Wk 20&21 Ionic & Covalent Bonding.notebook. January 29, 2016

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1 1/19 or 1/20/16 Wk 20 Bonding Objectives: SWBAT 7.1: Describe how oppositely charged particles attract to form neutral ionic compounds. IN: New Seating Chart & Notebook Requirements OUT: Be sure your notebook is set up for a notebook check next week. 1

2 bom1s2_11.swf Ionic vs covalent bonds lesson5#sodium_chlorine_react Ionic bonding with NaCl & CaCl 2

3 1/21/16 or 1/22/16 Wk 20 Bonding Objectives: SWBAT 7.1: Describe how oppositely charged particles attract to form neutral ionic compounds. IN: Find the element with a electron configuration of: s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 2 Write its orbital diagram in Noble Gas shorthand. OUT: What is the difference between a cation & an anion? 3

4 Wk 20&21 Ionic & Covalent Bonding.notebook IN: Find the element with a electron configuration of: s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 4

5 Review & Bonding Compounds are formed when 2 atoms of different elements bond together. Atoms bond to fill their valence shell An atom will bond with as many atoms as it takes to fill its outer shell like Noble Gases 8 ve or He 2 ve Once the valence shell is full, that atom is stable 5

6 Ionic Compound Characteristics 1. crystalline solid at room temperature 2. high melting and boiling points 3. form ions in solution (liquid) 4. conduct electricity in solution, making them electrolytes example: table salt NaCl 6

7 *Elements want to have a full valence shell (8 or 2 ve ) *OCTECT Rule: having 8 valence electrons like Noble Gases *Periodic Table arranged by increasing number of ve (Transition Metals vary and do not follow a pattern) *Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract vehigh EN = attracts & take ve (T Rex = F highest energy) low EN = tend to give ve away (Fr lowest energy) 7

8 *Chemical Bonds form compounds because all atoms want to obtain an electron configuration like that of noble gasses having an octet. Three General Types of Chemical Bonds *Ionic bonds metal bonded to non metal *Covalent bonds nonmetal bonded to non metal *Metallic bonds metal bonded to metal Metals located to the left of metalloid staircase Non Metals located to the right of metalloid staircase 8

9 Ion an atom that has lost or gained an electron Ionic Bonds metal to nonmetal Metals lose valence electrons (cation) Nonmetals gain valence electrons (anion) Opposites attract using electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. metal nonmetal In Ionic Compounds there is an attractive force between positive ions & negative ions. 9

10 Stable or Unstable? An atom is only stable if it has a full valence shell If an atom is stable, it will not bond (Noble Gases) If an atom is not full, it will bond C Ne 10

11 Ionic Bond * Metals have low electronegativity * Nonmetals have high EN so nonmetals are "stronger" and can take electrons very easily from metals. * Metal = cation * Nonmetals = anion 11

12 Metals Nonmetals Cations cough up electrons Lose electrons (+ ion) more p+ then e Anions accept electrons Gain electrons ( ion) more e then p+ protons electrons = ion charge OR p e = charge 16 p+ 18 e 8 p+ 10 e 12 p+ 10 e 3 p+ 2 e 12

13 13

14 NaCl Cl Na Na Cl Bohr's all electrons Lewis Dot valence electrons ONLY 14

15 Rules for making Ionic Compounds 2 ways 1. Write the Lewis Dot structure for each of the elements 2. Determine the charge for each ion (oxidation number) & write it next to the chemical symbol top right side (superscript). 3. Draw an arrow (or more than one if needed) to show the transfer of electrons. 4. Make sure the sum of the oxidation numbers is zero so the ion is neutral like each element originally was with protons = electrons *balance the charges by cross multiplying (#s not signs) *reduce #s or drop ones and put the symbols together. Li 1+ O 2 Li 1+ O 2 Li O 2 Way 1 Mg Mg Way Cl Cl MgCl Cl 1 1. Is the same. 2. Add enough ions together so the charges equal zero. 3. Add up the ions and write the compound as a formula. 15

16 1/25 or 1/26/16 Objectives: SWBAT 7.2 Describe how covalent bonds form from the sharing of valence electrons. 7.3 Describe the nature of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. 7.4 Relate physical properties of substances to the nature of the bonding of the substances. IN: What types of elements do ionic bonds? What is the oxidation number/charge for each family on the periodic table? hint: OUT: What types of elements covalently bond? 16

17 IN: What types of elements do ionic bonds? What is the oxidation number/charge for each family on the periodic table? can do either ionic or covalent bonds 17

18 Ionic Bonds pg 1b ELEMENT symbol & family # # of Protons Start # of Electrons Finish # of Valence Electrons found by the group # Oxidation Number Lose Gain + Sodium Chlorine Beryllium Fluorine Lithium Oxygen Phosphorus 18

19 1. Potassium + Fluorine 2. Magnesium + Iodine 19

20 3. Sodium + Oxygen 4. Sodium + Chlorine 20

21 5. Calcium + Chlorine 21

22 Covalent Bonds * Between a nonmetal & nonmetal pg. 4a ex: H, H O, NO, CH * SHARE electrons (can be one or more shared) * Shared electrons don't belong to either atom 22

23 Two types of Covalent Bonds 1) Nonpolar the bonding electrons are shared equally 2) Polar the bonding electrons NOT shared equally 23

24 * Nonmetals have similar electronegativities. Neither atom is "strong enough" to steal electrons from the other. So share electrons. 24

25 Covalent Compound Characteristics 1. Gases or liquids at room temperature 2. Low melting and boiling points 3. Form molecules in solution (bond in liquid) 4. Poor electrical conductors Examples: butter, oil, sugar 25

26 Two Criteria for Covalent Bonding 1. Individual atoms must have the proper number of valence electrons. 2. When bonded, each atom must have 8 electrons through sharing. 26

27 Directions to Covalent Bonding 1. Draw a dot diagram for one atom with the unpaired electron to the right side. 2. Draw a dot diagram for the other atom with the unpaired electron to the left side. 3. Draw a circle around the two electrons to be shared. 4. Rewrite it with the symbols and a line connecting them. H H H H 3. H H 4. 27

28 Double Covalent Bonds O O O O O O Final 4. O O 28

29 Covalent Bonds pg 2b ELEMENT symbol & family # # of Protons # of Electrons # of Valence Electrons found by the group # # of Electrons to fill the outer shell Carbon Chlorine Hydrogen Phosphorus Oxygen Sulfur Nitrogen 29

30 Hydrogen + Hydrogen Hydrogen + Oxygen 30

31 Chlorine + Chlorine Oxygen + Oxygen 31

32 Carbon + Oxygen 32

33 1/28 & 1/29/16 Objectives: SWBAT 7.6 The student will describe properties of polar and nonpolar covalent compounds. 7.7 The student will know that differences in properties of substances are a result of differences in attractive forces. IN: What are some safety rules during a food lab? OUT: Put your notebook in the brown box at the back of the room. 33

34 Metallic Bonds * Metals hold on to their valence electrons very loosely. Valence electrons are NOT assigned to any particular atom. Think of metals as positive metal ions floating in a "sea of electrons" This explains why: A. Conduct electricity B. Malleability hammer into shape C. Ductile drawn into wires 34

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