1 the Valu a Samuel Kaufman and Matthew Tennenhouse Samuel Kaufman Matthew Tennenhouse lllinois Mathematics and Science Academy: lllinois Mathematics and Science Academy: Junior (11) Junior (11)
2 Baseball is a game of numbers, and there are many factors that impact how much an individual player contributes to his team's success. Using various statistical databases such as Lahman's Baseball Database (Lahman, 2011) and FanGraphs' publicly available resources, we compiled data and manipulated it to form an overall formula to determine the value of a player for his individual team. To analyze the data, we researched formulas to determine an individual player's hitting, fielding, and pitching production during games. We examined statistics such as hits, walks, and innings played to establish how many runs each player added to their teams' total runs scored, and then used that value to figure how they performed relative to other players. Using these values, we utilized the Pythagorean Expected Wins formula to calculate a coefficient reflecting the number of runs each team in the Major Leagues scored per win. Using our statistic, baseball teams would be able to compare the impact of their players on the team when evaluating talent and determining salary. Our investigation's original focusing question was "How much is an individual player worth to his team?" Over the course of the year, we modified our focusing question to: "What impact does each individual player have on his team's performance over the course of a season?" Though both ask very similar questions, there are significant differences between them. Our original question was intentionally vague because we were still in the first stages of our investigation and were unsure about exactly what direction we would take. As our investigation progressed, we developed a better idea of what we actually intended to accomplish through our study. We eventually selected the latter question because our investigation's emphasis fell on each player's personal contribution to their team's performance rather than their monetary worth. In the world of baseball today, there are innumerable statistics that measure nearly every aspect of an individual's on-field performance. Whether one is interested in a statistic measuring a hitter's on-base percentage, a pitcher's strikeout-to-walk ratio, or even an individual's aesthetic value, there is most likely a formula or recording present in the world of sabermetrics. Sabermetrics is the objective study of baseball using uniformly gathered statistics. This term is derived from the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR). Using various quantifiable 2
3 Samuel Kaufman and Matthew Temlenhouse statistics, sabermetrics allows people to objectively compare players to one another (Albert, n.d.). One of these statistics is known as Wins Above Replacement (WAR). WAR is generally considered the overarching sabermetric statistic due to its culmination of all raw data into one coherent value in terms of wins above a replacement player. The current formula evaluates wins above replacement by computing Runs Created from an offensive, defensive, and pitching standpoint. However, what even is a replacement player? The idea of a replacement player was defined in The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball by Tom Tango (Tango, Lichtman, Dolphin 2007). He introduces the concept as a means of comparing players to one another, statistically speaking. Although these replacement players are generally spoken of in theoretical terms, the definition that Tango produces is that a replacement player is an easily replaceable back-up for any Major League player. This theoretical player is identified as a "AAAA" caliber player. In other words, he is essentially trapped between the Triple-A minor league system team affiliated with a Major League team and the actual Major League team itself. Another aspect of a replacement player is that they are worth the league minimum wage of$414,000 per year. According to speculation on a Fangraphs Article by Steve Slowinski (n.d.) detailing a replacement player, we CaIne to the conclusion that a team filled with replacement level players would theoretically win 48 games in a 162-game season. Bill James, one of the most influential statisticians in sabermetrics history, wrote, "With regard to an offensive player, the first key question is how many runs have resulted from what he has done with the bat and on the basepaths. Willie McCovey hit.270 in his career, with 353 doubles, 46 triples, 521 home runs and 1,345 walks -- but his job was not to hit doubles, nor to hit singles, nor to hit triples, nor to draw walles or even hit home runs, but rather to put runs on the scoreboard. How many runs resulted from all of these things?" (Tango, Lichtman, Dolphin 2007) The concept of offensive runs created completely embodies this statement (Albert, n.d.). It essentially multiplies an individual's on-base factors by his advancement of his terunmates already on-base. Then, that product is divided by the number of opportunities that that individual 3
4 had in order to make his contributions. Bill James (1985) combined all of these factors in his offensive runs created formula: (H + BB - CS + HBP - GIDP) x (TB + (0.26 x (BB - IBB + HBP)) + (0.52 x (SH +SF + SB))) RC= ~ ~ AB + BB + HBP + SH + SF Offensive Runs Created is calculated by inputting the raw data points into this formula. See Table 1 for the abbreviation meanings. We want to evaluate the expected runs created of a replacement player in order to determine the Value Over Replacement Player (VORP). In order to compute these values, we need to determine the league average for Runs Created per Outs. Runs Created per Out is a value that finds a player's expected runs created per out recorded. Then, we average the Runs Created per Out for each player that had a minimum of 30 plate appearances. We chose 30 plate appearances in order to get a significant amount of data in order to ensure an accurate representation of an individual's performance. The league average for Runs Created per Out was across the entire Major Leagues. Then, we multiplied this by the replacement level, which we determined to be approximately 86.7% of the league average. We will delve further into the replacement-level later in this investigation paper. However, a replacement player is expected to create approximately Runs per Out. In order to evaluate the Runs Created of a replacement player, we multiplied the specified individual by the number of outs. If a player had a Runs Created per Out over this Runs Created per Out of a replacement player, then his value would be higher considering he added more Runs Created in the same amount of opportunities. In order to determine VORP, we must subtract the Runs Created by a replacement player from the Runs Created ofthat individual. Therefore, VORP is a measure of Runs Created above a replacement player. This process is demonstrated in Table 2. However, we still need to configure VORP for pitchers. Offensive Runs Created is fairly straightforward, but it is imperative to remember that players have to play on both offense and defense. On the other hand, the concept of defensive runs created is a bit more abstract than its offensive counterpart. In fact, it is less a measure of how many runs they created and more of the number of runs that they allowed to be scored against their team. It did not take us long to determine that it was futile to even attempt to evaluate a fielder's defensive contribution, because defensive statistics such as errors mainly depend on subjective determinations of how a fielder performed versus how he should have performed. Defensive Runs Saved and Ultimate Zone Rating are two common fielding statistics 4
5 Samuel Kaufinan and Matthew Tennenhouse used in sabennetrics. However, we decided to avoid the fielding contributions due to inconsistencies in the calculations. In fact, the only defensive players that have objective, unifonn data are the pitchers; as a result, we decided to only evaluate pitchers' perfonnances and measure only the other eight players' offensive contributions. At first, we considered manipulating Bill James' runs created fonnula to detennine the runs created against a pitcher, but we quickly realized that most of the reverse statistics required, including steals allowed, total bases against, etc. Therefore, we had to use an individual pitcher's Earned Run Average (ERA) and evaluate the runs saved over a replacement player. First, we had to determine the Runs Allowed (RA) of a pitcher for a specified time period. We were able to calculate this by multiplying the ERA by the number of innings pitched. We then folmd the league average for ERA by dividing the total Innings Pitched by the total number of Outs. Using the league average ERA, we were able to compute the replacement-level ERA by dividing this value by 0.867, or 86.7%. The league average ERA in 2011 was approximately In other words, there were approximately 3.94 runs given up every nine innings pitched across the Major Leagues in Ifwe divide this value by 0.867, the replacement-level ERA is approximately Comparable to our procedure in the offensive portion, we must calculate the VORP by subtracting the Runs Allowed of an individual player from the theoretical Rlms Allowed of a replacement player. This value, considered VORP, is actually Runs Saved over a replacement player. We used our VORP determinations along with another fonnula produced by Bill James, which helps us to fmd a team's expected win percentage. runs scored 2 1 Win % = = :::- runs scored 2 + runs allowed (runs allowed; )2 runs scored This fonnula, called the Pythagorean Expectancy (James, 1985), solves for the winning percentage of a team using the total team's Runs Scored and Runs Allowed. We used this formula in order to calculate the Expected Wins Above Replacement (xw AR), which is essentially the wins of a team without that player as seen in Table 3. Using the VORP for both pitchers and hitters, we were able to figure the expected wins of the team without that individual. For hitters, we subtracted their VORP values from the team's Runs Scored. 5
6 xwar = 1 + (RA/RS)2-1 + (RA/RS - VORP)2 Essentially, this predicts the number of wins a team would have had without that player. We subtract this value from the Pythagorean Expectation with that player in order to determine the xw AR. For pitchers, this process is altered slightly due to the fact that pitchers have a Runs Saved value instead of a Runs Created VORP xwar = 1 + (RA/RS)2-1 + (RA + VORP /RS)2 Therefore, the VORP of the pitcher is added to the Runs Allowed of the team, seeing as a replacement player would have allowed more runs than that individual (assuming the individual is above replacement level). Then, this calculated value of expected wins without the player is subtracted from the expected wins with that player to determine x WAR. We now have two values: VORP and xw AR. The VORP represents the Runs Created of an individual over a replacement player, and the xw AR represents the number of theoretical wins a player would have contributed. Both of these values have been computed through use of raw data. The fmal step in our procedure is to determine the Runs Created per Win. We can find this coefficient, which is dependent on each individual, by dividing the VORP by the x WAR. This coefficient is anywhere in a range of about 7 to 12 Runs Created required per win above replacement. Therefore, the VORP divided by the xw AR is tius newfound coefficient. This coefficient displaces the idea that ten runs is equivalent to one WAR. The VORP must be divided by this coefficient in order to determine the true value of a baseball player. We can calculate this coefficient on an individual basis or on a team basis. To deternline a team coefficient, we must weigh the coefficients either by the outs recorded or the number of innings pitched and averages the values for the entire team. The team coefficient represents the number of runs required for one win above replacement. The VORP is in Runs Created and the coefficient is essentially the runs required per win above replacement. Therefore, we can accurately represent the value of a baseball player to his specific team. A number of conclusions can be drawn as results of our investigation. One of these is that we have created a brand new formula for determining wins above replacement. Our formula outputs values for players that are generally removed from other sources' calculations, though 6
7 Samuel Kaufman and Matthew Temlenhouse ours is arguably more accurate. Although we calculated theoretical WAR, we decided to focus on the methodology behind our investigation instead. For reference, however, one can view our calculations for WAR in 2011 in Figure 1. The argument for the improved accuracy of our new formula' is backed up by the fact that we replaced two previously accepted values from previous models with newly calculated rates. The first value that we redefined was the replacement level. Though this level was previously accepted as 80 percent of the league average, using our knowledge that there are 990 theoretical games above replacement in every regular season and statistical analyses of all players in the majors we found that the replacement level belongs at 86.7 percent the league average, reflecting a discrepancy of overall percent and an 8.4 percent increase above the original value. This means that the replacement level is substantially higher than was previously thought. The current formula is comparing players to a lower level of replacement, and thus formulas that use 80 percent will calculate inflated values for VORP and WAR. The second value that we redefined has serious implications among determining wins above replacement, and is arguably the most important result of our investigation; this is our development of the win coefficient. At the onset of our investigation, we were highly suspicious that the determination that every 10 runs above replacement is equivalent to one win above replacement was an arbitrary value chosen mainly for convenience. Our results for individual and team coefficients strongly support this suspicion. As it turns out, individual values can range from as low as 7 to as high as 12 runs required per win, with the most important factor being simply what team a player played for. After averaging each team's players' coefficients to find the overall team values, we came to the conclusion that each player' s WAR should be determined based on his team's overall coefficient because he is --after all--earning wins for his own team, not any other teanlnor the league as a whole. However, hitters and pitchers will have two different coefficients seeing as they have separate calculations, as shown in Table 5. Due to the difference in equating Pythagorean Expectation, we can reason that the better a hitting, the higher their coefficient. Contrary to this, the better a pitching team, the lower their coefficient will be. 7
8 Our improved determinations for WAR can be applied directly to Major League Baseball player in a number of ways. They could be used when a team is placing a monetary value on a player's performance. As long as a team understands how much each win above replacement generally costs, they can gauge how much a player's contribution should theoretically cost and subsequently conclude whether or not he's performing at a level worth his salary. In a similar fashion, teams could determine how much traded players and free agents are worth. Though we didn't look into how WAR could be translated into trade value, it can defmitely be applied, even if only as one factor in deciding whether a player is worth a certain price. Though our results could technically be used as the only source for determining a player's value to his team, it only takes into account his performance on the ball field and as a result leaves out a number of factors that greatly affect his overall value. These factors may include revenue sources such effects to ticket and jersey sales, leadership skills on and off of the field, and even how much potential he has for improvement. For example, bringing a wellknown superstar into a franchise could greatly improve ticket sales because the fans will want to see him play, as well as jersey sales because the fans will be proud of their really good new player. Though these factors are much more abstract and more difficult to measure than his performance on the field, they are undoubtedly present and, though our formula doesn't take them and many others into account, playa major role in deciding players' salaries and trade values. One way that our statistic could be very useful is in determining the Most Valuable Player (MVP) every year. The MVP is generally considered to be the best player in the league, but can also be viewed as the player who made the greatest contribution to his own team's success. As such, it would seem reasonable that the player with the single highest WAR determination should be the league MVP because it tells us that he had the greatest positive effect on his team's performance ofthe entire Major League. We easily concluded that this means that high performing players playing for lower performing teams would have a better statistical chance at claiming the highest WAR because, though their teammates are pulling them down, they have a greater overall impact on their team's performance. 8
9 We also discussed at great length what all of the variations in team runs to wins coefficients actually meant. It is simply logical that there is something fundamentally different going on within a team with a coefficient of 8 than another that requires 11 runs per win, and we are very curious to know what exactly decides it. We threw around a number of possible explanations; chief among these was the interesting concept that some teams are simply more efficient at scoring and preventing runs than others. This essentially means that some teams are more effective at scoring runs only when they need to and playing tight defense so that they don't have to score too many runs, thus keeping their general number of runs required per win lower than that of a team that lets up a lot of runs and constantly has to scramble for wins or one that constantly overpowers their opponents and wins games by 15 runs. What this all comes down to is that different teams have different playing styles, and, though these trends undoubtedly affect individual players ' WAR determinations, there are other implications beyond single players. If a team's manager knows that his team's coefficient in very high and figures out the cause, he will know what he needs to teach his team to focus on during practices and games in order to become a more efficient and better ball club. Evidently, our new method to calculating WAR has extensive uses. Albert, J. (n.d.). An Introduction to Sabremetrics. The Game of Baseball. Retrieved September 26,2011, from www-math.bgsu.eduj~albertipapers/saber.html James, Bill (1985). The Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract (1st ed.), pp Lahman, S. (2011). Baseball Database. Sean Lahman Baseball Database. Retrieved September 28, 2011, from Slowinski, S. (n.d.). WAR. Baseball Statistics and Analysis. Retrieved September 26, 2011, from php/misc/war/#comment Tango, T. M., Lichtman, M. G., & Dolphin, A. E. (2007). The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books. We would like to thank our advisor Mr. Christopher Kolar for his invaluable guidance throughout our investigation. 9
10 Runs Created Abbreviations List. Hits Walks Caught Stealing Hit By Pitch Ground into Double Play Total Bases Intentional Walks Sacrifice Hits Sacrifice Fly-balls Stolen Bases At-Bats Table 1. This figure merely defines all of the values inserted into the Runs Created formula for reference. Determining the VORP. Cardinals Cardinals Cardinals Cardinals Yadier Cardinals
11 Samuel Kaufman and Matthew Telmenhouse Table 2. The figure above displays an example calculation ofvorp. To determine VORP, we subtracted the Runs Created by a replacement player from the Runs Created of the actual individual. Determining x WAR. Reed Johnson Cubs Carlos Pena Cubs Starlin Castro Cubs Kosuke Fukudome Cubs Alfonso Soriano Cubs Table 3. The Cubs in 2011 scored 654 runs and allowed 756 runs as a team. They were expected to win games in The table displays the x WAR for individuals on the Chicago Cubs last year. 11
12 Breakdown ofmlb WAR 2011 Figure 1. This figure represents our calculated WAR for hitters and pitcher across the Major Leagues for However, our WAR formula does not account for fielding statistics. Team Pitching Coefficients
13 Samuel Kaufinan and Matthew Telmenhouse Table 4. These are the calculated pitching coefficients for each team. These values represent the number of Runs Created per Win Above Replacement. The pitching coefficients range from about 7 to around 11. Comparing Coefficients I Coefficient I Team I Team Coefficient Pitching Angels I Hitting I Angels I Pitching Astros I Hitting I Astros I Pitching Athletics I Hitting I Athletics I Pitching Blue Jays I Hitting I BlueJays I Pitching Braves I Hitting I Braves I Pitching Brewers I Hitting I Brewers I Pitching Cardinals I Hitting I Cardinals I Pitching Cubs I Hitting I Cubs I Table 5. In this figure, it is apparent that pitching and hitting coefficients are independent of one another. The stronger pitching teams will have a lower coefficient, whereas the better hitting teams will have a higher coefficient of Runs Created required per Win Above Replacement. 13
1 Nicholas Dorsey Applied Econometrics 4/30/2015 An Exploration into the Relationship of MLB Player Salary and Performance Statement of the Problem: When considering professionals sports leagues, the common
SUNSET PARK LITTLE LEAGUE S GUIDE TO SCOREKEEPING By Frank Elsasser (with materials compiled from various internet sites) Scorekeeping, especially for a Little League baseball game, is both fun and simple.
Baseball Pay and Performance MIS 480/580 October 22, 2015 Mikhail Averbukh Scott Brown Brian Chase ABSTRACT Major League Baseball (MLB) is the only professional sport in the United States that is a legal
A Guide to Baseball Scorekeeping Keeping score for Claremont Little League Spring 2015 Randy Swift email@example.com Paul Dickson opens his book, The Joy of Keeping Score: The baseball world is divided into
Examining if High-Team Payroll Leads to High-Team Performance in Baseball: A Statistical Study Nicholas Lambrianou 13' B.S. In Mathematics with Minors in English and Economics Dr. Nickolas Kintos Thesis
The Baseball Scorecard Patrick A. McGovern Copyright 1999-2000 by Patrick A. McGovern. All Rights Reserved. http://www.baseballscorecard.com/ Keeping Score What's happened? What do you say when somebody
JOSH REDDICK V. OAKLAND ATHLETICS SIDE REPRESENTED: JOSH REDDICK TEAM 4 Table of Contents I. Introduction...... 1 II. Josh Reddick... 1 A. Performance and Consistency... 1 B. Mental and Physical Health...
BASEBALL SCOREKEEPING 101 All that is needed to be a successful scorekeeper is a little scorekeeping knowledge and a keen eye when watching the games. The first thing that any person must know is the abbreviations
AN INTRODUCTION TO BASEBALL Four basic comparisons between baseball and soccer (football): 1. A soccer game can contain both time-based segments (the two 45 minute periods) and opportunity-based segments
Data Mining in Sports Analytics Salford Systems Dan Steinberg Mikhail Golovnya Data Mining Defined Data mining is the search for patterns in data using modern highly automated, computer intensive methods
TULANE BASEBALL ARBITRATION COMPETITION BRIEF FOR THE TEXAS RANGERS Team 20 1 Table of Contents I. Introduction...3 II. Nelson Cruz s Contribution during Last Season Favors the Rangers $4.7 Million Offer...4
Keeping Score Baseball By Matt Murphy By Matt Murphy Page 1 Introduction... 3 Positions... 3 Notations... 4 The Score Book or Scorecards... 4 Pre-Game... 6 Enter the Game Information.... 6 Enter the Lineup...
Keeping Score Baseball By Matt Murphy By Matt Murphy Page 1 Introduction... 3 Positions... 3 Notations... 4 The Score Book or Scorecards... 4 Pre-Game... 6 Enter the Game Information.... 6 Enter the Lineup...
Baseball: A Statistical Analysis Jeff Patterson Two main parts 1. Measure the importance of offense and defense on winning in the game of baseball. 2. Determine the greatest game ever pitched. Operational
Baseball and Statistics: Rethinking Slugging Percentage Tanner Mortensen December 5, 23 Abstract In baseball, slugging percentage represents power, speed, and the ability to generate hits. This statistic
Understanding The Value of the Next Run Why Sabermetricians Are Wrong and Traditional Baseball is Right Abstract By focusing solely on runs scored and not on winning baseball games sabermetricians miss
Causal Inference and Major League Baseball Jamie Thornton Department of Mathematical Sciences Montana State University May 4, 2012 A writing project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
ANDREW BAILEY v. THE OAKLAND ATHLETICS REPRESENTATION FOR: THE OAKLAND ATHLETICS TEAM 36 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Hierarchy of Pitcher in Major League Baseball... 2 Quality of Mr. Bailey s Contribution
Offense vs. Defense in Strat-O-Matic by Dean Carrano Before I start, I want to thank David C. Madsen (author of the article When to Play the Slick Fielder over the Heavy Hitter ), and Paul Johnson (creator
How to Create a College Recruiting Resume 1 Table of Contents 1 How to Write an Introduction 2 What Academic Information Should You Include in Your Resume? 3 What Contact Information Should I Put on my
1. Intro To Scorekeeping The following terms will be used on this site: Cell: The term cell refers to the square in which the player s at-bat is recorded. In this illustration, the cell is the box where
Baseball Classroom Activity The Classroom Activity introduces students to the context of a performance task, so they are not disadvantaged in demonstrating the skills the task intends to assess. Contextual
Maximizing Precision of Hit Predictions in Baseball Jason Clavelli firstname.lastname@example.org Joel Gottsegen email@example.com December 13, 2013 Introduction In recent years, there has been increasing interest
A League Baseball Division A League Baseball Local Rules Document Title: A League Baseball Local Rules Rules Committee 2015: Signature: Rick Hill Brian Kane Gary Blonigen Bill Mills Mike Gracia REVISION
Scorekeeper Training Rocklin Little League Rocklin, CA Training Agenda Scorekeeper s Role Scorebook Introduction Pre-Game Activities Keeping Score Post-Game Activities Q & A /4/014 (C) 014 Rocklin Little
Topic #1: Introduction to measurement and statistics "Statistics can be fun or at least they don't need to be feared." Many folks have trouble believing this premise. Often, individuals walk into their
UW-WHITEWATER INTRAMURAL SPORTS SOFTBALL RULES Last update: January, 2016 SOFTBALL IS A CONTACT SPORT, AND INJURIES ARE A POSSIBILITY. THE INTRAMURAL SPORTS PROGRAM ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR INJURIES;
FOR TO 6 PLAYERS AGES TO EXPANDABLE STRATEGY GAME INSTRUCTIONS Object of the Game Score more runs than your opponent by the end of the last inning. Overview Pizza Box Baseball is played per the rules of
Big-League Stories and Strategies for Winning the Mental Game in Baseball and in Life These Baseball IQ test forms are meant as a supplement to your book purchase. It was important to us to provide you
Lessons You Can Learn by Watching a Game Good coaches no matter how old they are will watch a game and come away learning something. Even if they may be watching the game for enjoyment, there is always
Running head: SUCCESS IN PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL 1 Success in Professional Baseball: The Value of Above Average Position Players Heath Detweiler A Senior Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
It's time once again to relive those nostalgic days of gym class, and get your kickball team together! Get outside and get some fresh air, all while being able to throw a kickball at the opposing team.
Submitted to the Eastern Economic Journal QUANTIFYING MARKET INEFFICIENCIES IN THE BASEBALL PLAYERS MARKET By Ben Baumer Smith College firstname.lastname@example.org and By Andrew Zimbalist Smith College email@example.com
Sample Problems The following problems do not convey the excitement of the fantasy games themselves. The only way to understand how dynamic fantasy sports are in the classroom is to actually play the games.
Level 1 Scoring Accreditation Handout www.scorerswa.baseball.com.au ~ www.facebook.com/scorerswa LEVEL ONE SCORING ACCREDITATION HANDOUT This workbook is used in conjunction with the Australian Rules book.
Applying Economics to the Game of Baseball: A Study on Baseball Player Salary Determination By Matthew Courtney Economics 199 Senior Capstone Project Project Advisor: Professor William Boal 11 May 2009
The Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Rodney Paul Syracuse University Matt Filippi Syracuse University Greg Ackerman Syracuse University Zack Albright Syracuse University Andrew Weinbach Coastal Carolina
Lights Baseball Well Prepared Team Composition every player has skills to contribute (not one bad player) Fall / Winter Hitting no team hit as much as we did, we ll start strong Practice multiple coaches
Estimating the Value of Major League Baseball Players Brian Fields * East Carolina University Department of Economics Masters Paper July 26, 2001 Abstract This paper examines whether Major League Baseball
Pinto Kid Pitch Rules Field: Players and Coaches pitch from 38 feet. Bases are set at 60 feet. Players: Teams bat their entire roster. 9 players play in the field. There is free substitution for the additional
Length of Contracts and the Effect on the Performance of MLB Players KATIE STANKIEWICZ I. Introduction Fans of Major League Baseball (MLB) teams come to the ballpark to see some of their favorite players
The Numbers Behind the MLB Anonymous Students: AD, CD, BM; (TF: Kevin Rader) Abstract This project measures the effects of various baseball statistics on the win percentage of all the teams in MLB. Data
CHICO SENIOR SOFTBALL RULES (revised as of 03/21/2016) 1. PLAYING RULES: Chico Senior Softball will use current SSUSA and NCSSA playing rules except as modified here. SSUSA rules can be found at: http://seniorsoftball.com/?page=7.
Creative Education, 2015, 6, 1477-1483 Published Online August 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/ce http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2015.614148 Using Baseball Data as a Gentle Introduction to Teaching
Wiffle Ball Rules and Regulations of Play PLAYING FIELD THE FIELD Ø A level surface. The angle created from the tip of home plate will be 75 degrees from foul line to foul line. THE INFIELD Ø An infield
PENINSULA PARISHES/SCHOOLS LEAGUE SECTION 4: BASEBALL RULES 4.1 GAMES: All teams will be guaranteed at least seven (7) league games. 4.2 TEAMS: Each member parish/school may be represented by the following
Woodson & West Springfield High School Prep and Little League Camp Sponsored by W.T. Woodson Athletic Boosters Week 1: July 11-15 Week 2: July 18-22 Hours: Location: 8:00am 1:00pm Woodson High School Varsity
iscore Baseball Scorekeeper v 2.02.11 This guide will take you through each of the options available on the home screen, providing screen shots and examples of what to do. Please note that this is aimed
NAIRABET AMERICAN FOOTBALL American football which is also called the NHL is played on a 100-yard long field, with goal lines on each end. The field is marked in increments of one yard. The main objective
MCOC Baseball Baseball Rules Cal Ripken League rules are in effect, with the following exceptions and explanations. Division: Tee Ball Page 2 Rookie Page 3 Minors Page 5 Majors Page 7 MCOC Baseball Tee-ball
GRADE 11 SBA REVIEW JACKIE ROBINSON CHARACTERIZATION* FACT/OPINION ANALYZE CONTEXT CLUES* Directions: Read the selection and answer the questions. The Trailblazer: Jackie Robinson by Larry Canale Introduction:
SCVAA Youth Baseball Rules (Updated January 2016) The St. Croix Valley Athletic Association (VAA) is a nonprofit, volunteer organization promoting and providing youth athletic programs throughout the #834
Rating The Physical Tools Of A Potential Major League Player -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Major League Baseball's Scout Rating System Explained --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Which Baseball Statistic Is the Most Important When Determining Team I. INTRODUCTION The way to measure individual productivity in any working environment is to track individual performance in a working
IBAF Scorers Manual INTERNATIONAL BASEBALL FEDERATION FEDERACION INTERNACIONAL DE BEISBOL REVISED IN 2008 2 CONTENTS The Scorekeeper 5 Preface 6 Chapter 1 The Official Score-sheet 7 Symbols and abbreviations
Official Softball Rules Revision Date 5/5/2015 (newest rules highlighted) Unless otherwise stated, ASA rules govern this league. GAME REGULATION: Game time is start time, 10 minutes after last game ended.
Rule 10.01 THE RULES OF SCORING Index Appeal of scoring decision, 10.01 Assists, 10.10 Base hits, 10.05, 10.06 Bases on balls, 10.14 Batting out of turn, 10.01(b)(4), 10.03(d) Box Scores, 10.02, 10.03(b)
Standard ASA rules will be followed with the following exceptions or points of emphasis: A. Rules in Effect for ALL Divisions (any exceptions noted) 1. All players in good standing will be listed in the
TTA Rule Changes and Clarifications for 2016 and 2017 All TTAB (Baseball) league play will terminate as follows: The 2016 Season on July 2. The 2017 Season on July 1. All TTAS (Softball) league play will
All City Baseball Association Rules Revised Jan 2015 ACBA General Rules 1) Each league shall have one (1) representative that will record one (1) vote on ACBA issues. 2) No league or team shall allow any
Beating the MLB Moneyline Leland Chen firstname.lastname@example.org Andrew He email@example.com 1 Abstract Sports forecasting is a challenging task that has similarities to stock market prediction, requiring time-series
Peter J. Fadde Assistant Professor, Instructional Technology and Design Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901-4610 618.453.4019 (office) 765.427.5977 (cell) firstname.lastname@example.org Training and Research
A Remark on Baserunning risk: Waiting Can Cost you the Game arxiv:1505.00456v1 [stat.ap] 3 May 2015 Peter MacDonald Department of Mathematics & Statistics, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada email@example.com
Developing Base Ten Understanding: Working with Tens, The Difference Between Numbers, Doubling, Tripling, Splitting, Sharing & Scaling Up James Brickwedde Project for Elementary Mathematics firstname.lastname@example.org
A Student-Athletes Guide to College Recruitment 2 Table of Contents Welcome Letter 3 Guidelines for Marketing Yourself as an Athlete 4 Time Line for Marketing Yourself as an Athlete 4 6 Questions to Ask
FLLGS Majors Practice Plan General Manager Guidelines When you get your roster be sure to contact all of your parents as soon as possible and introduce yourself. Parents are often just as excited as the
TM Green RGB break down: R-15 G-156 B-0 Trading Tips Autochartist Trading Tips VOL. 2 Chapter 1 PLAN YOUR TRADING STRATEGY AND FOLLOW IT In baseball, my theory is to strive for consistency, not to worry
For 2 or More Players, Ages 8 To 88 America s National Pastime with over 840 Trivia questions. CONTENTS: Game board Spinner Scoring pad 293 Baseball Frenzy Trivia cards (total of 569 questions) 138 Baseball
Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Volume 7, Issue 3 2011 Article 5 Markov Analysis of APBA, a Baseball Simulation Game Donald M. Davis, Lehigh University Recommended Citation: Davis, Donald M.
JUNIOR & INTERMEDIATE BASEBALL 2016 Fall Ball Interleague Rules The Washington District 1 Little League Fall Junior/Intermediate Baseball division will play by the official Little League Junior/ Intermediate
Harleysville Girls Softball Association Youth Softball 6U League Rules ASA rules will apply except as listed below. It is the responsibility of the coach and parents of children to enforce the rules. Uniform
Page 1 of 5 International Websites Other Websites FieldTurf: The Greatest Turf on Earth Find a Representative Search About FieldTurf About FieldTurf Our Philosophy How FieldTurf Works Manufacturing Maintenance
Soft hands baseball drill ~ Plain and simple. Baseball Drills Bare-handed, players roll a ball back and forth slowly on a roll and field the ball in front of them. They bring the ball up into their bodies
Statistics in Baseball Ali Bachani Chris Gomsak Jeff Nitz EIS Mini-Paper Professor Adner October 7, 2013 2 Statistics in Baseball EIS Statistics in Baseball The Baseball Ecosystem... 3 An Unfair Game...
8 & U DIVISION OF CENTRAL OHIO GIRLS FAST-PITCH OHIO HIGH SCHOOL RULES WITH THESE ADDITIONS (REVISED 5-7-14) 1. Home team supplies umpires & game balls. 2. No player shall participate who will be 9 years
DELHI TOWNSHIP PARKS & RECREATION GIRLS INTERMEDIATE SOFTBALL (3-4) LEAGUE PHILOSOPHY This program exists to serve the needs of our youth. All involved are allowed to participate on an equal basis in a
ECO 220 Intermediate Microeconomics Professor Mike Rizzo Third COLLECTED Problem Set SOLUTIONS This is an assignment that WILL be collected and graded. Please feel free to talk about the assignment with
Fall Ball Junior Minor Boys Ground Rules Fall Ball is an off season program that is designed primarily for training and development of baseball skills to compliment our more competitive Little League Spring
Claremont Colleges Scholarship @ Claremont CMC Senior Theses CMC Student Scholarship 2012 A Study of Minor League Baseball Prospects and Their Expected Future Value Jay Lyon Tymkovich Claremont McKenna
Camarillo Pony Baseball Association 2016 League Rules Prepared by: The Board of Directors of Camarillo Pony Baseball Association 1 Table of Contents Special League Rules Game Rules Governed by Pony Baseball
GCSE Business Studies Ratios For first teaching from September 2009 For first award in Summer 2011 Ratios At the end of this unit students should be able to: Interpret and analyse final accounts and balance
Mathalicious 2014 lesson guide WIN AT ANY COST? How should sports teams spend their m oney to win more games? Professional sports teams drop serious cash to try and secure the very best talent, and the
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.