do databaâ ze omezen pouze na autorizovaneâ osoby aurcïen pro veï decko-vyâ zkumneâ uâ cï ely U stavu antropologie. VerÏejna verze databaâ ze bude prïõâstupnaâ zaâ jemcuê m o spolupraâ ci po podepsaâ nõâ smlouvy o spolupraâ ci. Jejõ zprïõâstupneï nõâ je plaâ novaâ no nazacïaâ tek roku PrÏõÂstup k uâ dajuê m v databaâ zi bez nutnosti podpisu smlouvy bude mozïneâ takeâ prïes analytickeâ naâ stroje programu Fidentis Analytik, kde anonymita a biometrickeâ uâ daje dobrovolnõâkuê budou chraâneï ny bezpecïnostnõâmi prvky programu. AutorÏi nemajõâ komercï nõâ, vlastnickeâ nebo financï nõâ zaâ jmy naproduktech nebo spolecï nostech popsanyâch v tomto cïlaâ nku. Projekt vznikl s podporou Fondu rozvoje vysokyâ ch sï kol cï. 151/2013 ± Interaktivnõ e-learningoveâ materiaâly s novyâ m rozmeï rem: Somatoskopicke znaky lidskeâ ho oblicï eje. PodeÏ kovaâ nõâ: DeÏ kujeme brneï nskyâ m zaâ kladnõâm sï kolaâ m, ktereâ se zapojily do vyâ zkumu (ZSÏ Bakalovo naâbrïezïõâ, ZSÏ KotlaÂrÏskaÂ, ZSÏ KrÏõÂdlovickaÂ, ZSÏ Slovanske naâmeï stõâ a ZSÏ NovolõÂsÏ enï skaâ ). Take velmi deï kujeme vsï em rodicïuêmadeï tem za duêveï ru a ochotu s naâ mi spolupracovat. Zvla sï t'deï kujeme Jakubovi Kra lõâkovi za ochotu nasnõâmat se pro ilustracïnõâ uâcï ely a jeho rodicïuê m za svolenõâ data pouzïõât. can serve as the form of subjective assessment, when surgeons evaluate the range and characteristic features of face deformities compared to an average face, or they compare the model of a patient's face prior and after the therapy - the models are then displayed next to each other [28]. The advantage of 3D models is seen in the fact that a surgeon is not limited by the patient's physical presence. Quantitatively, the models comparison is analyzed by their superimposition and representation of the changes with the help of 3D color maps. Color maps are graphical representations of the distance between two superimposed 3D models, and can be used in the evaluation prior to surgery and in treatment planning, as well as in the evaluation of the therapy results [29]. Other objective methods of evaluation of face morphology in clinical practice are based on e.g. the use of the so called landmarks that are located in the precisely defined places on 3D models, and subsequently quantitatively and statistically processed [30]. All the methods of 3D models evaluation are integrated into Fidentis Analyst programme [31] developed in the workplace of the authors. The current testing version of the programme can be downloaded free of charge at Conclusion The database of children's faces 3D models developed in the Laboratory of morphology and forensic anthropology provides information on the morphology of craniofacial area of Czech children, and thus offers a number of possible practical applications in the fields that deal with population and development standards, and have to rely on a number of reference databases of anthropometric and statistical data. Creation of 3D models is quick and it is not time consuming for the probands compared to traditional methods of measurement. The database is already relatively extensive, and it is continually growing. With regard to the delicate biometric information included in the database, it can be approached only by authorized persons, and it is meant for scientific research done at the Department of Anthropology. The public version will be accessible to those interested in cooperation after signing the contract on cooperation. This version will be launched in the beginning of The database will be approachable without the contract signature through the analytical tools of Fidentis Analyst programme. The anonymity and biometric data of volunteers will be protected by protective elements of the programme. The authors have no commercial, proprietary or financial interest in products or companies mentioned in the article. Acknowledgement: Grant support of Nr. 151/2013 ± Interactive e-lerning materials with new dimension: Somatoscopic features of human face

8 ORTODONCIE rocïnõâk24 Literatura/ References 1. Alley, R.: Social and Applied Aspects of Perceiving Faces. 1st ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Bruce, V.; Young, A.: Face perception. 1st ed., London: Psychology Press, Baughan, B.; Demirjan, A.: Sexual dimorphism in the growth of the cranium. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 1978, 49, cï. 3, s Shaw, W. C.: The influence of children's dentofacial appearance on their social attractiveness as judged by peers and lay adults. Amer. J. Orthodont. 1981, 79, cï. 4, s Farkas L. G.; Posnick, J. C.; Hreczko, T. M.: Growth patterns of the face: a morphometric study. Cleft Palate Craniofacial J. 1992, 29, cï. 4, s Bishara, S. E.; Jakobsen, J. R.; Hession, T. J. et al.: Soft tissue profile changes from 5 to 45 years of age. Amer. J. Orthodont. Dentofacial Orthop. 1998, 114, cï. 6, s Bulygina, E.; Mitteroecker, P.; Aiello, L.: Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 2006, 131, cï. 3, s Fink, B.; Neave, N.; Seydel, H.: Male facial appearance signals physical strength to women. Amer. J. Hum. Biol. 2007, 19, cï. 1, s Windhager, S.; Schaefer, K.; Fink, B.: Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance and masculinity. Amer. J. Hum. Biol. 2011, 23, cï. 3, s Litsas, G.: Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review. Oral Diseases 2013, 19, cï. 6, Bla ha, P.; VignerovaÂ, J.; PaulovaÂ, M. et al.: VyÂvoj teï lesnyâch parametruê cï eskyâch deï tõâ amlaâ dezïe se zameïrïenõâm narozmeï ry hlavy (0-16 let). 1. vyd., Praha: Sta tnõâ zdravotnõâ uâ stav, Farkas, L. G.: Photogrammetry of the face. In: Farkas, L.G. (ed.): Anthropometry of the head and face. New York: Raven Press, 1994, s Sforza, C.; Dellavia, C.; De Menezes, M. et al.: Three-Dimensional Facial Morphometry: From Anthropometry to Digital Morphology. In Preedy, V.R. (ed.): Handbook of Anthropometry. New York: Springer, 2012, s Rengier, E.; Mehndiratta, A.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von et al.: 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications. Int. J. Computer Assisted Radiol. Surg. 2010, 5, cï. 4, s Thurzo, A.: Prve skuâ senosti s 3D skenmi tvaâ re a3d tlacï ou v ortodoncii. Ortodoncie 2011, 20, cï. 4, s Ersotelos, N.; Dong, F.: Building highly realistic facial modelling and animation: a survey. Visual Computer 2007, 24, cï. 1, s Evison, M. P.; Vorder Bruegge, R. W.: The Magna database: a database of three-dimensional facial images for research in human identification and recognition [online]. Forensic Sci. Commun. 2008, 10, cï. 2 [cit ]. Dostupne na: /research/2008_04_research01.htm/. 18. Savran, A.; AlyuÈ z, N.; Dibeklioglu, H. et al.: Bosphorus Database for 3D Face Analysis. In: Schouten, B.; Juul, N. C.; Drygajlo, A. et al. (eds.): Biometrics and Identity Management. Berlin: Springer, 2008, s Evison, M.; Dryden, I.; Fieller, N. et al.: Key Parameters of Face Shape Variation in 3D in a Large Sample. Forensic Sci. 2010, 55, cï. 1, s Gupta, S.; Markey, M.K.; Bovik, A.C.: Anthropometric 3D Face Recognition. Int. J. Computer Vision 2010; 90, cï. 3, s Kau, C. H.; Richmond, S.; Incrapera, A. et al.: Three-dimensional surface acquisition systems for the study of facial morphology and their application to maxillofacial surgery. Int. J. Med. Robotics and Computer Assisted Surg. 2007; 3, cï. 2, s Canfieldsci. VECTRA M1 Imaging System [online]. [cit ]. Dostupne na: imaging_systems/facial_systems/vectra_m1_imaging _System.html. 23. Enlow, D. H.; Hans, M. G.: Essentials of Facial Growth. 1st ed., Oxford: W. B. Saunders Company, Farkas, L. G.; Posnick, J. C.: Growth and development of regional units in the head and face based on anthropometric measurements. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J. 1992, 29, cï. 4, s Ferrario, V. F.; Sforza, C.; Poggio, C. E. et al.: Facial volume changes during normal human growth and development. Anat. Rec. 1998, 250, cï. 4, s Nute, S.J.; Moss, J.P.: Three dimensional facial growth studied by optical surface scanning. J. Orthodont. 2000, 27, cï. 1, s Kau, C. H.; Zhurov, A.; Richmond, S. et al.: Facial templates: anew perspective in three dimensions. Orthodont. Craniofacial Res. 2006, 9, cï. 1, s Hajeer, M. Y.; Millett, D. T.; Ayoub, A. F. et al.: Current Products and Practices Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics: Part I. J. Orthodont. 2004, 31, cï. 1, s Jayaratne, Y. S. N.; Zwahlen, R. A.; Lo, J. et al.: Three-Dimensional Color Maps: A Novel Tool for Assessing Craniofacial Changes. Surg. Innovation 2010; 17, cï. 3, s Shimomatsu, K.; Nozoe, E.; Ishihata, K. et. al.: Three-dimensional analyses of facial soft tissue configuration of Japanese females with jaw deformity: A trial of polygonal view of facial soft tissue deformity in orthognathic patients. J. Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surg. 2012, 40, cï. 7, s Chala s, I.; UrbanovaÂ, P.; KotulanovaÂ, Z. et al.: Forensic 3D facial identification software (FIDENTIS). In Proceedings of the 20th World Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences Mgr. Marie JandovaÂ, U stav antropologie, PrÏF MU KotlaÂrÏska 2, Brno

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