Chapter 3 Notes Reconstruction and the New South. Government leaders disagreed about how Southern states could rejoin the Union.

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1 Section 1 Reconstruction Plans Reconstruction Debate Chapter 3 Notes Reconstruction and the New South Government leaders disagreed about how Southern states could rejoin the Union. Americans disagreed on how to go about rebuilding the Southern economy and society and how to readmit the Confederate states to the Union. The period of rebuilding is called Reconstruction. Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan allowed Southern states to rejoin the Union after 10 percent of their voters took an oath of loyalty and adopted a new constitution that banned slavery. Three states Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee set up governments under the plan in Lincoln offered amnesty to all white Southerners who would swear loyalty to the Union, except Confederate leaders. Thaddeus Stevens and others known as the Radical Republicans considered Lincoln s plan too forgiving and favored a more radical approach. The Wade-Davis Bill, passed by Congress in 1864, had tougher requirements for readmission to the Union. Lincoln refused to sign the bill. Lincoln and Congress set up the Freedmen s Bureau to help African Americans adjust to freedom. Johnson s Plan After Lincoln was assassinated, Andrew Johnson became president and announced his plan of Restoration. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth on April 14, Vice President Andrew Johnson became president and set up a plan for Reconstruction, called Restoration. By the end of 1865, all former Confederate states, except Texas, had new governments, ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, and were ready to rejoin the Union.

2 Section 2 Radicals in Control African Americans Rights When Northerners realized that African Americans in the South were still being mistreated, they worked to find a way to help them. Violence against African Americans in Memphis convinced Radical Republicans that Johnson s Reconstruction plan was not strong. Many Southern states passed black codes to control the African American population. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which granted full citizenship to African Americans and gave the federal government the power to intervene in state affairs to protect their rights. President Johnson vetoed the bill, but Republicans in Congress had enough votes to override the veto. The Fourteenth Amendment granted full citizenship to anyone born in the United States. Radical Reconstruction Radical Republicans were able to put their version of Reconstruction into action. Congress passed a series of laws during Radical Reconstruction. The First Reconstruction Act set up military commanders to govern 10 Southern states until new state governments were created. The Second Reconstruction Act required the military commanders to register voters and prepare for state constitutional conventions. The Tenure of Office Act prohibited the president from removing government officials without the Senate s approval. In 1867, President Johnson suspended and then removed from office Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without the Senate s approval. The House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson, but the Senate failed to achieve the two-thirds majority required for conviction. The election of Ulysses S. Grant as president in 1868 showed that voters supported the Republican approach to Reconstruction. The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, prohibited the state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any male citizen because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

3 Section 3 The South During Reconstruction Reconstruction Politics As African Americans began to take part in civic life in the South, they faced resistance, including violence, from whites. Though they did not control any state government, African Americans were elected to public office and played an important role in Reconstruction politics. Hiram Revels was elected to the U.S. Senate in Blanche K. Bruce, a former escaped slave, was elected to the U.S. Senate in Between 1869 and 1880, 16 African Americans served in the House of Representatives. Southerners who supported the Republicans were called scalawags by former Confederates. Northerners who moved South after the war were known as carpetbaggers. Many Southerners accused Reconstruction governments of corruption. Education and Farming Education improved for both races in the South, but the sharecropping system limited economic opportunities for African Americans. Reconstruction governments created public schools and academies for both races. A few states required that schools be integrated, but the laws were not enforced. Sharecropping became a common form of work for African Americans, but for many, sharecropping was little better than slavery. Section 4 Change in the South The End of Reconstruction Democrats steadily regained control of Southern governments as support for Radical Reconstruction policies decreased. During the Grant administration, Northerners began losing interest in Reconstruction. President Grant was reelected in 1872 despite a split over corruption in the Republican Party that resulted in the creation of the Liberal Republican Party. Supported by Liberal Republicans, the Amnesty Act of 1872 pardoned most former Confederates and helped Democrats regain control of Southern state governments.

4 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel Tilden in the 1876 presidential race. Disputed returns kept the outcome of the election in doubt, and a special commission was set up by Congress to review the election results. The Compromise of 1877 granted favors to the South in return for not fighting the commission s decision to elect Hayes. Under Hayes, the federal government would no longer attempt to reshape Southern society. Reconstruction had come to an end. Change in the South After Reconstruction, the South experienced a political shift and industrial growth. When Reconstruction ended, power in the South shifted to the Democrats. Some Southerners wanted to build a New South with industries based on the region s abundant coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, and lumber. While agriculture remained the South s main economic activity, industry made dramatic gains in the 1880s. To help repay debt, Southern farmers grew cash crops; however, sharecropping and the reliance on one cash crop kept Southern agriculture from advancing. A Divided Society As Reconstruction ended, true freedom for African Americans became a distant dream. Southern leaders found ways to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote. Many Southern states required a poll tax that kept many poor African Americans and poor whites from voting. Some states required voters to pass a literacy test before they could vote, which excluded many uneducated African Americans. Grandfather clauses allowed white voters who could not read to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction. Segregation, enforced by Jim Crow laws, continued to separate African Americans from whites in society. In 1896 the Supreme Court upheld segregation laws in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, which ruled that separate but equal facilities were constitutional. Acts of violence including lynching against African Americans increased.

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