Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook Indianola Community School District

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1 Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook Indianola Community School District The Indianola Community School District has developed this guide as a tool for implementing and maintaining a Balanced Literacy Classroom in fifth grade. The information included is the result of research and processes implemented by the fifth grade team during the school year. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 1

2 Read Aloud Definition: Teacher reads a selection of text out loud, often as a whole group activity. The reader models the act of fluent reading and the process of comprehension. To instill curiosity, joy, and excitement toward reading and provide motivation for learning to read. To involve students in a variety of critical thinking processes. To develop a sense of story. To introduce students to a variety of genres, authors, and illustrators. To teach comprehension strategies and build vocabulary by immersing children in rich book language. What did research tell us? Read aloud involves the teacher reading a selected text to students while modeling desired reading behaviors. By doing so, students are provided opportunities to expand their vocabulary and increase comprehension of books and test structure. Choosing from a variety of genres, teachers instill that reading is purposeful and can be done for enjoyment. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Fluent Reader by Timothy Rasinski (2003) Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades by Debbie Miller (2002) Strategies That Work by Harvey and Goudvis (2000) What must happen? Read aloud must be done daily for a set period of time. In fifth grade that is at least 20 minutes per day. The teacher must read from a variety of genres, including text, which is beyond the students reading abilities. Students must be guided to look for patterns, make predictions and make connections to other text, before, during and after reading. Teacher must model thinking and comprehension strategies as well as fluency and inflection. Comprehension strategies to be modeled include: making connections, determining importance, questioning, visualization/sensory images, inferring, synthesis, and self-monitoring. The teacher must feel confident that reading aloud to students is a worthwhile activity, not a time filler or reward for completing a task. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 2

3 Connecting it to the s: Identifies main ideas and details, cause and effect, sequence of events, and fact and opinion. Compares and contrasts. Summarizes information in texts. Infers, predicts, and draws conclusions. Uses variety of strategies (skim and scan, author s purpose). Understands story elements. A How to for this Strategy 1. Introduction--Make connections to curriculum concepts or earlier lessons. 2. Activate students listening comprehension. This should be related to curriculum concepts. 3. Read passage. 4. Elicit responses from students. 5. Conduct a student application activity on content. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 3

4 Shared/Interactive Reading Definition: Teacher and students read and reread a text together. The text may be enlarged or students may each have an individual copy of it. To participate actively in the reading process. To build a sense of story and the ability to predict from familiar text structures. To gain meaning from illustrations/photographs/images. To develop oral language. To develop vocabulary. To develop fluency and phrasing through re-reading text. TO develop early reading strategies and concepts of print. To develop an understanding of meaning, structure and visual cues. What did Research/Best Practices tell us? Children join in the reading of a text as guided by a teacher or other experienced reader. Shared/Interactive reading builds a sense of story and reinforces the ability to predict. The teacher and/or the student share and choose the text. Selected text must be suitable for students to join in the experience. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Teacher s Guide to the Four Blocks A Multimethod, Multilevel Framework for Grades 1 3 by Patricia M. Cunningham, Dorothy P. Hall, and Cheryl M. Sigmon (1999) Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children by Irene C. Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell (1996) What must happen? The following are the must haves in order for Shared/Interactive Reading to be implemented with fidelity and integrity. 1. Enlarged text must be used. Use of enlarged text must be balanced with the practice of each child having a copy of the text. 2. Students must experience reading in unison, echo reading and choral reading. 3. The teacher must model think alouds during Shared/Interactive Reading. 4. The teacher must model thinking and comprehension strategies as well as fluency and inflection. 5. Shared/Interactive Reading must occur 3 5 times a week in the fifth grade classroom for at least 20 minutes and should be combined with word study. 6. The teacher must work to build comprehension strategies. The following resources may be utilized: reading anthologies, literature circles/book Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 4

5 clubs, reader s theater, guided reading books, fluency overheads, Time for Kids, Scholastic News. Connecting it to the s: Identifies main ideas and details, cause and effect, sequence of events, and fact and opinion. Compares and contrasts. Summarizes information in texts. Infers, predicts, and draws conclusions. Uses variety of strategies (skim and scan, author s purpose). Understands story elements. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 5

6 Small Group Differentiated Reading Instruction Definition: Small group differentiated reading instruction is a component that supports and encourages the development of strategies for independence in reading. Students are grouped according to similar instructional needs. These groups must be flexible. To read for meaning. To read with fluency and phrasing. To practice comprehension strategies. To practice reading strategies (self-monitoring, self-correcting, and rereading). What did research/best Practice tell us? Guided reading is small flexible groups by instruction level of widely differing skills. The teacher introduces text, supports readers, and engages readers in discussion and makes points after reading. The teacher provides text at instructional level (90%-94%). The emphasis is on reading more challenging books over time. Students always read for meaning while gaining independence. The student does the reading and practices strategies (inferring, questioning, visualizing, etc.). Student level dictates time, level and frequency. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Teacher s Guide to the Four Blocks A Multimethod, Multilevel Framework for Grades 1 3 by Patricia M. Cunningham, Dorothy P. Hall, and Cheryl M. Sigmon (1999) Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children by Irene C. Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell (1996) What must happen? The following are must haves in order for Guided Reading to be implemented with fidelity and integrity. 1. Level books must be provided. 2. Flexible groups must be used. 3. Instruction must focus on strategies. 4. A variety of assessments must be used including observation, running records, and district reading assessments. 5. Clear expectations for each Guided Reading session must be established and communicated to students. 6. A set time each day must be established for Guided Reading minutes per group. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 6

7 7. Running records must be completed on a regular basis as dictated by student progress. Connecting it to the s: Identifies main ideas and details, cause and effect, sequence of events, and fact and opinion. Compares and contrasts. Summarizes information in texts. Infers, predicts, and draws conclusions. Uses variety of strategies (skim and scan, author s purpose). Understands story elements. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 7

8 Independent Reading Definition: Students have the opportunity to choose their own text and practice reading on their own. Apply the skills they learned in shared and guided reading when they read independently. Choose appropriate books at their independent reading level. Read independently for an appropriate period of time. Self-monitor for comprehension. What did research tell us? Independent reading occurs when the students choose the text at their independent reading level (95% 100%). Students choose from a variety of genres and read for different purposes. The teacher guides and supports readers while monitoring their comprehension. Time should be allotted daily for Independent Reading. The teach instructs students on finding books at their independent level. The teacher also devises creative ways for children to respond to literature (journals, book talks, literature circles, mini-lessons, group sharing, teacher conferences, reading logs, etc.). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Fluent Reader by Timothy Rasinski (2003) Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades by Debbie Miller (2002) Strategies That Work by Harvey and Goudvis (2000) What must happen? A variety of genres must be available. A variety of levels of text must be available. Teachers must plan for a variety of ways for students to respond to literature. A quiet environment must be provided. A structured environment must be provided. Independent Reading time must be allotted each day minutes must be allotted. Connecting it to the s: Defines words using suffixes, prefixes, and context clues. Identifies main ideas and details, cause and effect, sequence of events, and fact and opinion. Compares and contrasts. Summarizes information in texts. Infers, predicts, and draws conclusions. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 8

9 Uses variety of strategies (skim and scan, author s purpose). Understands story elements. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 9

10 Fluency Definition: Students need to read accurately, quickly, and with expression in order to be considered fluent readers. Fluency refers to silent and oral reading. To develop automaticity, the ability to decode words without effort when reading. To understand the relationship among words in a sentence and chunk these words into meaningful clauses and phrases. To learn to recognize and use high frequency sight words. To use knowledge of known words to understand new words. To identify and use new words when reading, speaking, writing, and listening. To read increasingly complex texts. To practice using strategies that are the focus of instruction. To engage in discussions with classmates and / or the teacher or to write a response based on the strategies. To learn to think about one s own thinking. What did research tell us? Word Study consists of rules and patterns of words, how to look at print, lettersound relationships (phonics), and word solving strategies. Instruction is done as students spell, read, write and study word wall words (high frequency). It is incorporated through the other components of balanced literacy, It leads to automatic decoding of words and grapho-phonemic understanding. Research supports the practice of decodable text for emergent readers. Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Fluent Reader by Timothy Rasinski (2003) Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades by Debbie Miller (2002) Strategies That Work by Harvey and Goudvis (2000) Connecting it to the s: Students will read 124 words per minute. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 10

11 Word Knowledge Definition: Vocabulary is the ability to read and understand words and their meanings. (The larger the reader s vocabulary, the easier it is to make sense of text.) If a student encounters a word in print, he or she needs to be able to decode the word to speech. If the word is in the student s oral vocabulary, he or she is able to understand the word. If the student does not understand the word, he or she will have to use context clues to determine its meaning. If the student encounters a word he or she cannot use context clues to determine its meaning, he or she should be able to use a dictionary to understand the word. (guide words, etc.) Recognize common base words and word roots. Understand meanings of common prefixes (over, un, dis, sub, de, re, mid, pre) and suffixes (ly, ing, ist, less, ous, ion, ful, er, est). Understand meanings of singular, plural, and possessive forms of words. Understand meanings of synonyms, antonyms, contractions and homophones. What did research tell us? Word Study consists of rules and patterns of words, how to look at print, lettersound relationships (phonics), and word solving strategies. Instruction is done as students spell, read, write and study high frequency words. It is incorporated through the other components of balanced literacy, It leads to automatic decoding of words and grapho-phonemic understanding. Reading requires students to have a strong vocabulary. Explicit Vocabulary instruction positively impacts language development, comprehension, and prepares all children for reading success. Increasing Young Children s Oral Vocabulary Repertoires Through Rich and Focused Instruction by Beck, I.L., McKewon, M.G. (2004) Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read Kindergarten Through Grade 3, Second Edition, June, 2003 The Fluent Reader by Timothy Rasinski (2003) Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades by Debbie Miller (2002) Strategies That Work by Harvey and Goudvis (2000) The Teacher s Guide to the Four Blocks, A Mulitmethod, Multilevel Framework for Grades 1 3 By Patricia Cunningham, Dorothy P. Hall, and Cheryl M. Sigmon (1999) Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 11

12 What must happen? There must be direct instruction of decoding strategies, phonemic awareness, phonics, sight words, vocabulary, comprehension, and spelling. There must be a transfer of the strategies/skills to authentic text. Skills must be taught through integration or isolation as is appropriate. Skills must be taught through fiction and non-fiction in the content areas. Connecting it to the s: Defines words using suffixes, prefixes, and context clues. Uses conventions of spelling. Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 12

13 Shared/Interactive Writing Definition: The teacher and students collaborate to write a text together. This may occur in small groups or the whole class. To practice communicating for different purposes. To develop an understanding of use of punctuation. To reread for clarity and comprehension. To understand how a written piece is organized and that various genres are organized differently. What did research tell us? The teacher and the students work to compose the text with the teacher acting as the scribe. The teacher highlights words, letters and conventions of written language. Students provide ideas through brainstorming, drafting, etc. The content of shared writing is based on group experiences, literature connections and modeling a reader s response. What must happen? There must be oral communication for sharing ideas. The students must observe the writing. The teacher must demonstrate the writing process. The teacher must provide guidance with content, genre, and mechanics. The students must observe the modeling of writing with good examples. Scaffolding must occur and is based on the entire writing process and the level of teacher and / or student engagement. Time must be devoted to Shared Writing minutes per week is recommended for fifth grade. Connecting it to the s: Uses writing forms for a variety of purposes and audiences (e.g., expository, fiction, and poetry). Uses prewriting strategies to generate ideas (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming, webs, story maps). Uses sources appropriate to the task (e.g., encyclopedia, technology, nonfiction). Proofreads a rough draft and makes corrections in mechanics (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, and paraphrasing). Uses conventions of capitalization (e.g., proper nouns, proper adjectives, titles, family relationships, and titles of literary works). Uses conventions of punctuation (e.g., end marks, underlining, quotations, apostrophes, commas). Uses conventions of spelling. Uses appropriate grammar (e.g., parts of speech, sentence structure, usage). Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 13

14 Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., indent, topic sentence, supporting details). Writes in cursive. Uses strategies to gather and organize (e.g., note-taking, graphic organizers, parts of the book). Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 14

15 Definition: Guided writing is designed to teach a specific skill or strategy to a large group, a small group, or an individual student. This can be done through mini-lessons and conferencing. To provide opportunities for students to expand their writing knowledge. To provide a stepping-stone toward Independent Writing. What did research tell us? In Guided Writing, students hold the pen and apply what has been previously taught and demonstrated with the support of the teacher and the group. Guided writing may occur in small groups or in a whole group setting. Guided writing is not parallel to guided reading. What must happen? Students must each have their own writing materials. Mini-lessons must focus on the specific needs of the students. Teacher must reinforce skills. Teacher must engage the students in questioning and discussion. Teacher must act as a guide. Students must do the writing. Connecting it to the s: Uses writing forms for a variety of purposes and audiences (e.g., expository, fiction, and poetry). Uses prewriting strategies to generate ideas (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming, webs, story maps). Uses sources appropriate to the task (e.g., encyclopedia, technology, nonfiction). Proofreads a rough draft and makes corrections in mechanics (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, and paraphrasing). Uses conventions of capitalization (e.g., proper nouns, proper adjectives, titles, family relationships, and titles of literary works). Uses conventions of punctuation (e.g., end marks, underlining, quotations, apostrophes, commas). Uses conventions of spelling. Uses appropriate grammar (e.g., parts of speech, sentence structure, usage). Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., indent, topic sentence, supporting details). Writes in cursive. Uses strategies to gather and organize (e.g., note-taking, graphic organizers, parts of the book). Guided Writing Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 15

16 Independent Writing Definition: Students write their own creations independently. The purpose is to practice using writing skills and strategies and to support reading development. To become independent writers for a variety of purposes. To gain experience in a variety of genres. To practice writing at one s own independent level. What did research tell us? The students choose the topic and serve as the scribe. The focus of independent writing is on the process rather than the product. The setting allows students time to experience the value of writing. Approximations are accepted unless the purpose of the writing is for publication What must happen? The teacher s role must be to support and provide direction as needed. Students must have resources to assist with spelling as needed. Time must be devoted in Independent Writing. Connecting it to the s: Uses writing forms for a variety of purposes and audiences (e.g., expository, fiction, and poetry). Uses prewriting strategies to generate ideas (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming, webs, story maps). Uses sources appropriate to the task (e.g., encyclopedia, technology, nonfiction). Proofreads a rough draft and makes corrections in mechanics (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, and paraphrasing). Uses conventions of capitalization (e.g., proper nouns, proper adjectives, titles, family relationships, and titles of literary works). Uses conventions of punctuation (e.g., end marks, underlining, quotations, apostrophes, commas). Uses conventions of spelling. Uses appropriate grammar (e.g., parts of speech, sentence structure, usage). Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., indent, topic sentence, supporting details). Writes in cursive. Uses strategies to gather and organize (e.g., note-taking, graphic organizers, parts of the book). Fifth Grade Balanced Literacy Handbook 16

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