Whenever practicable, the cap should be discussed and specifically agreed with the other party. This is discussed further below, see Agreeing a cap.

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1 Liability Briefing updated Octber 2008 Managing liability thrugh financial caps 26 Stre Street Lndn WC1E 7BT Tel: Fax: Every well-run business must manage the risks that it faces and there are many ways in which this can be dne. Cnsultants prtect themselves against the financial cnsequences f being sued with prfessinal indemnity (PI) insurance. Hwever, the insurance market is likely t harden and cnsultants are likely t be faced with increased premiums and excesses. There are als restrictins n the cver available. Cnsultants may therefre find themselves underinsured r uninsured in the event f a claim. As a result cnsultants cannt simply rely n their PI insurance: they must actively manage liability thrugh ther means. Althugh liability can nt be excluded r restricted in relatin t damages fr death r persnal injury, parties t a cntract can agree t limit any ther liability that they may incur t each ther, eg fr breach f cntract r negligence. This can be dne in a variety f ways. One methd nw accepted by many clients is t agree a figure (a financial cap), beynd which the cnsultant will nt be liable. Recvery frm a limited cmpany r limited liability partnership is limited t its insurance cver and the assets f the cmpany r LLP; even in the case f an individual r partnership, recvery is in practice similarly limited n individual r partner has unlimited funds. A cap therefre gives clients as well as cnsultants a degree f certainty they wuld nt therwise have. Whenever practicable, the cap shuld be discussed and specifically agreed with the ther party. This is discussed further belw, see Agreeing a cap. Any limitatin f liability will have t satisfy the test f reasnableness under the Unfair Cntract Terms Act 1977 ( UCTA ). What is reasnable depends n the circumstances f each case. UCTA is discussed in mre detail belw. Great care als needs t be taken in drafting clauses capping liability. In the event f a dispute any limitatin f liability will be cnstrued against the persn seeking t rely n it. Legal advice shuld therefre be sught n the wrding f the clause itself.

2 Hw des a financial cap wrk? A financial cap n liability in a cntract (fr example, a cnsultant s appintment) perates t limit the damages payable by the cnsultant t the client under the appintment t the agreed amunt. The scpe f the cap depends n the terms f the cntract and usually fllws ne f these ptins: The cap might apply t each and every claim s that each claim culd be t the full value f the limit, fr example: The liability f the Cnsultant under r in cnnectin with this Agreement shall be limited t X in respect f each and every claim. It might be drafted s that it applied n an aggregated basis. Here claims wuld be gruped accrding t the particular event that caused the lss/damage, fr example: The liability f the Cnsultant fr any claim r series f claims arising ut f the same ccurrence r series f ccurrences shall nt exceed the sum f X. It might apply as a ttal limit in which case, regardless f hw many claims arse frm the event that caused the lss/damage, the cnsultant s liability wuld nt exceed the figure stated. This ptin ffers the greatest certainty in relatin t ptential expsure. Fr example: The ttal liability f the Cnsultant under r in cnnectin with this Agreement shall nt exceed X. The ttal ptential liability under a prject needs t be taken int accunt. Fr example, a tenant cllateral warranty might include a cap f, say, 250,000 in respect f all claims; but if a cnsultant has given warranties t three tenants, each ne wuld be able t recver up t 250,000. Mrever, if all three tenants were able t recver as a result f the same act f negligence, that might cnstitute ne claim under the cnsultant s PI plicy and ne limit f indemnity wuld apply. PI insurance v financial caps A financial cap is nt the same as the limit f indemnity under a cnsultant s PI plicy. The plicy will have a limit n the amunt insurers will pay. Once this limit is reached, n further payments will be made by the insurer. In cntrast, where a cntract des nt incrprate a cap and the cnsultant is sued fr an amunt which exceeds the amunt recverable under his insurance, this will expse the firm t uninsured lss. Because cnsultants generally have few assets beynd the PI insurance they carry, a claim in excess f the available insurance culd be the end f the firm. Fr this reasn, and because f the restrictins placed n insurance cver, it is in the cnsultant s interests t seek a cap. Frm a client s pint f view, mrever, a claim against an verexpsed cnsultant may well be wrthless. UCTA As explained, it is nt pssible t exclude r restrict liability fr death r persnal injury resulting frm negligence (sectin 2(1)). With regard t ther claims: a persn cannt s exclude r restrict his liability fr negligence except insfar as the term r ntice satisfies the requirement f reasnableness (sectin 2(2)). This applies 2

3 independently f any standard terms and whether r nt ne party deals as cnsumer. The requirement f reasnableness is: that the term shall have been a fair and reasnable ne t be included having regard t the circumstances which were, r ught reasnably t have been, knwn t r in the cntemplatin f the parties when the cntract was made (sectin11(1)). It is imprtant therefre, that in determining the amunt f a cap, the circumstances at the time the cntract is made are cnsidered. Where a persn seeks t restrict his liability t a specified sum f mney (a cap), regard shall be had t: the resurces which he culd expect t be available t him fr the purpse f meeting the liability and hw far it was pen t him t cver himself by insurance (sectin11(4)). Agreeing a cap As explained, where pssible, any prpsed cap shuld be drawn t the attentin f the ther party t the cntract. Preferably it shuld be discussed and specifically agreed. If this is dne, it is much mre difficult fr the ther party t successfully challenge the cap in curt. In the case f a cntract f appintment, the cnsultant shuld explain t the client hw the cap will perate and hw it is calculated; these discussins shuld then be recrded in detail (preferably in a letter). In the case f a cllateral warranty, the negtiatins may be with the client rather than the beneficiary f the warranty; hwever the cap shuld still be discussed, and the discussin recrded. Where repeat wrk is undertaken fr the same client, any cap shuld negtiated and agreed fr each cmmissin. Recrds f the discussin as well as any crrespndence shuld be retained, particularly where the ther party is nt legally represented. It is helpful t include a nte f hw the cap was calculated. Hw d yu calculate a reasnable cap? There is n simple answer r frmula. It is smetimes suggested that a multiple f the fee is apprpriate. Hwever, each prject has t be lked at n its merits. A number f factrs shuld be taken int accunt, fr example: the likely nature and extent f the risks f the prject, having regard t its size, cmplexity etc; an assessment f the damages that wuld be payable in the event f a claim in negligence (eg the cst f repeating the wrk/cnstructin csts); the resurces that the cnsultant culd be expected t have available t meet any liability; any previus dealings between the parties; the amunt and cver available t the cnsultant under his PI plicy. 3

4 The case f James Mres v Yakeley Assciates Ltd helpfully illustrates what is reasnable. James Mres emplyed Yakely Assciates as architects, and their cntract (n the terms f the RIBA Standard Frm f Agreement 1992), included a cap f 250,000. The architects fee was 8.5% f the cnstructin cst, subject t a minimum f 19,125 and assuming a cnstructin cst f 225,000. The curt held that the cap n the architects liability was reasnable n the basis that: Bth the client and his slicitr were aware f the existence f the clause impsing the cap and bth had said that they were happy with the prpsed agreement. The cap was nt an arbitrary figure. It was based n the architects assessment f the likely cst f the wrks. The judge accepted that it was a reasnable figure: It wuld take sme quite exceptinal circumstance, beynd the reasnable cntemplatin f the parties, t give rise t a liability fr damages in a sum greater than the ttal estimated cst f the prject itself, he said. The client had accepted in giving evidence that if the cap was rughly sufficient t cver the ttal building cst, that wuld be fair enugh. The cap was mre than ten times the amunt f the architects fee. The client was in a strnger bargaining psitin than the architects; nt nly was there a recessin and architects were chasing wrk, but the client was nt in any hurry t enter int the cntract and had a slicitr t prtect his interests in negtiatins. A cmparisn f the parties resurces shwed that the architects had nne, whereas the client was very wealthy. The judge said that he was bliged t have regard t hw far it was pen t the architects t cver themselves by insurance. In this case, the architects had in place insurance f 500,000 which was in excess f the cap but was nt determinative. He accepted the architects explanatin that the figure f 250,000 was cnsidered reasnable having regard t the estimated cst f the prject. In any event, they were cncerned that they ught t leave sme allwance in case they had t meet legal csts. A cntrast can be made with the case f St Albans City and District Cuncil v Internatinal Cmputers Ltd where a cap n ICL s liability f 100,000 was nt cnsidered reasnable. ICL were engaged t write and perate a cmputer prgram t calculate the level f cmmunity charge; due t an errr in the system, the cuncil suffered lsses estimated at 1.17 millin. There was n evidence t shw that it was fair and reasnable t limit liability t 100,000. The curt als had regard t the fact that ICL had liability insurance cver f 50 millin. 4

5 Third party claims Liability in relatin t claims made by third parties (eg end users r adjining wners) cannt be excluded r restricted in the absence f a cntract between them (subject t the pint belw). In such a case therefre the cnsultant s liability t third parties is unlimited, even where the liability t the client has been capped. Where a cnsultant enters int a cllateral warranty with a third party, the cnsultant s liability t the third party can be limited. Standard frms f warranty such as the CIC cnsultant warranties limit the cnsultant s liability t the csts f repair and include a net cntributin clause; sme frms f warranty als impse a financial cap n the damages recverable. If a third party has been given the right t enfrce a term f a cntract between a cnsultant and a client under the Cntracts (Third Party Rights) Act 1999, the parties t the cntract can limit the liability t the third party, in the same way that liability can be limited in a warranty. If it is anticipated that third party claims might exceed an agreed cap, in apprpriate circumstances, the cnsultant may wish t seek an indemnity frm the client. This Liability Briefing is fr general guidance nly and legal advice shuld be sught t cver any particular situatin. This Liability Briefing is available at Cnstructin Industry Cuncil Reprductin f this Liability Briefing is encuraged, prvided that it is reprduced unaltered and in full, and CIC s authrship is acknwledged. 5

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