General Science: Content Knowledge

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "General Science: Content Knowledge"

Transcription

1 The Praxis Study Companion General Science: Content Knowledge 5435

2 Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis test. Using The Praxis Series Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day. This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time. The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including: An overview of the Praxis tests Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking A template study plan Study topics Practice questions and explanations of correct answers Test-taking tips and strategies Frequently asked questions Links to more detailed information So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before test day. Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you. Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck! Know What to Expect Which tests should I take? Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for the teaching area you wish to pursue. Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agency s testing requirements at How are the Praxis tests given? Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see page 32) The Praxis Study Companion 2

3 Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion What should I expect when taking the test on computer? When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like. Where and when are the Praxis tests offered? You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an international network of test centers, which includes Prometric Testing Centers, some universities, and other locations throughout the world. Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis Web site for more detailed test registration information at www. ets.org/praxis/register. The Praxis Study Companion 3

4 Table of Contents Table of Contents The Praxis Study Companion guides you through the 10 steps to success 1. Learn About Your Test...5 Learn about the specific test you will be taking 2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Become comfortable with the types of questions you ll find on the Praxis tests 3. Practice with Sample Test Questions Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers 4. Determine Your Strategy for Success Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient 5. Develop Your Study Plan Develop a personalized study plan and schedule 6. Review Smart Tips for Success Follow test-taking tips developed by experts 7. Check on Testing Accommodations See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test 8. Do Your Best on Test Day Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident 9. Understand Your Scores Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores Appendix: Other Questions You May Have The Praxis Study Companion 4

5 Step 1: Learn About Your Test 1. Learn About Your Test Learn about the specific test you will be taking General Science: Content Knowledge (5435) Test Name Test Code 5435 Time Number of Questions 135 Format Test Delivery Test at a Glance General Science: Content Knowledge 2.5 hours Multiple-choice questions Computer delivered Approximate Approximate Content Categories Number of Percentage of Questions Examination IV III V I II I. Scientific Methodology, Techniques, and 15 11% Development II. Physical Science 51 38% III. Life Science 27 20% IV. Earth and Space Science 27 20% V. Science, Technology, and Society 15 11% About This Test The General Science: Content Knowledge test is designed to measure the knowledge and competencies necessary for a beginning teacher of secondary school General Science. Examinees have typically completed or nearly completed a bachelor s degree program with appropriate coursework in science and education. This test may contain some questions that will not count toward your score. The development of the test questions and the construction of the test reflect the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) standards and recognize that there are conceptual and procedural schemes that unify the various scientific disciplines. These fundamental concepts and processes (systems; models; constancy and change; equilibrium; form and function) are useful in understanding the natural world. Insofar as possible, then, the test questions will have the primary objective of evaluating the content areas by using questions that focus on conceptual understanding, critical thinking, and problem solving in science. The test content is developed and reviewed in collaboration with practicing high school science teachers, teacher-educators, and higher education content specialists to keep the test updated and representative of current standards. The 135 multiple-choice questions include concepts, terms, phenomena, methods, applications, data analysis, and problem solving in science, and include an understanding of the impact of science and technology on the environment and human affairs. This also includes the ability to integrate basic topics from Chemistry, Physics, Life Science, and Earth and Space Science which are typically covered in introductory college-level courses in these disciplines, although some questions of a more advanced nature are included, because secondary-school The Praxis Study Companion 5

6 Step 1: Learn About Your Test teachers must understand the subject matter from a more advanced viewpoint than that presented to their students. Examinees will not need to use calculators in taking this test. The periodic table of the elements is available as a Help screen, along with a table of information that presents various physical constants and a few conversion factors among SI units. Whenever necessary, additional values of physical constants are included with the text of a question. Topics Covered Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below. I. Scientific Methodology, Techniques, and History A. Methods of Scientific Inquiry and Design 1. Identifying problems based on observations 2. Forming and testing hypotheses 3. Development of theories, models, and laws 4. Experimental design, including independent and dependent variables, controls, and sources of error 5. Process skills including observing, comparing, inferring, categorizing, generalizing, and concluding 6. Nature of scientific knowledge a. subject to change b. consistent with evidence c. based on reproducible evidence d. includes unifying concepts and processes (e.g., systems, models, constancy and change, equilibrium, form and function) B. Processes Involved in Scientific Data Collectionand Manipulation 1. Common units of measurement (metric and English) including unit conversion and prefixes such as milli and kilo 2. Scientific notation and significant figures in collected data 3. Organization and presentation of data 4. Basic data and error analysis including determining mean, accuracy, precision, and sources of error C. Interpret and Draw Conclusions from Data Presented in Tables, Graphs, Maps, and Charts 1. Trends in data 2. Relationships between variables 3. Predictions based on data 4. Drawing valid conclusions based on the data D. Procedures for Correct Preparation, Storage, Use, and Disposal of Laboratory Materials 1. Appropriate and safe use of materials (e.g., chemicals, lab specimens) 2. Safe disposal of materials 3. Appropriate storage 4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g., how to prepare a solution of given concentration, staining slides, labeling samples) E. How to Use Standard Equipment in the Laboratory and the Field 1. Appropriate and safe use (e.g., Bunsen burner, glassware, GPS, microscope) 2. Appropriate storage (e.g., ph probes stored in appropriate buffer solution, dissection equipment, glassware) 3. Maintenance and calibration (e.g., cleaning microscopes, calibration of balances) 4. Preparation for classroom or field use (e.g., prelaboratory setup, classroom demonstrations, field research) F. Safety and Emergency Procedures in the Laboratory 1. Location and use of standard safety equipment (e.g., eyewash, shower) 2. Laboratory safety rules for students 3. Appropriate apparel and conduct in the laboratory (e.g., wearing goggles) 4. Emergency procedures (e.g., fires, chemical spills, handling of injuries) G. Major Historical Developments of Science 1. Accepted principles and models develop over time 2. Major developments in science (e.g., atomic theory, plate tectonics) 3. Contributions of major historical figures (e.g., Darwin, Newton) The Praxis Study Companion 6

7 Step 1: Learn About Your Test II. Physical Science A. Basic Principles 1. Structure of matter a. Elements, compounds, and mixtures b. Atoms, molecules, and ions c. Basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases 2. Basic structure of the atom a. Atomic models b. Atomic structure including nucleus, electrons, protons, and neutrons c. Atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes d. Electron arrangements (e.g., valence electrons) 3. Basic characteristics of radioactive materials a. Radioisotopes b. Radioactive decay processes and half-life c. Characteristics of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma radiation d. Fission and fusion 4. Basic concepts and relationships involving energy and matter a. Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) b. Entropy changes (second law of thermodynamics) c. Conservation of matter in chemical systems d. Kinetic and potential energy e. Transformations between different forms of energy (thermal, chemical, radiant, nuclear, mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic) f. Differences between chemical and physical properties/changes g. Various temperature scales (Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin) h. Transfer of thermal energy and its basic measurement conduction, convection, and radiation specific heat capacity calorimetry (e.g., predict heat transfer in various systems) i. Applications of energy and matter relationships trophic level matter cycling (carbon, nitrogen, water) energy flow in ecosystems convection currents in atmosphere, ocean, and mantle conservation of mass in the rock cycle chemical and physical changes in rocks impact of solar radiation on Earth and life energy transformations in living systems (e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration) B. Chemistry 1. Periodicity and states of matter a. Periodic table of the elements elements arranged in groups and periods atomic number, atomic mass, and isotopic abundance symbols of the elements trends in physical properties based on position of elements on the periodic table (e.g., atomic radius, ionization energy) trends in chemical reactivity based on position of elements on the periodic table (e.g., metals, nonmetals, noble gases) b. States of matter and factors that affect phase changes basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter (e.g., particles in constant motion, average speed of gas particles related to temperature) ideal gas laws (e.g., volume is proportional to temperature, pressure is inversely related to volume) phase transitions and energy changes (e.g., heat of vaporization, heat of sublimation, phase diagrams, heating curves) 2. Chemical nomenclature, composition, and bonding a. Name of simple compounds and their chemical formulas interpreting chemical formulas naming compounds based on formula writing formulas based on name structural formulas (e.g., electron dot, Lewis structures) b. Types of chemical bonding covalent and ionic c. Mole concept and its applications Avogadro s number d. Molar mass and percent composition The Praxis Study Companion 7

8 Step 1: Learn About Your Test 3. Chemical reactions a. Basic concepts involved in chemical reactions use and balance equations of simple chemical reactions balance equations simple stoichiometric calculations based on balanced equations endothermic and exothermic reactions factors that affect reaction rates (e.g., concentration, temperature, pressure, catalysts/enzymes, activation energy) factors that affect reaction equilibrium (e.g., Le Châtelier s principle) types of reactions (e.g., combustion, single or double replacement) simple oxidation-reduction reactions 4. Acid-base chemistry a. Simple acid-base chemistry chemical and physical properties of acids and bases ph scale neutralization acid-base indicators (e.g., phenolphthalein, ph paper, litmus paper) 5. Solutions and solubility a. Different types of solutions dilute and concentrated saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated solvent and solute concentration terms (e.g., molarity, parts per million (ppm)) preparation of solutions of varying concentrations b. Factors affecting the solubility of substances and the dissolving process effect of temperature, pressure, particle size, and agitation on the rate of dissolving effect of temperature and pressure on solubility (e.g., solubility curves) polar vs. nonpolar solvents and solutes dissociation of ionic compounds such as salts in water (e.g., ionization, electrolytes) precipitation freezing point depression C. Physics 1. Mechanics a. Description of motion in one and two dimensions speed, velocity, acceleration displacement linear momentum vector and scalar quantities b. Newton s three laws of motion First law: inertia Second law: F = ma (i.e., net force, mass, and acceleration) Third law: action-reaction forces c. Mass, weight, and gravity distinguish between mass and weight gravitational attraction (force of attraction between masses at various distances) acceleration due to gravity d. Analysis of motion and forces projectile motion inclined planes friction collisions (e.g., elastic, inelastic) and conservation of linear momentum circular motion (e.g., centripetal acceleration, centripetal force) center of mass periodic motion (e.g., pendulums, oscillating springs, planetary orbits, satellites) conservation of energy work, energy, and power basic fluid mechanics (e.g., buoyancy, density, pressure) e. Simple machines mechanical advantage types of simple machines (e.g., wedge, screw, lever) concept of torque 2. Electricity and magnetism a. Electrical nature of common materials electric charges electrostatic force (attraction and repulsion, Coulomb s law) conductivity, conductors, and insulators b. Basic electrical concepts DC and AC current current, resistance, voltage, and power Ohm s law analyze basic series and parallel circuits voltage sources (e.g., batteries, generators) The Praxis Study Companion 8

9 Step 1: Learn About Your Test III. c. Basic properties of magnetic fields and forces magnetic materials magnetic forces and fields (e.g., magnetic poles, attractive and repulsive forces) electromagnets 3. Optics and waves a. Electromagnetic spectrum nature of light (e.g., wave properties, photons) visible spectrum and color electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., ultraviolet, microwave, gamma) b. Basic characteristics and types of waves transverse and longitudinal wave characteristics and relationships between them (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength, speed, energy) c. Basic wave phenomena reflection, refraction, diffraction, and dispersion absorption and transmission interference, scattering, and polarization total internal reflection Doppler effect (e.g., apparent frequency, moving source or observer, red/blue shift) d. Basic optics mirrors lenses and their applications (e.g., the human eye, microscope, telescope) prisms e. Sound pitch/frequency and loudness/intensity sound wave production, air vibrations, and resonance (e.g., tuning forks) application of the Doppler effect to sound Life Science A. Basic Structure and Function of Cells and Their Organelles 1. Structure and function of cell membranes (e.g., phospholipid bilayer, passive and active transport) 2. Structure and function of animal and plant cell organelles 3. Levels of organization (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems) 4. Major features of common animal cell types (e.g., blood cells, muscle, nerve, epithelial, gamete) 5. Prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, protists) B. Key Aspects of Cell Reproduction and Division 1. Cell cycle 2. Mitosis 3. Meiosis 4. Cytokinesis C. Basic Biochemistry of Life 1. Cellular respiration 2. Photosynthesis 3. Biological molecules (e.g., DNA, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, enzymes) D. Basic Genetics 1. Structure (double helix, single stranded, and base pairs) and function of DNA and RNA (replication, transcription, and translation) 2. Chromosomes, genes, alleles 3. Dominant and recessive traits 4. Mendelian inheritance (e.g., genotype, phenotype, use of Punnett squares, pedigrees) 5. Mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and common genetic disorders E. Theory and Key Mechanisms of Evolution 1. Mechanisms of evolution (e.g., natural selection) 2. Isolation mechanisms and speciation 3. Supporting evidence (e.g., fossil record, comparative genetics, homologous structures) F. Hierarchical Classification Scheme 1. Classification schemes (e.g., domain, class, genus) 2. Characteristics of bacteria, animals, plants, fungi, and protists The Praxis Study Companion 9

10 Step 1: Learn About Your Test G. Major Structures of Plants and Their Functions 1. Characteristics of vascular and nonvascular plants 2. Structure and function of roots, leaves, and stems (e.g., stomata, xylem, phloem) 3. Asexual (budding) and sexual reproduction (flowers, fruit, seeds, spores) 4. Growth (e.g., germination, elongation) 5. Uptake and transport of nutrients and water 6. Responses to stimuli (e.g., light, temperature, water, gravity) H. Basic Anatomy and Physiology of Animals, including the Human Body 1. Response to stimuli and homeostasis 2. Exchange with the environment (e.g., respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems) 3. Internal transport and exchange (e.g., heart, arteries, veins, capillaries) 4. Control systems (e.g., nervous and endocrine systems) 5. Movement and support (e.g., skeletal and muscular systems) 6. Reproduction and development 7. Immune system (e.g., antibodies, autoimmune disorders) I. Key Aspects of Ecology 1. Population dynamics a. growth curves and carrying capacity b. behavior (e.g., territoriality) c. intraspecific relationships (e.g., mating systems, social systems, competition) 2. Community ecology a. niche b. species diversity c. interspecific relationships (e.g., predatorprey, parasitism) 3. Ecosystems a. biomes b. stability and disturbances (e.g., glaciation, climate change, succession) c. energy flow (e.g., trophic levels, food webs) d. biogeochemical cycles (e.g., water, nitrogen, and carbon cycles, biotic/abiotic interaction) IV. Earth and Space Science A. Physical Geology 1. Types and basic characteristics of rocks and minerals and their formation processes a. The rock cycle b. Characteristics of rocks and their formation processes (i.e., sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock) c. Characteristics of minerals and their formation processes (e.g., classes of minerals, crystals, hardness) 2. Processes involved in erosion, weathering, and deposition of Earth s surface materials and soil formation a. Erosion and deposition (e.g., agents of erosion) b. Chemical and physical (mechanical) weathering c. Characteristics of soil (e.g., types, soil profile) d. Porosity and permeability e. Runoff and infiltration 3. Earth s basic structure and internal processes a. Earth s layers (e.g., lithosphere, mantle, core) b. Shape and size of Earth c. Geographical features (e.g., mountains, plateaus, mid-ocean ridges) d. Earth s magnetic field e. Plate tectonics theory and evidence folding and faulting (e.g., plate boundaries) continental drift, seafloor spreading, magnetic reversals characteristics of volcanoes (e.g., eruptions, lava, gases, hot spots) characteristics of earthquakes (e.g., epicenters, faults, tsunamis) seismic waves and triangulation 4. The water cycle a. Evaporation and condensation b. Precipitation c. Runoff and infiltration d. Transpiration The Praxis Study Companion 10

11 Step 1: Learn About Your Test B. Historical Geology 1. Historical geology a. Principle of uniformitarianism b. Basic principles of relative age dating (e.g., superposition, stratigraphic correlation, fossil succession) c. Absolute (radiometric) dating d. Geologic time scale (e.g., age of Earth, scope of time) e. Fossil record as evidence of the origin and development of life (e.g., fossilization methods, mass extinctions, ice ages, meteor impacts) C. Earth s Bodies of Water 1. Characteristics and processes of Earth s oceans and other bodies of water a. Distribution and location of Earth s water b. Seawater composition c. Coastline topography and topography of ocean floor d. Tides, waves, currents e. Estuaries and barrier islands f. Islands, reefs, and atolls g. Polar ice, icebergs, and glaciers h. Lakes, ponds, and wetlands i. Streams, rivers, and river deltas j. Groundwater, water table, wells, and aquifers k. Geysers and springs l. Properties of water that affect Earth systems (e.g., density changes on freezing, high heat capacity, polar solvent, hydrogen bonding) D. Meteorology and Climate 1. Basic structure and composition of Earth s atmosphere a. Layers (e.g., stratosphere) b. Composition of atmosphere (e.g., percent oxygen and nitrogen) c. Atmospheric pressure and temperature 2. Basic concepts of meteorology a. Relative humidity b. Dew point c. Wind (e.g., how it is generated and modified) d. Cloud types and formation e. Types of precipitation (e.g., hail, rain) f. Air masses, fronts, storms, and severe weather (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes) g. Development and movement of weather patterns 3. Major factors that affect climate and seasons a. Effects of latitude, geographical location, and elevation (e.g., mountains and oceans) b. Effects of atmospheric circulation (e.g., trade winds, jet stream) c. Effects of ocean circulation d. Characteristics and locations of climate zones (e.g., Tropics, Arctic) e. Effect of the tilt of Earth s axis on seasons f. Effects of natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar radiation variations) g. El Niño, La Niña E. Astronomy 1. Major features of the solar system a. Structure of the solar system b. Laws of motion (e.g., gravitation, planetary orbits, satellites) c. Characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and planets d. Characteristics of asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and dwarf/minor planets e. Theories of origin of the solar system 2. Interactions of the Earth-Moon-Sun system a. Earth s rotation and orbital revolution around the Sun b. Effect on seasons c. Phases of the Moon d. Effect on tides e. Solar and lunar eclipses f. Time zones g. Effect of solar wind on Earth 3. Major features of the universe a. Galaxies (e.g., definition, relative size, Milky Way) b. Characteristics of stars and their life cycles life cycle of star, e.g., white dwarf, red giant, supernova, nebulae, black holes color, temperature, apparent brightness, absolute brightness, luminosity Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams c. Dark matter d. Theories about the origin of the universe (e.g., Big Bang) 4. Contributions of space exploration and technology to our understanding of the universe a. Remote sensing devices (e.g., satellites, space probes, telescopes, spectral analysis) b. Search for water and life on other planets The Praxis Study Companion 11

12 Step 1: Learn About Your Test V. Science, Technology, and Society A. Impact of Science and Technology on the Environment and Society 1. Air and water pollution (e.g., acid rain, eutrophication, groundwater pollution) 2. Climate change and greenhouse gases 3. Irrigation 4. Reservoirs and levees 5. Depletion of aquifers 6. Ozone layer depletion 7. Loss of biodiversity 8. Space exploration 9. Waste disposal (e.g., landfills) 10. Recycling 11. Environmentally friendly consumer products (e.g., biodegradable materials) B. Major Issues associated with Energy Production and the Management of Natural Resources 1. Renewable and nonrenewable energy resources 2. Conservation and recycling 3. Pros and cons of power generation based on various resources including fossil and nuclear fuel, hydropower, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, and alternative energy sources 4. Issues associated with the use and extraction of Earth s resources (e.g., mining, land reclamation, deforestation) C. Applications of Science and Technology in Daily Life 1. Chemical properties of household products 2. Communication (e.g., wireless devices, GPS, satellites) 3. Science principles applied in commonly used consumer products (e.g., batteries, lasers, polarized sunglasses, and fiber optic cables) 4. Water purification 5. Common agricultural practices (e.g., genetically modified crops, use of herbicides and insecticides) 6. DNA evidence in criminal investigations 7. Nanotechnology D. Impact of Science on Public Health Issues 1. Nutrition, disease, and medicine (e.g., vitamins, viruses, vaccines) 2. Biotechnology (e.g., genetic engineering, in vitro fertilization) 3. Medical technologies (e.g., medical imaging, X-rays, radiation therapy) The Praxis Study Companion 12

13 Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions 2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Become comfortable with the types of questions you ll find on the Praxis tests The Praxis Series assessments include a variety of question types: constructed response (for which you write a response of your own); selected response, for which you select one or more answers from a list of choices or make another kind of selection (e.g., by clicking on a sentence in a text or by clicking on part of a graphic); and numeric entry, for which you enter a numeric value in an answer field. You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don t spend time during the test figuring out how to answer them. Understanding Computer-Delivered Questions Questions on computer-delivered tests are interactive in the sense that you answer by selecting an option or entering text on the screen. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. For most questions, you respond by clicking an oval to select a single answer from a list of options. However, interactive question types may also ask you to respond by: Clicking more than one oval to select answers from a list of options. Typing in an entry box. When the answer is a number, you may be asked to enter a numerical answer. Some questions may have more than one place to enter a response. Clicking check boxes. You may be asked to click check boxes instead of an oval when more than one choice within a set of answers can be selected. Clicking parts of a graphic. In some questions, you will select your answers by clicking on a location (or locations) on a graphic such as a map or chart, as opposed to choosing your answer from a list. Clicking on sentences. In questions with reading passages, you may be asked to choose your answers by clicking on a sentence (or sentences) within the reading passage. Dragging and dropping answer choices into targets on the screen. You may be asked to select answers from a list of options and drag your answers to the appropriate location in a table, paragraph of text or graphic. Selecting options from a drop-down menu. You may be asked to choose answers by selecting options from a drop-down menu (e.g., to complete a sentence). Remember that with every question you will get clear instructions. Perhaps the best way to understand computer-delivered questions is to view the Computer-delivered Testing Demonstration on the Praxis Web site to learn how a computer-delivered test works and see examples of some types of questions you may encounter. The Praxis Study Companion 13

14 Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Understanding Selected-Response Questions Many selected-response questions begin with the phrase which of the following. Take a look at this example: Which of the following is a flavor made from beans? (A) Strawberry (B) Cherry (C) Vanilla (D) Mint How would you answer this question? All of the answer choices are flavors. Your job is to decide which of the flavors is the one made from beans. Try following these steps to select the correct answer. 1) Limit your answer to the choices given. You may know that chocolate and coffee are also flavors made from beans, but they are not listed. Rather than thinking of other possible answers, focus only on the choices given ( which of the following ). 2) Eliminate incorrect answers. You may know that strawberry and cherry flavors are made from fruit and that mint flavor is made from a plant. That leaves vanilla as the only possible answer. 3) Verify your answer. You can substitute vanilla for the phrase which of the following and turn the question into this statement: Vanilla is a flavor made from beans. This will help you be sure that your answer is correct. If you re still uncertain, try substituting the other choices to see if they make sense. You may want to use this technique as you answer selected-response questions on the practice tests. Try a more challenging example The vanilla bean question is pretty straightforward, but you ll find that more challenging questions have a similar structure. For example: Entries in outlines are generally arranged according to which of the following relationships of ideas? (A) Literal and inferential (B) Concrete and abstract (C) Linear and recursive (D) Main and subordinate You ll notice that this example also contains the phrase which of the following. This phrase helps you determine that your answer will be a relationship of ideas from the choices provided. You are supposed to find the choice that describes how entries, or ideas, in outlines are related. Sometimes it helps to put the question in your own words. Here, you could paraphrase the question in this way: How are outlines usually organized? Since the ideas in outlines usually appear as main ideas and subordinate ideas, the answer is (D). The Praxis Study Companion 14

15 Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions QUICK TIP: Don t be intimidated by words you may not understand. It might be easy to be thrown by words like recursive or inferential. Read carefully to understand the question and look for an answer that fits. An outline is something you are probably familiar with and expect to teach to your students. So slow down, and use what you know. Watch out for selected-response questions containing NOT, LEAST, and EXCEPT This type of question asks you to select the choice that does not fit. You must be very careful because it is easy to forget that you are selecting the negative. This question type is used in situations in which there are several good solutions or ways to approach something, but also a clearly wrong way. How to approach questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages When answering questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages, provide only the information that the questions ask for. In the case of a map or graph, you might want to read the questions first, and then look at the map or graph. In the case of a long reading passage, you might want to go ahead and read the passage first, noting places you think are important, and then answer the questions. Again, the important thing is to be sure you answer the questions as they refer to the material presented. So read the questions carefully. How to approach unfamiliar formats New question formats are developed from time to time to find new ways of assessing knowledge. Tests may include audio and video components, such as a movie clip or animation, instead of a map or reading passage. Other tests may allow you to zoom in on details in a graphic or picture. Tests may also include interactive questions. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills in ways that standard multiple-choice questions cannot. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. QUICK TIP: Don t make the questions more difficult than they are. Don t read for hidden meanings or tricks. There are no trick questions on Praxis tests. They are intended to be serious, straightforward tests of your knowledge. Understanding Constructed-Response Questions Constructed-response questions require you to demonstrate your knowledge in a subject area by creating your own response to particular topics. Essays and short-answer questions are types of constructed-response questions. For example, an essay question might present you with a topic and ask you to discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated. You must support your position with specific reasons and examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. Take a look at a few sample essay topics: Celebrities have a tremendous influence on the young, and for that reason, they have a responsibility to act as role models. We are constantly bombarded by advertisements on television and radio, in newspapers and magazines, on highway signs, and the sides of buses. They have become too pervasive. It s time to put limits on advertising. Advances in computer technology have made the classroom unnecessary, since students and teachers are able to communicate with one another from computer terminals at home or at work. The Praxis Study Companion 15

16 Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Keep these things in mind when you respond to a constructed-response question 1) Answer the question accurately. Analyze what each part of the question is asking you to do. If the question asks you to describe or discuss, you should provide more than just a list. 2) Answer the question completely. If a question asks you to do three distinct things in your response, you should cover all three things for the best score. Otherwise, no matter how well you write, you will not be awarded full credit. 3) Answer the question that is asked. Do not change the question or challenge the basis of the question. You will receive no credit or a low score if you answer another question or if you state, for example, that there is no possible answer. 4) Give a thorough and detailed response. You must demonstrate that you have a thorough understanding of the subject matter. However, your response should be straightforward and not filled with unnecessary information. 5) Reread your response. Check that you have written what you thought you wrote. Be sure not to leave sentences unfinished or omit clarifying information. QUICK TIP: You may find that it helps to take notes on scratch paper so that you don t miss any details. Then you ll be sure to have all the information you need to answer the question. For tests that have constructed-response questions, more detailed information can be found in 1. Learn About Your Test on page 5. The Praxis Study Companion 16

17 Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 3. Practice with Sample Test Questions Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers Sample Test Questions The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of questions on the test. They are not, however, representative of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Answers with explanations follow the questions. Directions: Each of the questions or statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case. 1. Which of the following poses the greatest safety risk while being heated in a school laboratory? (A) A mixture of iron and sulfur (B) Mercury(II) oxide (C) Sodium chloride (D) Copper(II) sulfate hydrate In an experiment to study the effect of a new fertilizer on the growth of tall hybrid corn and dwarf hybrid corn, from immediately after germination to 10 days of growth, the data below were obtained. Other growing conditions such as water and sunlight were the same for both groups. 2. A piece of paper that appears blue in sunlight is illuminated solely by a red light that is passed through a green filter. What color does the paper appear under this illumination? (A) Blue (B) Green (C) Red (D) Black 3. What quantity of oxygen, O 2, contains very nearly the same number of molecules as 36.0 grams of water, H 2 O? (A) 64.0 grams (B) 32.0 grams (C) 16.0 grams (D) 8.0 grams 4. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the data above? (A) The new fertilizer influences the growth of both corn varieties tested (B) The new fertilizer causes faster growth rate for both varieties than do other fertilizers (C) The new fertilizer improves the root system of the tall hybrid to a greater extent than it does that of the dwarf hybrid (D) The new fertilizer is effective in producing faster growth for both varieties for the first 10 days only The Praxis Study Companion 17

18 Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 5. A person heterozygous for the recessive gene for cystic fibrosis marries a person who does not carry or have the trait (homozygous dominant). What is the probability that the couple s first child will be a carrier? (A) 0.0 (B) 0.25 (C) 0.50 (D) Which of the following is matched with its correct function? (A) Ovule... production of pollen (B) Vascular cambium... formation of apical meristem (C) Xylem... transport of sugars (D) Guard cell... regulation of transpiration rate 7. Scientists believe that a worldwide catastrophic event occurred during the late Cretaceous period and that this event likely caused which of the following? (A) The movement of aquatic animals onto land (B) The sudden demise of the dinosaurs (C) The emergence of Homo sapiens on the grasslands of Africa (D) The first appearance of mammals 8. Earth s seasons are caused by which of the following? (A) The tilt of Earth s axis of rotation relative to the ecliptic as Earth revolves around the Sun (B) The varying amount of sunspot activity (C) Earth s orbit about the Sun as an ellipse rather than a circle (D) The rotation of Earth during a 24-hour day 9. If each of the following meals provides the same number of calories, which meal requires the most land to produce the food? (A) Red beans and rice (B) Steak and a baked potato (C) Corn tortilla and refried beans (D) Lentil soup and brown bread 10. Which of the following is most likely to cause a rise in the average temperature of Earth s atmosphere in the future? (A) Atomic warfare (B) CO 2 from fossil fuels (C) Dust clouds from volcanoes (D) Depletion of Earth s ozone layer 11. The symbol for a specific isotope of gold is Au. Which of the following is consistent with this symbol? (A) 197 neutrons in the nucleus (B) 79 neutrons in the nucleus (C) 118 protons in the nucleus of each of its atoms (D) 79 electrons in a neutral atom 12. Which of the following statements is correct about a trophic structure in which a leaf-eating grasshopper is eaten by a frog, which in turn is eaten by a snake? (A) The frog is a herbivore. (B) The snake is a secondary consumer. (C) The grasshopper is a primary consumer. (D) The snakes outnumber the grasshoppers in the community. 13. The accumulation of stress along the boundaries of lithospheric plates results in which of the following? (A) Earthquakes (B) Magnetic reversals (C) Hurricanes (D) Increased deposition of deep-sea sediments The Praxis Study Companion 18

19 Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 14. Which of the following graphs illustrates the operation of Ohm s law for a conductor that has constant resistance? (A) (B) 19. Animals in which of the following groups may have a backbone and a spinal cord? (A) Mollusks (B) Chordates (C) Invertebrates (D) Echinoderms (C) (D) 15. Which of the following elements is a metal? (A) S (B) Se (C) I (D) Ga 16. How many moles of HCl must be added to sufficient water to form 3 liters of a 2 M HCl solution? (A) 1 mol (B) 2 mol (C) 3 mol (D) 6 mol 17. When a gas turns into a liquid, the process is called (A) condensation (B) evaporation (C) deposition (D) sublimation 20. Polarized sunglasses are used to cut glare from sunlight reflected at a glancing angle off cars, water, and other surfaces. Such sunglasses are a practical application of which of the following physical principles? (A) Brewster s law (B) Lenz s law (C) Coulomb s law (D) Snell s law 21. Which of the following parts of the Sun is easily visible only during a total solar eclipse? (A) Core (B) Photosphere (C) Sunspots (D) Corona 22. If equal and opposite charges are placed on the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor and the plates are then moved apart, which of the following remain(s) constant? I. Voltage II. Capacitance III. Charge (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only 18. When cool air flows from a high mountain region to a region of lower elevation, the air will (A) increase in moisture content (B) condense, forming large amounts of dew (C) undergo adiabatic warming (D) undergo adiabatic cooling The Praxis Study Companion 19

20 Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 23. The true length of a block of wood is cm. Three measurements of this block produced the following values: 1.4 cm, 1.2 cm, and 0.9 cm. Which of the following statements is true concerning these measurements? (A) They are precise and accurate. (B) They are precise but not accurate. (C) The are accurate but not precise. (D) They are neither precise nor accurate. 24. Which of the following items will be attracted to the north pole of a permanent magnet by a magnetic force? (A) The north pole of another permanent magnet (B) A piece of iron that is not a permanent magnet (C) A positively charged glass rod (D) A negatively charged rubber rod The Praxis Study Companion 20

Scope and Sequence Interactive Science grades 6-8

Scope and Sequence Interactive Science grades 6-8 Science and Technology Chapter 1. What Is Science? 1. Science and the Natural World 2.Thinking Like a Scientist 3. Scientific Inquiry Scope and Sequence Interactive Science grades 6-8 Chapter 2. Science,

More information

CHEMISTRY. c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink?

CHEMISTRY. c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink? OGT questions by topic PHYSICAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY 1. Properties of Matter a. What are mass, volume, and density? b. How are they measured? c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion

2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion 2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion Now that you have viewed or taken the 2014 GED Free Practice Test, the information in this Companion will help you understand what content is covered on each

More information

The content is based on the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) standards and is aligned with state standards.

The content is based on the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) standards and is aligned with state standards. Literacy Advantage Physical Science Physical Science Literacy Advantage offers a tightly focused curriculum designed to address fundamental concepts such as the nature and structure of matter, the characteristics

More information

Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards

Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards You have chosen the right place to find great science learning and, beyond learning, how to think. The NGSS emphasize thinking

More information

General Science: Content Knowledge

General Science: Content Knowledge The Praxis Study Companion General Science: Content Knowledge 5435 www.ets.org/praxis Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have

More information

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6 Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark OF OF OF A. Scientific World View B. Scientific Inquiry C. Scientific Enterprise understand that science is a way of knowing about the world that is characterized

More information

GRADE 6 SCIENCE. Demonstrate a respect for all forms of life and a growing appreciation for the beauty and diversity of God s world.

GRADE 6 SCIENCE. Demonstrate a respect for all forms of life and a growing appreciation for the beauty and diversity of God s world. GRADE 6 SCIENCE STRAND A Value and Attitudes Catholic Schools exist so that curriculum may be taught in the light of Gospel teachings. Teachers must reinforce Gospel truths and values so that students

More information

CPO Science and the NGSS

CPO Science and the NGSS CPO Science and the NGSS It is no coincidence that the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are all action-based. The NGSS champion the idea that science content cannot

More information

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

More information

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

More information

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards for the Sunshine State Standards FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION http://www.myfloridaeducation.com/ The seventh grade student: The Nature of Matter uses a variety of measurements to describe the physical

More information

INSPIRE GK12 Lesson Plan. The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson

INSPIRE GK12 Lesson Plan. The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson Lesson Title The Chemistry of Climate Change Length of Lesson 180 min Created By David Wilson Subject Physical Science / Chemistry / Organic Chemistry Grade Level 8-12 State Standards 2c, 4d / 2a, 4d /

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

Comprehensive Lab Kits & Digital Curriculum for Online Learners

Comprehensive Lab Kits & Digital Curriculum for Online Learners Allied Health Anatomy and Physiology Biology Chemistry Environmental Science Geology Microbiology Pharm Tech Physical Science Physics Comprehensive Lab Kits & Digital Curriculum for Online Learners supports

More information

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011)

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011) EAS 100 Study Guide to Textbook Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 6 th edition, 2011) STUDY GUIDE 8/2010 The textbook for EAS 100, Foundations of Earth Science, by Lutgens and Tarbuck

More information

One Stop Shop For Teachers

One Stop Shop For Teachers Physical Science Curriculum The Georgia Performance Standards are designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills for proficiency in science. The Project 2061 s Benchmarks for Science Literacy

More information

Australian Curriculum: Science

Australian Curriculum: Science Australian Curriculum: Science Scope and Sequence by Strands (-10) This document presents scope and sequence documents arranged by the Strands of Science as a Human Endeavour, Science Inquiry Skills and

More information

Seventh Grade Science Content Standards and Objectives

Seventh Grade Science Content Standards and Objectives Seventh Grade Science Content Standards and Objectives Standard 2: Nature of Science Students will demonstrate an understanding of the history of science and the evolvement of scientific knowledge. SC.S.7.1

More information

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species Acids and Bases 1. Name common acids and bases found at home and at school 2. Use formulae for common acids and bases 3. Give examples of the uses of acids and bases 4. State that all solutions are acidic,

More information

Greater Nanticoke Area School District Science/Technology Standards 5 th Grade

Greater Nanticoke Area School District Science/Technology Standards 5 th Grade Greater Nanticoke Area School District Science/Technology Standards 5 th Grade Standard 3.1 Unifying Themes CS 3.1.7A Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other 1. Describe

More information

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment School Year 2013-2014 Directions for Grade 6 Post-Assessment The Grade 6 Post-Assessment is

More information

Bangkok Christian College EIP Matayom Course Description Semester One 2011-2012

Bangkok Christian College EIP Matayom Course Description Semester One 2011-2012 Bangkok Christian College EIP Matayom Course Description Semester One 2011-2012 Subject: General Science Grade: Matayom 6 Course Description This semester the General Science course will continue covering

More information

Prentice Hall Biology (Miller/Levine) 2008 Correlated to: Colorado Science Standards and Benchmarks (Grades 9-12)

Prentice Hall Biology (Miller/Levine) 2008 Correlated to: Colorado Science Standards and Benchmarks (Grades 9-12) 1. ask questions and state hypotheses using prior scientific knowledge to help design and guide their development and implementation of a scientific investigation STANDARD 1: Students apply the processes

More information

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions TEK 6.9C: Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical

More information

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008)

Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008) EAS 100 Study Guide to Textbook Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008) STUDY GUIDE 1/08 The textbook for EAS 100, Foundations of Earth Science, by Lutgens and Tarbuck is

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

GACE Chemistry Assessment Test at a Glance

GACE Chemistry Assessment Test at a Glance GACE Chemistry Assessment Test at a Glance Updated January 2016 See the GACE Chemistry Assessment Study Companion for practice questions and preparation resources. Assessment Name Chemistry Grade Level

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005

ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005 ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005 OBJECTIVES Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

NEBRASKA SCIENCE STANDARDS

NEBRASKA SCIENCE STANDARDS 301 Centennial Mall South Lincoln, Nebraska 68509-4987 NEBRASKA SCIENCE STANDARDS Grades K-12 Adopted by the Nebraska State Board of Education October 6, 2010 SC K-12.1 Comprehensive Science Standard Inquiry,

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

The Praxis TM Study Companion. Technology Education. www.ets.org/praxis

The Praxis TM Study Companion. Technology Education. www.ets.org/praxis The Praxis TM Study Companion Technology Education 0051 www.ets.org/praxis Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have gained the

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

COMPETENCY GOAL 1: The learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry.

COMPETENCY GOAL 1: The learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry. North Carolina Standard Course of Study and Grade Level Competencies, Physics I Revised 2004 139 Physics PHYSICS - Grades 9-12 Strands: The strands are: Nature of Science, Science as Inquiry, Science and

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological

More information

Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision

Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision The Praxis TM Study Companion Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision 0411/5411 www.ets.org/praxis Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to

More information

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light Current Staff Course Unit/ Length August August September September October Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas Basic Outline/ Structure PS4- Types of Waves Because light can travel through space, it cannot be

More information

Interpretation of Data (IOD) Score Range

Interpretation of Data (IOD) Score Range These Standards describe what students who score in specific score ranges on the Science Test of ACT Explore, ACT Plan, and the ACT college readiness assessment are likely to know and be able to do. 13

More information

Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education

Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education January 29, 2010 -- FINAL DRAFT Secondary Standards (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) Pennsylvania Department of Education These

More information

Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education

Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards (Grades 3, 5, 6, 8) Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a

More information

Teacher Questionnaire

Teacher Questionnaire Identification Label Teacher Name: Class Name: Teacher ID: Teacher Link # Teacher Questionnaire SCIENCE International Association for the Evaluation

More information

GACE Physics Assessment Test at a Glance

GACE Physics Assessment Test at a Glance GACE Physics Assessment Test at a Glance Updated January 2016 See the GACE Physics Assessment Study Companion for practice questions and preparation resources. Assessment Name Physics Grade Level 6 12

More information

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

More information

Online Courses for High School Students 1-888-972-6237

Online Courses for High School Students 1-888-972-6237 Online Courses for High School Students 1-888-972-6237 PHYSICS Course Description: This course provides a comprehensive survey of all key areas: physical systems, measurement, kinematics, dynamics, momentum,

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Science I Classroom Guide

Science I Classroom Guide SkillsTutor Science I Classroom Guide Table of Contents Getting Started... 1 Science I Lessons... 2 Quizzes...2 Tests...2 Science I Lesson Summaries... 3 Life Science...4 Physical Science...6 Earth Science...8

More information

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

More information

High School Science Course Correlations between Ohio s 2010 Course Syllabi and the First Draft of the High School NGSS

High School Science Course Correlations between Ohio s 2010 Course Syllabi and the First Draft of the High School NGSS High School Science Course Correlations between Ohio s 2010 Course Syllabi and the First Draft of the High School NGSS This document correlates the content in Ohio s course syllabi with the performance

More information

Master Science Teacher Standards

Master Science Teacher Standards Master Science Teacher Standards FINAL Approved on August 6, 2004 Copyright 2004 Texas State Board for Educator Certification Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Standard V. Standard VI.

More information

Natural Resources. Air and Water Resources

Natural Resources. Air and Water Resources Natural Resources Key Concepts Why is it important to manage air and water resources wisely? How can individuals help manage air and water resources wisely? Air and Water Resources What do you think? Read

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

More information

Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework

Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework Molecules of the Atmosphere The present atmosphere consists mainly of molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2) but it has dramatically changed in composition from the beginning of the solar system.

More information

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

More information

Range of Competencies

Range of Competencies CHEMISTRY Content Domain Range of Competencies l. Nature of Science 0001 0003 18% ll. Matter and Atomic Structure 0004 0006 18% lll. Energy and Chemical Bonding 0007 0010 23% lv. Chemical Reactions 0011

More information

Georgia Performance Standards for Science Grade 6. This Performance Standards document includes four major components. They are

Georgia Performance Standards for Science Grade 6. This Performance Standards document includes four major components. They are Sixth Grade Science Curriculum One Stop Shop For Educators The Georgia Performance Standards are designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills for proficiency in science at the sixth grade

More information

National Science Week Quiz

National Science Week Quiz National Science Week Quiz 1. What is an atomic number? (a) the number of neutrons in the nucleus (b) the number of electrons around the nucleus (c) the number of protons in the nucleus 2. Atoms are most

More information

Bozeman Public Schools Science Curriculum 6 th Grade

Bozeman Public Schools Science Curriculum 6 th Grade Bozeman Public Schools Science Curriculum 6 th Grade Essential Question(s): What is science and why is it important? What does learning, practicing, understanding and applying science mean to you and the

More information

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

More information

School Leaders Licensure Assessment

School Leaders Licensure Assessment The SLS TM Study Companion School Leaders Licensure Assessment 6011 www.ets.org/sls Welcome to the SLS Study Companion Welcome to The School Leadership Series Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know

More information

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

More information

Chesapeake Bay Governor School for Marine and Environmental Science

Chesapeake Bay Governor School for Marine and Environmental Science Choose the best answer and write on the answer sheet provided. 1. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an effect of global warming? (a) Loss of fertile delta regions for agriculture (b) Change

More information

Semester 2. Final Exam Review

Semester 2. Final Exam Review Semester 2 Final Exam Review Motion and Force Vocab Motion object changes position relative to a reference point. Speed distance traveled in a period of time. Velocity speed in a direction. Acceleration

More information

CRT Science Review #1 Physical Science: Matter

CRT Science Review #1 Physical Science: Matter CRT Science Review #1 Physical Science: Matter Standard: Matter Matter has various states with unique properties that can be used as the basis for organization. The relationship between the properties

More information

Student Review Sheet Matter & Energy Semester B Examination

Student Review Sheet Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Matter & Energy Semester B Examination Test Description Length: 2 hours Items: 59 SR (~85%), 2 BCRs (~15%) Unit Approximate Number of Selected Response Items Science Process Skills 13 Molecules to Atoms

More information

Earth and Space Science

Earth and Space Science Earth and Space Science Special Note for the 2014-15 School Year: In 2013, the Maryland State Board of Education adopted the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) that set forth a vision for science

More information

Introduction to Chemistry. Course Description

Introduction to Chemistry. Course Description CHM 1025 & CHM 1025L Introduction to Chemistry Course Description CHM 1025 Introduction to Chemistry (3) P CHM 1025L Introduction to Chemistry Laboratory (1) P This introductory course is intended to introduce

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

Garfield Public Schools Science Curriculum Physical Science

Garfield Public Schools Science Curriculum Physical Science Garfield Public Schools Science Curriculum Physical Science Revision Committee: Mrs. Suvarna Shah Ms. Jennifer Botten Final Revision Date: Garfield Board of Education Dr. Kenneth Conte- President Mr. Tony

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

RELEASED. Spring 2013 North Carolina Measures of Student Learning: NC s Common Exams Earth/Environmental Science

RELEASED. Spring 2013 North Carolina Measures of Student Learning: NC s Common Exams Earth/Environmental Science Released Form Spring 2013 North arolina Measures of Student Learning: N s ommon Exams Earth/Environmental Science RELESE Public Schools of North arolina State oard of Education epartment of Public Instruction

More information

6 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words

6 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words 6 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words hypothesis procedure materials data results variable Independent variable Dependent variable control constant conclusion qualitative quantitative SI unit mass volume

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers.

More information

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

More information

Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems. Chapter 2

Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems. Chapter 2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems Chapter 2 Core Case Study: Carrying Out a Controlled Scientific Experiment F. Herbert Bormann, Gene Likens, et al.: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in NH (U.S.) Compared

More information

4THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

4THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 4THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK GRADE 4 ELEMENTARY-LEVEL SCIENCE TEST WRITTEN TEST JUNE 6, 2011 Student Name School Name Print your name and the name of your school on the lines above. The test

More information

Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools January 2010. Physical Science

Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools January 2010. Physical Science Physical Science Introduction The Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools identify academic content for essential components of the science curriculum at different grade levels. Standards

More information

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment. Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

More information

APPENDIX E Progressions Within the Next Generation Science Standards

APPENDIX E Progressions Within the Next Generation Science Standards APPENDIX E Progressions Within the Next Generation Science Standards Following the vision of A Framework for K-12 Science Education, the NGSS are intended to increase coherence in K-12 science education.

More information

Getting the energy the body needs

Getting the energy the body needs Getting the energy the body needs Identify the main bones of the skeleton. Describe the role of skeletal joints. Recall that muscles contract to move bones at joints. Investigate the strengths of different

More information

understand the interrelationships of the natural world and draws upon various scientific disciplines.

understand the interrelationships of the natural world and draws upon various scientific disciplines. AP Environmental Science: Sample Syllabus 3 Syllabus 886981v1 Scoring Components Page(s) SC1 The course in Earth Systems. 3 SC2 The course in Earth Resources. 3 SC3 The course in the Living World. 2 SC4

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Correlation to. EarthComm, Second Edition. Project-Based Space and Earth System Science

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Correlation to. EarthComm, Second Edition. Project-Based Space and Earth System Science The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS Copyright 2013 Achieve, Inc. All rights reserved. Correlation to,

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

XX. Introductory Physics, High School

XX. Introductory Physics, High School XX. Introductory Physics, High School High School Introductory Physics Test The spring 2014 high school Introductory Physics test was based on learning standards in the Introductory Physics content strand

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3: To define the efficiency

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents summary KS3 Science MyWorks Guide Chemistry KS3 Science: Chemistry Mini zes: 40 Super zes: 5 Extension zes: 4 Skills zes: 6 TOTAL 54 What are MyWorks zes? MyWorks zes are short individual learning tasks

More information

Curriculum Map Earth Science - High School

Curriculum Map Earth Science - High School September Science is a format process to use Use instruments to measure Measurement labs - mass, volume, to observe, classify, and analyze the observable properties. density environment. Use lab equipment

More information

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Science Practices Standard SP.1: Scientific Questions and Predictions Asking scientific questions that can be tested empirically and structuring these questions in the form of testable predictions SP.1.1

More information

Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes

Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes Engaging Students Through Interactive Activities In General Education Classes On the Cutting Edge: Early Career Geoscience Faculty Workshop 14-18 June 2009 Presented by Randy Richardson Department of Geosciences,

More information

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. Forms of Energy AZ State Standards Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. PO 1. Describe the following ways in which

More information