3/26/2012. Chap 6 Microbial Growth 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "3/26/2012. Chap 6 Microbial Growth 1"

Transcription

1 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth Objectives Lab #9-13, 19 White Book p.33-34, 41-42, , 133, 136, & Black Book p , 39-40, , 132, 136, & Classify microbes into 5 groups on the basis of preferred temperature range. 2. Identify how & why the ph of culture media is controlled. 3. Explain the importance of osmotic pressure to microbial growth and/or lysis, and food preservation. 4. Provide a use for each of the CHONPS needed in large amounts for microbial growth. 5. Identify ways in which aerobes avoid damage by toxic forms of oxygen such as superoxide free radicals and peroxide anion. **Know enzymes & reactions & which organism groups have them. 6. Identify incubation conditions, energy production and relative growth rates for aerobes, obligate anaerobes, aerotolerant anaerobes, microaerophiles, and facultative anaerobes. Objectives Continued 7. Use and explanation of anaerobic generators and pouches 8. Distinguish between chemically defined and complex media. 9. Justify the use of each of the following: anaerobic techniques, living host cells, candle jars. 10. Explain the inoculation, interpretation and uses of the following media types: selective media, differential media, enrichment media, PEA, O-F glucose, starch, PEA, EMB, reducing, thioglycollate, agar, broth, slants, deeps, streak plates. 11. Explain methods to preserve microbes. 12. Define generation time and use it to calculate organism numbers. 13. Compare the phases of a microbial growth curve. 14. Define colony, pure culture, contaminant, binary fission, turbid, hydrolysis & hydrolytic enzymes, dehydration synthesis, anabolism, catabolism-both oxidative & fermentative, carbohydrates, amylase, catalase, indole, oxidase, and biochemical tests. 15. Use and explain aseptic technique. Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 1 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 2 Requirements for Growth Requirements for Growth 1. Physical 2. Chemical Physical Requirements 1. Temp A. Minimum Growth Temp: B. Maximum Growth Temp: C. Optimum: Temperature Growth Classifications i. Psychrophile ( ):» Grows at» Optimum ii. Psychrotroph:» Grows at» Optimum» iii. Mesophile:»» Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 3 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 4 Temperature Growth Classifications, Continued iv. Thermophile v. Hyperthermophile/extreme thermophile:»» Producers using D. See Figure 6.1 Growth Rates of Different Groups in Response to Temperature E. See Figure 6.2 & 6.3 Food Spoilage Temperatures ph 2. ph A. Most i. Foods preserved avoid spoilage longer B. Acidophiles C. Buffer: Substance that when acid or base added i. In growth media to neutralize ii. Example: Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 5 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 6 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 1

2 Osmotic Pressure 3. Osmotic Pressure A. Hypertonic solution i. Plasmolysis occurs: ii. Food preservation with : honey, jam, salted meat iii. Making media-enough water & agar or B. Hypotonic Solution i. limits water intake & prevents See Figure 6.4 Plasmolysis Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 7 Halophiles C. Extreme/obligate halophile i. Requires ii. D. Facultative halophile i. CAN grow w/, but ii. (Facultative always-can, but prefers the opposite) Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 8 Chemical Requirements Chemical Requirements (CHONPS) 1. Carbon 2. Nitrogen: A. B. Nitrogen bases 3. Phosphorus A. 4. Sulfur A. 5. Oxygen A. B. Can be toxic Toxic oxygen forms C. Lysosomes contain O 2 forms toxic to all i. Singlet oxygen: O 2 in state ii. Superoxide free radical: O 2» By-product of D. Steps to break down O 2 & survive: i. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme O 2- + O H+ ii. Peroxide ion is toxic iii. Break down w/1 of 2 enzymes:» Catalase:» Peroxidase: Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 9 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 10 Oxygen Classifications 1. Obligate aerobes: REQUIRE O2 A. Have 2. Facultative anaerobes: CAN grow w/o O2, but grows best ( energy production) w/o2 A. w/o O2; B. Have 3. Obligate anaerobes: Molecular O2 is toxic A. Get oxygen from B. SOD & catalase (reason why O2 toxic) 4. Aerotolerant anaerobes: CAN grow w/o2, but prefer no O2 A. Contain, but 5. Microaerophiles: Require O2, but in lower [ ] than air A. SOD & catalase See Table 6.1 Effect of Oxygen on Various Types of Bacteria Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 11 Graph Example Problems Which line is a facultative anaerobe grown anaerobically? Facultative anaerobe in presence of oxygen? Psychrotroph at room temp? Psychrotroph in the refrigerator? Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 12 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 2

3 Culture Medium Terms 1. Culture medium 2. Agar: A. agent only B. C. Melts at 100C, solidifies 40C 3. Plates 4. Slants 5. Deeps: Tube w/flat surface A. B. at bottom Terms Continued 6. Sterile: Contains no living organisms A. Autoclave: Steam under pressure i. 121C at 15psi for 20 minutes 7. Inoculum 8. Colony 9. Culture 10. Pure Culture 11. Streak Plate A. To obtain colonies See Fig 6.10 Streak Plate Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 13 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 14 Terms Continued 12. Chemically defined medium A. composition (formulas & amounts) known 13. Complex Media A. Exact composition B. Extracts of C. AKA Nutrient media See Tables 6.2 & 6.4 Chemically Defined & Complex Media Anaerobic Media/Methods 1. Reducing media A. Ingredients 2. Tube media: prior to use 3. Plates: Kept in O2 free environment pre & post inoculation See Figure 6.5 Anaerobic Jar See Figure 6.6 Anaerobic Chamber Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 15 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 16 Special Techniques 1. CO2 Incubators, candle jars, packets A. Capnophiles: Microbes requiring 2. Living host cells required by Special Tech. Cont: Differential & Selective Media 3. Selective Media A. Only groups grow B. Due to C. PEA (Phenylethyl alcohol) i. Selective for (allows growth) of ii. Dissolves (supposed to kill but may inhibit & have breakthrough growth ) 4. Differential Media A. Appearance of those that grow 1 group from another B. Blood agar C. EMB (Eosin Methylene Blue) i. Purple and/or metallic sheen: ii. Colorless (agar color): Fig 6.7 CO2 Rich Environments See Figure 6.8 Blood Agar Hemolysis See 6.9 Differential Media Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 17 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 18 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 3

4 Special Tech. Cont: Enrichment & Preserving Bacteria 5. Enrichment Culture A. Selective nutrient liquid used to # of bacteria present in small numbers Fig 6.11 Binary Fission Bacterial Growth ( = Multiplication) 1. Binary Fission See Fig 6.11 Binary Fission Preserving Bacteria 1. Refrigeration ( -term) 2. Deep-freezing 3. Lyophilization ( )- term Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 19 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 20 Generation Time 1. Time required for a cell or population to divide 2. # organisms = n x 2 x A. n = original # orgs B. x = # generations or doublings 3. Examples: A. If there is 1 cell to begin with, how many are there after 2 generations? B. After 6 doublings? C. If there are 4 cells to begin with, how many are there after 3 generations? See Fig 6.12 Arithmetic Numbers of Cell Division Fig 6.14 Growth Curve Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 21 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 22 Growth Curve See Fig 6.14 Growth Curve 1. Lag Phase A. 1 st placed in new medium B. 2. Log Phase A. growth (logarithmic) B. C. Most sensitive to 3. Stationary Phase A. B. 4. Death Phase A. decline, # deaths > # new cells Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 23 Example Graph Problems #1 Graph shows growth at 25C 1. If organism has optimum temp of 20C, how would the graph change if: A. Grown at 30C instead? B. Grown at 20C instead? 2. If the organism is a psychrotroph, how would it change if: A. Grown at 5C? Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 24 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 4

5 Example Graph Problems #2 Example Graph Problems #3 Graph shows growth in room air. How would it change if it s a/an 1. Aerotolerant anaerobe grown in: A. Candle jar instead? B. Anaerobic conditions? 2. Facultative anaerobe grown in: A. Candle jar? B. Anaerobic conditions? Graph is on MacConkey s agar which contains lactose. 1. If the organism can utilize lactose & sucrose, similarly to E. coli, how would the graph change A. If sucrose is added? B. Lactose is removed? C. Lactose is doubled? Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 25 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 26 Growth Pattern Examples-Temperature Groupings 1. Purpose of buffer? Why needed? Review Miscellaneous Which line is a thermophile grown at 4C? Which line is a thermophile grown at 55C? Which line is a psychrotroph grown at 4C? Chapter 6 Microbial Growth Diagram above: A. Type of environment? B. Direction of osmosis? C. Result or effect on cell? 3. Ingredient that indicates complex media? 4. 2 reasons pickles resist spoilage? 5. 5 cells with a generation time of 20 minutes are grown for 2 hours. How many cells now? 6. Lab #10-12 Table 12.1: Complex vs. defined? Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 28 Osmosis Review Review Miscellaneous: Selective vs. Differential Plates What if???? 1. 1% NaCl vs. 2% NaCl 2. 2% NaCl vs. 2% NaCl 3. 2% NaCl vs. 2% Sucrose 4. 1% NaCl vs. 2% Sucrose 5. 2% Glucose vs. 2% Sucrose 6. 2% Lactose vs. 2% Sucrose Which of the following medias are: 1. Selective? 2. Differential? 3. General nutrient? Tryptose Mac MS CNA Staph epi + - Pink + Serratia + Pink - - Salmonella + Clear - - Staph aureus + - Yellow + Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 29 Chapter 6 Microbial Growth 30 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 5

6 Lab #19 Oxygen Aerobic Candle Anaerobic Classification PREDICTED catalase /- - Organisms EXPECTED / Chapter 6 Microbial GrowthChapter 6 Microbial Growth 31 Chap 6 Microbial Growth 6

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION

LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria INTRODUCTION LAB 4. Cultivation of Bacteria Protocols for use of cultivation of bacteria, use of general growth, enriched, selective and differential media, plate pouring, determination of temperature range for growth

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 10 BACTERIAL GROWTH Eye of Science / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Increase in numbers is one of the requirements for infection. This increase is dependent upon bacterial growth.

More information

Chapter 6: Microbial Growth

Chapter 6: Microbial Growth Chapter 6: : Refers to an increase in cell number, not in cell size. Bacteria grow and divide by binary fission, a rapid and relatively simple process. 1. Temperature: Microbes are loosely classified into

More information

The growth of Mos are effected by Chemical and Physical surroundings:

The growth of Mos are effected by Chemical and Physical surroundings: The Continuous Culture of Microorganisms: Continuous Culture System! A microbial population of can be maintained in the exponential growth phase and at a constant biomass concentration for extended periods.!

More information

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Objectives 1. Compare the different types of media. 2. Describe the different formats of media, plate, tube etc. 3. Explain how to sterilize it,

More information

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration Protocols for Anaerobic growth, including use of Anaerobe Chamber, Catalase Assay, Oxidase Assay, Assay for Carbohydrate Utilization, Use of Oxidative-Fermentation tubes.

More information

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric (Greek enteron = intestine) bacteria are comprised of several different genera, but all reside in the digestive tract of mammals. Because

More information

Medical Microbiology Culture Media :

Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes),

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Morphology and Classification INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Most bacteria (singular, bacterium) are very small, on the order of a few micrometers µm (10-6 meters) in length. It would take about 1,000 bacteria,

More information

VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL)

VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL) VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT 5A OXYGEN RELATIONSHIPS (REVISED FROM THE ON-LINE MANUAL) One often sees an organism described as being a strict aerobe, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe or some other such designation.

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3 NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3.1 INTRODUCTION Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are unicellular and do not show true branching. They differ from eukaryotes

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA

IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION OF UNKNOWN BACTERIA It is virtually impossible to identify bacteria based on physical characteristics alone. This is due to the fact that there are only a few basic shapes and physical features

More information

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus

Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Laboratory Exercise # 11: Differentiation of the Species Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to explore the differences between Staphylococcal species and

More information

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches.

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches. Basic Clinical Microbiology Lesson Plan Week 5 Carbohydrate Fermentation, MRVP Class 1 A. Take attendance. B. Review Lab Report questions from previous week. C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and

More information

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY Objectives In this lab you will learn how to: - test the ability of your unknown (UK) to digest certain substrates - discern motility

More information

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS

MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS MICROBES OF THE BODY: THE ENTERICS The term enterics refers to organisms belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This is a family of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, facultative anaerobic rods. Several

More information

Chapter 6 Lecture Notes: Microbial Growth

Chapter 6 Lecture Notes: Microbial Growth Chapter 6 Lecture Notes: Microbial Growth I. The Growth Curve in batch culture A. Growth is an increase in cell constituents B. For most microbes, growth in indicated by an increase in cell # because cell

More information

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe

Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Does not require oxygen. Can grow with or without it. Able to detoxify toxic by products of oxygen. E. Coli Microaerophile Growth throughout

More information

Exercise X. IMViC Tests

Exercise X. IMViC Tests Exercise X IMViC Tests IMViC tests are used to study the physiological characteristics of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia and Enterobacter. The biochemical characteristics

More information

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth Begin with increase in Cell Mass AND Number: Generation time is the time required to DOUBLE cell number (titer) OR cell mass. Check out Fig 6.1, bacterial cell

More information

The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules.

The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules. An integrated stable genetic element in a eukaryotic cell A) can occur anywhere in the cellular DNA. B) is called a provirus. C) is analogous to the integration of phage DNA into a bacterial genome. A

More information

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests

BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests BIO203 Laboratory Media and Biochemical Tests Table of Contents I. Media 1 TSA Tryptic Soy Agar 1 Blood Agar 2 EMB Eosin Methylene Blue Agar 3 MSA Mannitol Salt Agar 4 MacConkey Agar 5 II. Colony Morphology

More information

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology. Metabolism sum of all chemical processes

More information

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that

Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that Indigenous Unknowns Lab Report Introduction: Normal flora, which make up about 90% of the cells of a human body, are microbes that live and grow on the body without causing disease under normal conditions.

More information

351 Practical II Differential Tests Review

351 Practical II Differential Tests Review 351 Practical II Differential Tests Review Ex. 5-2 Phenol Red (PR)- Fermentation glucose, sucrose, lactose for Escherichia coli Lac (left) gas+ Glu( middle) gas + Suc (right) no gas Phenol red indicator

More information

Culture Media Preparation Review ( Modified from Supplemental Lecture by Stephen T. Abedon)

Culture Media Preparation Review ( Modified from Supplemental Lecture by Stephen T. Abedon) Culture Media Preparation Review ( Modified from Supplemental Lecture by Stephen T. Abedon) 1. Culture a. A culture is the microorganisms that grow in a culture medium. b. To culture means to grow microorganisms

More information

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture

Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise 2 Media and Culture Lab Exercise #2 Bacterial Media & Culture I. OBJECTIVES: Practice microbial collection techniques Describe colony morphology and the relationship to microbial identification.

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA

SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA Selective and differential media are used to isolate or identify particular organisms. Selective media allow certain types of organisms to grow, and inhibit the growth

More information

Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria

Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria Growth and Multiplication of Bacteria 1 There are four phases of bacterial growth [and death]: the lag phase is in black; the log phase is in blue; the stationary phase is in red; the death or decline

More information

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY

HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL Unknown reports in microbiology are written in scientific format. Scientific writing is written differently from other types of writing. The results

More information

The Growth of Microorganisms

The Growth of Microorganisms The Growth of Microorganisms Course Medical Microbiology Unit VI Concepts of Medical Microbiology Essential Question How do bacteria grow in culture? TEKS 130.207(c)2FGH 4BC Prior Student Learning Intro

More information

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best Biology 12 Name: Metabolism Practice Test Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only 1

More information

2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460

2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460 2014 Summer II Nursing Microbiology Laboratory Biology 2460 Graduate TA: Email: Office Hours/Location: Class Day, Time & Location: M & W 1:00 4:50 p.m. Class Location: LSB: 342 (Section 002) Lab Manual:

More information

BACTERIAL ENUMERATION

BACTERIAL ENUMERATION BACTERIAL ENUMERATION In the study of microbiology, there are numerous occasions when it is necessary to either estimate or determine the number of bacterial cells in a broth culture or liquid medium.

More information

Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis

Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis Introduction: All organisms require a supply of energy and matter to build themselves and to continue to function. To get that supply of

More information

Metabolism Practice Test KEY

Metabolism Practice Test KEY Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only

More information

Transferring a Broth Culture to Fresh Broth

Transferring a Broth Culture to Fresh Broth Sterile Technique It is very important in microbiology to work with pure cultures. Unfortunately this is difficult. The world around us is covered with microorganisms. Microorganisms are even carried on

More information

BACTERIAL METABOLISM

BACTERIAL METABOLISM Bacterial metabolism 1 BACTERIAL METABOLISM As you are beginning to see so far this semester, bacteria are remarkably diverse in their biochemical properties. As we shall explore in this lab exercise,

More information

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis

BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report. Unknown #545. Enterococcus faecalis BIOL 3200-005 Unknown Lab Report Unknown #545 Enterococcus faecalis Henry G. Norrell III (Manny) Lab: Tuesdays 3:00-4:50 pm 2 December 2014 INTRODUCTION: This experiment was performed to identify an unknown

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis INTRODUCTION Respiration is important in maintaining the energy needs of the cell. In photosynthesis light energy is changed to chemical energy and stored in food.

More information

Culture media ISO 6579

Culture media ISO 6579 Culture media ISO 6579 Buffered Peptone Water Urea Indol TSI Agar Cat. 1172 β Galactosidase Lisine Decarboxilase Broth Cat. 1176 Voges-Proskauer Salmonella Buffered Peptone Water BUFFERED PEPTONE WATER

More information

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1:

Laboratory Exercise #3. Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria. Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3. Day 1: Laboratory Exercise #3 Isolation and identification of Unknown Bacteria Procedure for Week 1 of Exercise 3 Day 1: 1. You will have 5 broth cultures at your workstation. Three of these tubes will contain

More information

Production of penicillin

Production of penicillin Production of penicillin Learning objective: To be able to identify useful products from microorganisms To be able to identify the microorganisms used and the main stages in the production of penicillin.

More information

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Cell Processes (chemistry and respiration) Organic compounds they always contain carbon 4 types that you need to know: Lipids (fats, oils and waxes), Carbohydrates, Proteins and nucleic acids Inorganic

More information

Enzyme Pre-Lab. Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab.

Enzyme Pre-Lab. Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab. Enzyme Pre-Lab Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab. Background: In this investigation, you will study several

More information

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD

Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project. Veronica Ardi, PhD Welcome to Implementing Inquirybased Microbial Project Veronica Ardi, PhD Microbiology Laboratory Courses CourseSmart: ebook resources http://instructors.coursesmart.com/ Microbiology Laboratory Courses

More information

Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests

Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests Identification of Unknown Bacteria using a Series of Biochemical Tests Katie Segal Section 1 Dr. Potter Microbiology 202 December 4, 2008 Introduction: Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are able

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information

CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA

CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA Culture Media 1 CULTURE MEDIA AND CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA The study of microorganisms requires techniques for isolating cells from natural sources and growing them in the laboratory on synthetic media.

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: EU I. OBJECTIVES To learn specifically which diagnostic tests are required to identify a species of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

More information

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme. Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

More information

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers)

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers) Name: Class: Date: Objectives * Measure the effects of changes in temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration on reaction rates of an enzyme catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment. * Explain how environmental

More information

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants.

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. Name: ate: 1. Which molecule supplies the energy for cellular functions?. TP. oxygen. N. water 2. Photosynthesis The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. What happens

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2 BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE I. OBJECTIVES To determine the growth rate of bacteria under different temperature and aeration conditions To establish growth curves for an unknown bacterial species and observe

More information

List of equipment / apparatus used in microbiology laboratory

List of equipment / apparatus used in microbiology laboratory List of equipment / apparatus used in microbiology laboratory 1. Autoclave 2. Incubator 3. Hot air oven 4. Inoculating loop 5. Vortex mixer / shaker 6. Water bath 7. Heating mantle 8. Hot plate with magnetic

More information

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes: Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Agents

Chapter 7 Lecture Notes: Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Agents Chapter 7 Lecture Notes: Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Agents I. Definitions A. Antimicrobial agent = general terms for an agent that kills microbes or inhibits their growth 1. prefix designates

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Catalase. ***You will be working with hot water, acids and bases in this laboratory*** ****Use Extreme Caution!!!****

Catalase. ***You will be working with hot water, acids and bases in this laboratory*** ****Use Extreme Caution!!!**** AP BIOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY ACTIVITY #9 NAME DATE HOUR CATALASE LAB INTRODUCTION Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a poisonous byproduct of metabolism that can damage cells if it is not removed. Catalase is

More information

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to:

This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: MODULE 3 - LABORATORY TESTING Objective This module is for INFORMATION ONLY. No BETC test questions are from this module. On completion of this module, participants will be able to: o o Identify the types

More information

Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture

Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture Diagnostic Techniques: Urine Culture Melissa Schreiber, Presenter: Valencia College, Orlando, FL mschreiber@valenciacollege.edu Objectives: After completing this project the students should be able to:

More information

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from the Contaminated Sites of Barmer, Rajasthan

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from the Contaminated Sites of Barmer, Rajasthan International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research. ISSN 2231-1238, Volume 4, Number 5 (2013), pp. 429-436 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ ijbbr.htm Isolation,

More information

GCSE Additional Science

GCSE Additional Science GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories)

Biochemical identification of bacteria. Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Biochemical identification of bacteria Dr. Paul Ingram Infectious Diseases Physician (RPH) & Microbiologist (PathWest Laboratories) Outline Phenotypic vs genotypic tests Pros and cons of biochemical tests

More information

LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES. Enzyme catalyzed reactions can be expressed in the following way:

LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES. Enzyme catalyzed reactions can be expressed in the following way: LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES Objectives Define enzyme and describe the activity of enzymes in cells. Discuss the effects of varying enzyme concentrations on the rate of enzyme activity. Discuss the effects of

More information

Enzyme Lab. DEFINITIONS: 1. Enzyme: 2. Catalase: 3. Catalyze: 4. Hydrolysis: 5. Monomer: 6. Digestion: BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Enzyme Lab. DEFINITIONS: 1. Enzyme: 2. Catalase: 3. Catalyze: 4. Hydrolysis: 5. Monomer: 6. Digestion: BACKGROUND INFORMATION Enzyme Lab DEFINITIONS: 1. Enzyme: 2. Catalase: 3. Catalyze: 4. Hydrolysis: 5. Monomer: 6. Digestion: BACKGROUND INFORMATION Many living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen

More information

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE Page 1/9 EXPECTED OUTCOMES TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE WHAT AFFECTS YEAST GROWTH? Taken from IFT Experiments in Food Science Series This experiment will illustrate that there are several factors that affect

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

The first part of this week s lab will take place at Cornell s Compost. Facility on Stevenson Road. We will tour the facility and collect samples

The first part of this week s lab will take place at Cornell s Compost. Facility on Stevenson Road. We will tour the facility and collect samples Lab. Composting The first part of this week s lab will take place at Cornell s Compost Facility on Stevenson Road. We will tour the facility and collect samples of compost at different stages of decomposition.

More information

12.3 Colligative Properties

12.3 Colligative Properties 12.3 Colligative Properties Changes in solvent properties due to impurities Colloidal suspensions or dispersions scatter light, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. (a) Dust in the air scatters the

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine. JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009

UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine. JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009 UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009 METHOD of WATER ACTIVATION with PLASMA of GAS DISCHARGE ANODE VACUUM WATER

More information

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase Page 1: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that function as catalysts to facilitate specific chemical reactions. Any chemical reaction

More information

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents

More information

+... O 2 H I2 O (2)

+... O 2 H I2 O (2) ... CO +... H O C 6 H I O 6 +... O () Q. (a) Balance the following equation for photosynthesis. Give two conditions necessary for photosynthesis apart from a suitable temperature range and the availability

More information

The general functions and activities of enzymes; The relationship between the structure and function of enzymes;

The general functions and activities of enzymes; The relationship between the structure and function of enzymes; Lab: Enzyme Catalysis (Modified AP Lab 2A) Name College Biology Hour Date Paula Donham, Olathe East High School, pdonhamoe@olatheschools.com Adapted from: AP Biology Labs; Brad Williamson of Olathe, KS;

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter 16 December 2013 Summary The Sawyer Mini Filter was tested for its ability to remove three microorganisms Raoultella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, and

More information

Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods

Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods Disc Diffusion Susceptibility Methods Introduction When a filter paper disc impregnated with a chemical is placed on agar the chemical will diffuse from the disc into the agar. This diffusion will place

More information

BACKGROUND. Dr. D. J. Futuyma

BACKGROUND. Dr. D. J. Futuyma Natural selection and evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria (adapted from: Pryce L. Haddix, Eric T. Paulsen and Terry F. Werner, Bioscene, v26, p1-21, Feb 2000) BACKGROUND Nothing in biology makes

More information

TOTAL PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN

TOTAL PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN UNIT: Proteins 16tproteins.wpd Task Determination of Total Protein, Albumin and Globulins Objectives Upon completion of this exercise, the student will be able to: 1. Explain the ratio of albumin and globulin

More information

Materials - Work in groups of 4 per table. This is a group activity. The following agar/broth media:

Materials - Work in groups of 4 per table. This is a group activity. The following agar/broth media: 61 Exercise 12 Selected Biochemical Reactions Used to Identify the Physiological Characteristics of Bacteria (with special reference to Gram Negative Enteric Rods) INTRODUCTION: Student Learning Objectives:

More information

Biology for Science Majors

Biology for Science Majors Biology for Science Majors Lab 10 AP BIOLOGY Concepts covered Respirometers Metabolism Glycolysis Respiration Anaerobic vs. aerobic respiration Fermentation Lab 5: Cellular Respiration ATP is the energy

More information

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Objectives At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: Define key terms. Identify the basic

More information

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

More information

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

More information

Aseptic Technique Handout 2012 Jerald D. Hendrix

Aseptic Technique Handout 2012 Jerald D. Hendrix Aseptic Technique Handout 2012 Jerald D. Hendrix A. Media and Contamination Microbiologists grow organisms on media (singular: medium). Media contain nutrients, salts, and other factors to support the

More information

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES

MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES Tadhg O Sullivan Inge Suiker EBC Vienna September 2014 OVERVIEW 1. BACKGROUND 2. EXPANDING PORTFOLIO 3. METHODOLOGY 4. BEER MIX BEVERAGES 5. TO

More information

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

More information

Catalase Enzyme Lab. Background information

Catalase Enzyme Lab. Background information Catalase Enzyme Lab Background information Liver and other living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is a harmful by-product of the process of cellular

More information

B2 3 Enzymes. 77 minutes. 77 marks. Page 1 of 25

B2 3 Enzymes. 77 minutes. 77 marks. Page 1 of 25 B2 3 Enzymes 77 minutes 77 marks Page of 25 Q. Enzymes have many uses in the home and in industry. (a) Which type of organism is used to produce these enzymes? Tick ( ) one box. Mammals Microorganisms

More information

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials.

PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES. To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate good aseptic technique in culture transfer or inoculation and in handling sterile materials. To demonstrate skill in isolation of organisms from a mixed

More information

Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices

Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices Michigan Wine & Grape Conference, Grand Rapids February 24, 2010 Gordon Specht Development and production of Yeast Bacteria and their derivatives

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function Part A Multiple Choice 1. The fluid mosaic model describes membranes as having A. a set of protein channels separated by phospholipids. B. a bilayer of phospholipids in

More information

EXPERIMENT 20: Determination of ph of Common Substances

EXPERIMENT 20: Determination of ph of Common Substances Materials: ph paper and color chart (ph range 3 to 12) or ph meter distilled water white vinegar household ammonia (or baking soda) spot plate test or 3 small test tubes stirring rod solutions / fruits

More information