TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SULFATE ION REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECOVERY OF WATER FROM MINERAL CONCENTRATE TRANSPORT SLURRY

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SULFATE ION REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECOVERY OF WATER FROM MINERAL CONCENTRATE TRANSPORT SLURRY"

Transcription

1 TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SULFATE ION REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECOVERY OF WATER FROM MINERAL CONCENTRATE TRANSPORT SLURRY ABSTRACT Paul J. Usinowicz, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE*, Bruce F. Monzyk**, Ph.D., and Linda Carlton*** *Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH **Battelle ***Consultant This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive evaluation for a Primary Mineral Processing (PMP) company that contracted Battelle to identify economical technology to remove sulfate ion (SO 4 2- ) from mineral slurry transport (MST) water, now disposed of as a waste, for reuse or sale. MST water is separated from product by dewatering a sulfidic mineral concentrate slurry prior to loading and shipping of the solid product. The MST water sulfate ion concentration is between 400 and 1720 mg/l, below the high concentrations for which technologies such as lime precipitation, crystallization, and evaporation are favorable, and above low concentrations that are amenable to ion exchange technology, reuse, or release. In addition, the salt concentrations fluctuate significantly causing processing issues with a number of purification technologies. The technical target is to reduce sulfate levels to < 500 mg/l SO 4 2- to allow water reuse, and especially to < 250 mg/l SO 4 2- (drinking water requirements) to provide the broadest reuse options. Based on company criteria of proven technology, operability, minimum residuals, and cost effectiveness in meeting the requirements for sulfate reduction, the two top-rated technologies recommended were ettringite production and precipitation using aluminum oxide, and electrochemical salt splitting. KEYWORDS sulfate removal, ettringite, electrolytic salt splitting, mining, mineral transport BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES A Primary Mineral Processing (PMP) company contracted Battelle to identify economical technology to remove sulfate ion (SO 4 2- ) from mineral slurry transport (MST) water, now disposed of as a waste, for reuse or sale. The MST water is the carriage water for transporting copper ore via pipeline form the mine to transport ships. The MST water is separated from the solid copper, which is loaded on the transport ships. The MST water is contaminated from processing steps and from contact with the copper ore. Currently, the MST water is a 20 L/second (1730 m 3 /day, 457,000 gal/day) waste stream and is being used in forest irrigation. The PMP Company plans to increase the mine production rate 139

2 50%, increasing MST water flow to 30 L/sec. Such expansion will require a proportionally larger forest plantation with its associated costs and environmental pollution risks. To a limited extent, the PMP Company is permitted, with a variance, to dispose of the contaminated water via deep ocean outfall into the ocean to avoid excessive contamination of land, especially by molybdenum (Mo) and salts. Because of the arid nature of the area, water is highly valued. The PMP Company wants to recover and recycle the water to the greatest practical extent, and has targeted meeting drinking water standards for their MST water. The National Standards versus the MST water quality are shown in Table 1, and inspection of that data shows that, on average, the principal target parameters for MST water to meet the drinking water standards are SO 4 2- and TDS. Contaminant Table 1. MST Water Composition Average MST mg/l MST Range mg/l National Standard mg/l Al <1.0 <1.0 to As <0.005 to Ba to Cd < to Cl to Cu to Fl 0.80 <0.2 to Fe 0.60 <0.05 to Mn <0.05 to Hg <0.001 to Mo <0.01 <0.01 to Pb <0.05 <0.05 to K to 68 NR Se <0.006 <0.005 to Na to 553 NR Ca to 292 NR TDS to SO to Zn 0.08 <0.05 to ph 3.7 to to 9.0 Conductivity-µΩ to

3 A mass balance (Table 2) shows that the majority of the TDS is accounted for by NaCl, Na 2 SO 4, and CaSO 4. Sulfate ion comprises most of the mass. Therefore, the PMP Company has targeted economic sulfate ion removal, with attendant net TDS removal, and no formation of significant byproduct brine, as key technology requirements needed before MST water treatment is regarded as viable for recovery and reuse. The benchmark for this evaluation was to provide technology for sulfate ion removal from MST water that exhibits better economics and operability, and less brine waste water production, than reverse osmosis (RO) or piping the water back to the concentrator and tailings pond. Table 2. Main Salt Constituents of The Primary Mineral Processing Company Water Concentration Species/Parameter mg/l Molarity (mm) High Low Average High Low Average 2- SO Ca Na Cl TDS (measured) NA NA NA TDS (calculated from column totals) Mass Balance Check: For the above four species, there are 20.9 equivalents of anions and 18.7 equivalents of cations. Above values are consistent with MST solution being essentially a blend of NaCl, Na 2 SO 4, and soluble (approximately saturated) CaSO 4. Data source: The PMP Company. METHODOLOGY It has long been known that removal of sulfate ion from water is very difficult to accomplish economically. The general problem with high TDS worldwide in source and discharge waters of industrial and municipal facilities has been receiving more and more attention by investigators in many fields. The first step in identifying water purification technology meeting the PMP Company criteria was a broad literature search, including the open literature, technology vendors, consultants, Battelle water treatment expertise and that of U.S. National Laboratories. The next step was to examine the comprehensive search results to identify technologies for the PMP Company s specific needs for removal of sulfate ion from the MST water to < 250 mg/l SO Battelle found substantial commercial and emerging technology development for sulfate removal, identifying 32 candidate technology variants for consideration. This list was then analyzed, ranked, and reduced to a short list. Technologies that remove sulfate ion, that can be commercialized within a few years ( 3), and reduce total TDS levels are most desired. Due to 141

4 the already high TDS level of MST water, technologies which do not significantly add to the TDS burden, and/or which also remove low level regulated metal ion impurities, are desired, provided that sulfate ion removal to < 250 mg/l is also achieved. Technologies that remove sulfate ion, that can be commercialized within a few years ( 3), and reduce total TDS levels are most desired. Finally, reverse osmosis (RO), direct evaporation, deep ocean outfall disposal, and pipeline return to the process were not evaluated, as the PMP Company had already investigated these options. The most suitable technology candidates fell within the general categories of precipitation, mineralization, membrane separations, liquid-liquid extraction, electrochemical separations, biological conversion, and ion exchange. The technologies were down-selected versus the selection criteria provided by the PMP Company. The selection criteria were: 1) Preferably, the water yield from the treatment technology should be > 80%, preferably >90%, and most preferably >95%. 2) The technology should be commercially implemented able within three (3) years. Hence commercially available technology (i.e., proven, off-the-shelf) is most preferred as the practical implementation time for emerging technologies can be 3 to 10 years, depending on the development status. 3) Options should include the chemical cost portion of the operating costs for comparison and evaluation. Capital costs are not of interest at this time as the PMP Company already has sufficient information in this area. 4) Residual products stream(s) handling options should be described, including potential sales, landfill options, inclusion with the mineral concentrate, disposal at the mine site, with the copper concentrate product, and/or potentially disposal of such small-flow streams through a deep water outfall in the ocean. The highest ranked of these technologies were subjected to a deeper process chemistry and engineering assessment to prepare projected performance evaluations and included refining the process chemistry to Specifically fit MST water composition and flow rates, Identify formation, and composition of product(s) and by-products streams, and Impact of sulfate ion removal on ph and (TDS) concentration of the treated water. The highest ranked candidates were assessed in more detail, including Generation of balanced stoichiometry process chemistry Review of process diagrams, adjusted to meet MST chemical composition Consideration of the PMP Company s site constraints and opportunities Water flow rate Regulatory Requirements Generation of estimates of raw material consumption rates and costs. 142

5 FINDINGS This analysis and sorting resulted in six highly-ranked technologies, including barium sulfate precipitation as the base reference, stipulated by the PMP Company. Two barium process variants were projected to provide essentially complete recovery of the water as sulfate-free. Three important considerations emerged in the analysis of the barium technologies. First, both variants are very complex due to the barium recycle and sulfur processing unit operations. Barium recycle is required for reasonable economics and requires multiple unit operations to accomplish. A second difficulty of operability is the separation of recycled barium from coprecipitated metals, and the third issue is the control of toxic barium ion concentration in the finished water. Ettringite Precipitation The highest ranked MST sulfate removal technology is aluminum trihydroxide and lime at ph to form and precipitate the sulfate ion-based mineral ettringite. This reaction can reduce sulfate ion levels to < 50 mg/l, and appears attractive from a cost and operability perspective. Calcium ion is also removed. Two variants on this process were found: with, and without, recovery and recycle of aluminum trihydroxide. As with the barium sulfate case, recycle of aluminum hydroxide is possible, but makes the process substantially more complicated. However, unlike the barium sulfate case, aluminum hydroxide is not very expensive, and recovery not as financially attractive. Disposal requirements for ettringite will need to be evaluated in light of potential stability questions of the mineral and the associated heavy metals that co-precipitate. These properties need to be measured for the specific case of MST water. Two commercial processes use ettringite precipitation for sulfate concentration reduction. They are the SAVMIN Process and the CESR (Cost Effective Sulfur Removal) Process. The latter has also been known as the Walhalla Process. The processes have been developed for sulfatebearing mine waters with sulfate concentrations > 2,000 mg/l. They incorporate both metals precipitation and calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) (gypsum) as preliminary treatment steps. The SAVMIN Process uses aluminum oxide (aluminum trihydroxide in amorphous or gibbsite form) to create the ettringite, with recovery, whereas the CESR process uses a proprietary Alcontaining chemical obtained from cement production, without recovery of the aluminum source. For MST water, the sulfate ion concentration is already sufficiently low with no need to incorporate the lime precipitation of high sulfate concentrations, so the preliminary sulfate reduction steps are excluded from the analysis of the SAVMIN and CESR processes for the PMP Company s waters. Metals removal may be practiced either before or after sulfate removal by ettringite formation, and the metals removal steps and chemistry, which could involve Ferrate(VI), are not included in this analysis. Metal ions may also complex within the ettringite, but the extent to which they do is not predictable and not expected to be strong. Hence the beneficial impact of such purification is not assumed in this analysis. 143

6 The precipitation of ettringite [3 CaO 3 CaSO 4 Al 2 O 3 (s) 31 H 2 O] occurs between ph 11.6 and 12.0, removing ion of both sulfate and calcium. The stoichiometric reaction is adjusted for MST water is believed to be: 3 CaO + 3 Ca SO Al(OH) 3 (s) + 28 H 2 O = [3 CaO 3 CaSO 4 Al 2 O 3 (s) 31 H 2 O] (Eq 1.) Ettringite The ettringite formation and precipitation requires blending of aluminum hydroxide slurry and the pretreated mine water at an appropriate mass ratio of Al : SO 4. Reaction time is between 30 and 300 minutes, which would be narrowed substantially in preliminary testing specifically for MST water. In practice, an excess (20%) of aluminum hydroxide in terms of the stoichiometric requirements is dosed to enhance kinetics to achieve low residual sulfate concentration. Lime addition is also required to maintain the process ph in the optimum ph. A saturated limewater is fed at a controlled rate to maintain a reactor target ph around After precipitation reaction is complete, the ettringite solids are separated from the feed water, filtered and thickened. In the SAVMIN Process (1), the ettringite solids are recovered by treating them with sulfuric acid, as shown in the following reaction: [3 CaO 3 CaSO 4 Al 2 O 3 (s) 31 H 2 O] + 3 H 2 SO 4 = 6 Ca SO Al(OH) 3 (s) + 37 H 2 O (Eq. 2) The feed and/or recycled Al(OH) 3 rate is controlled to maintain a certain ratio to the feed sulfate mass. If the feed sulfate concentration is stable (after pre-treatment), this only requires flow control. The reactor ph also requires control. The effluent from the ettringite separator is ph adjusted, typically using carbon dioxide (recarbonation). The re-carbonation process requires effective contact between the gas stream and water flow. If additional calcium (from ph control/ph adjustment) removal is needed, the recarbonation targets a ph of ~10, with subsequent precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), followed by removal of the calcium precipitate. If insufficient carbonate is formed to reduce the calcium present, soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 ) can be added. In this case, a second recarbonation would be performed to adjust the ph to a final typical value of 8.4 to 8.8. For aluminum recovery, sulfuric acid is dosed to achieve a target ph around 6.5, required for the decomposition of ettringite and precipitation of aluminum hydroxide in high yield. A high internal mixing recycle is essential to elutriate the calcium and sulfate from the recovered aluminum hydroxide solids. A small alum make-up (2-3%) is typically added during this recovery process. The excess gypsum is crystallized in a separate precipitation step, operated in a high solids reactor [typically 5-15 % total solids (TS)] to drive gypsum precipitation formation. 144

7 Figure 1. Ettringite Process with Al(OH) 3 Recovery Al ( OH )3 Feeder ph Controller 145 Feed Water Ettringite Reactor ( t = min) H 2 SO 4 Feeder ph Controller CaO Feeder Al(OH) 3 Clarifier CO 2 Gypsum Precipitation CaCO 3 Gypsum Clarifier Filter Press CO 2 CaCO3 Disposal / Market Supernatant Return to Feed Water Product Water Filtrate Returned to Feed Water WEFTEC.06 Al (OH ) 3 Recycle Filter Press Gypsum Disposal / Market Filter Returned to Feed Water

8 Stoichiometric chemical requirements for the MST water show that calcium is deficient for the production of ettringite (Reaction Eq. 1) but a high ph is also required, and so lime is used to raise the ph and so simultaneously provides; 1) calcium ion for the ettringite reaction and 2) hydroxide ion for the ph elevation. For MST water, chemical requirements for ettringite precipitation have been estimated for the various conditions of high, low, and average concentrations. Those concentration conditions are shown in Table 1. The costs for chemicals are shown in Table 3. Table 3. Raw Material Chemical Costs for Ettringite Process Chemical Costs Purity $US/ton Quicklime 95% $65.00 Al(OH) 3 (Gibbsite) 99% $ Sulfuric Acid 100% $75.00 The quantities of chemicals needed and their daily and annual costs for stoichiometric addition are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Chemicals Needed for Ettringite Process for MST Water Ca 2+ Lime (CaO) Al(OH) Ettringite 3 formed kg/day* Chemical Costs Chemical Costs $US/day $US/year High $771 $281,423 Low $178 $65,118 Average $341 $124,464 * Dry Weight If the aluminum trihydroxide [Al(OH) 3 ] is recovered, then sulfuric acid is required to dissolve the ettringite. The Al(OH) 3 is recycled, and the CaSO 4 formed is separated and disposed. The sulfuric acid and costs is shown in Table

9 Table 5. Sulfuric Acid Costs for Al(OH) 3 Recovery Sulfuric Acid needed Chemical Costs Chemical Costs $US/day $US/year High 6646 $ $90,965 Low 1555 $58.30 $21,278 Average 3008 $ $41,174 The amount of gypsum sludge produced in the recycle scheme, and cost for disposal of the gypsum sludge produced are shown in Table 6. Disposal costs are assumed at US$50 per ton (actual weight). For $US 25 per ton, the costs are shown in Table. Solids are assumed to be 50 wt% in all cases. Table 6. Gypsum Formed and Disposal Costs in Al(OH) 3 Recovery Sludge Formed Sludge Disposal $US/ton % Solids = 50% $50 CaSO 4 Formed Disposal Costs Disposal Costs lb/day d.w. lb/day TPD $US/day $US/year $ $336, $ $78, $ $152,370 If ettringite recovery is not practiced, then the process is simplified, but ettringite sludge must be disposed. The cost of ettringite sludge disposal needs to be compared with the cost of the continuously purchasing Al(OH) 3, the cost avoidance of sulfuric acid used in the regeneration of Al(OH) 3, and the cost of gypsum disposal. The costs for ettringite disposal are shown in Table 6. Table 6. Ettringite Formed and Disposal Costs in Al(OH) 3 Recovery Sludge Formed Sludge Disposal $US/ton % Solids = 50% $50 Ettringite Formed Disposal Costs Disposal Costs lb/day TPD $US/day $US/year High $1,397 $509,898 Low $327 $119,274 Average $632 $230,

10 If costs for disposal decrease to $US 25 per ton, then the solids disposal daily and annual costs for the gypsum in recovery and the ettringite for no recovery of Al(OH) 3 are (obviously) cut in half for all cases shown above. This is important, because the value of the chemical and disposal cost savings for the complexity of the additional recovery steps needs to be weighed. The no recovery case is shown in Figure 2. The cost savings, solely on a chemicals and disposal basis (not including additional capital, operations and maintenance for the recovery system, etc.,) can be seen in Table 7 for the $US 50/ton disposal cost case. It is seen that the savings for the average concentration cases are relatively small, and suggest that the economic benefits of the recovery step are minimal, and may not be positive, when compared to total costs of additional equipment, O&M, etc., and to the complexity of the operations, including safety and materials handling added with the recovery system. In addition, there may be an outlet for the ettringite as a soil amendment, and disposal costs may decrease (actually achieve beneficial use of the solids). The table shows savings for all concentration cases, but the number to focus on is for the average concentration condition. Table 7. Total Savings (Chemicals and Disposal) with Al(OH) 3 Recovery 20 L/sec and Sludge 50/ton Al(OH) 3 Cost Only Sulfuric Acid Chemical Costs Sludge Disposal $US50)/ton Total Savings No Recovery Recovery Ettringite Gypsum Recovery $/year $/year $/year $/year $/year High $206,069 $90,965 $509,898 $336,631 $288,371 Low $48,203 $21,278 $119,274 $78,744 $67,455 Average $93,273 $41,174 $230,796 $152,370 $130,526 The Al(OH) 3 recovery processing relative cost advantage is seen to further decrease with the $US25/ton disposal cost scenario, as shown in Table 8. Table 8. Total Savings (Chemicals and Disposal) with Al(OH) 3 Recovery 20 L/sec and Sludge 25/ton Al(OH) 3 Cost Only Sulfuric Acid Chemical Costs Sludge Disposal $US25)/ton Total Savings No Recovery Recovery Ettringite Gypsum Recovery $/year $/year $/year $/year $/year High $206,069 $90,965 $254,949 $168,316 $201,738 Low $48,203 $21,278 $59,637 $39,372 $47,190 Average $93,273 $41,174 $115,398 $76,185 $91,

11 Figure 2. Ettringite Process for Sulfate Ion Recovery without Al(OH) 3 Recycle Al( OH ) 3 Feeder 149 Feed Water Ettringite Reactor (t = minutes ) ph Controller Ettringite Clarifier Filtration Press Ettringite Disposal CO 2 Filter Returned to Feed Water CaCO 3 Clarifier Filtration Press CO 2 CaCO 3 Disposal/ Marketl Product Water Filtrate Returned to Feed Water WEFTEC.06

12 For the cases noted and the varying concentrations, the impact on the benefit of recycling is principally in the cost of disposal. The chemical costs are constant in the comparison of the two cases. For either higher solids concentrations in the disposed material or for lower disposal costs, the economic benefit of recycling diminishes. Again, the cost comparison is without consideration for capital cost recovery or for operational complexity added by the recovery process. It is also reported that complexes with other ionic species, e.g., chloride, nitrate, etc., may occur within the ettringite formation and, therefore, there may be reduction of TDS beyond that which results from the removal of sulfate. That premise would need testing and verification for MST waters, and the magnitude of any reduction of TDS for those other inorganic chemicals cannot be predicted. Given that Reaction Eq. 1 occurs at ambient conditions, just requires that CaO and Al(OH) 3 are added to the MST water, normal agitation, and since additional solids and water is acceptable with the copper concentrate as product cargo aboard the ships, another options arises in the case of ettringite. This alternative would be to add Al(OH) 3 (as gibbsite) and CaO to the copper sulfide concentrate slurry prior to injecting it to the pipeline at the Concentrator in at least the amounts calculated above. Hence any sulfate ion, and any sulfate ion formed in route, would form ettringite and in sufficient amount to reduce the SO 4 = ion concentration to < 50 ppm. The filtration operation in place at the port then would remove the sulfate from the water, and the so-produced ettringite would be disposed of via the copper sulfide concentrate stream. This arrangement removes the need to install separate facilities for sulfate removal, other than the CaO and Al(OH) 3 facilities at the Concentrator. For this technology variant to be viable, the pipeline slurry will need to behave similar to its current physical characteristics with respect to viscosity, settleability, and filterability. Hence these parameters need to be evaluated in pilot trial prior to implementation. Although lime is most likely already present on site at the concentrator, the availability and delivery cost of gibbsite needs to be determined. The low density and significant aspect ratio crystal nature of ettringite should provide good flow and filterability characteristics. In fact ettringite may provide filter aid type characteristics to the filtering operation. Electrolytic Salt Splitting The second highest ranked technology was electrochemical salt splitting (ESS), a variant of Electro-Deionization (EDI). ESS uses bipolar membranes to split water into H + and OH - free of counter ions and thereby does not consume chemical reagents, just electricity. In this case a simpler cell design is used than for EDI, in which the ion exchange (IX) resin beads are omitted from the MST feed water compartment of the cell, and the acid and base produced are not allowed to react and thereby neutralize each other, as is the case for EDI. In this manner dilute, but perhaps still useful acid and base solutions are produced, in the 5-15% range. Most importantly, this separation of sulfate ion from the cations during the concentration process avoids concentrating Ca 2+ in the presence of SO 4 =, and thereby avoids precipitating gypsum within the cell. If disposal is the desired fate of the dilute acid and base, then they can be blended external to the cell 150

13 under controlled conditions to produce pure gypsum. Producing all of these products may avoid having to dispose of wastes and help defray operating costs, although all of the materials are of low value. Sodium sulfate can be effectively split electrochemically into sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a three compartment cell (1) such as shown schematically in Figure 3. Figure 3. Electrolytic Salt Splitting A n o d e O 2 + H + H 2 O SO 4 2- Na + H 2 +OH - H 2 O C a t h o d e Na 2 SO 4 Sodium sulfate is passed through the central compartment; under the influence of the potential field, the sulfate is transported through the anion permeable membrane into the anolyte and sodium ions pass through the cation permeable membrane into the catholyte. The anode and cathode reactions generate proton and hydroxide respectively and hence the sulfuric acid and caustic soda accumulate in the anolyte and catholyte. One of the limitations of this approach is the concentrations of acid and base that can be efficiently formed in the cell. As the acid concentration builds in the anolyte compartment, the current efficiency for the process drops markedly. This loss in current efficiency is primarily due to the back migration of protons from the anolyte compartment across the anion exchange membrane into the central compartment. This makes the ph in the central compartment acidic, thereby also reducing the current efficiency for production of sodium hydroxide. The back migration of protons across anion exchange membranes is well known and several manufacturers have developed membranes specifically designed to minimize this leakage. One such membrane is Tokuyama Neosepta ACM. However, even with these specialty membranes the ph in the central compartment still drops. 151

14 One of the consequences of having a low ph in the central compartment is a limitation on the type of cation exchange membrane that can be used. High performance, bilayer cation exchange membranes contain perfluorinated polymers with sulfonic acid exchange groups on one side and carboxylic acid exchange groups on the other side. The weak acid exchange material limits the back migration of hydroxide ions during the production of caustic allowing higher caustic concentrations (32% by weight) to be reached at good current efficiencies. However, to maintain conductivity in the membrane, the carboxylic acid functionality must not become protonated. Since these weak acid exchange groups have a pka of 2-3, the ph in the central compartment cannot be such that a significant portion of the charge is carried by protons. If the central compartment does become acidic, then membranes with strong acid exchange groups must be used. This limits the caustic concentration that can be achieved at good current efficiency to 15-20% by weight. TDS levels are reduced as all dissolved salts are removed. ESS appears to have good applicability to MST water purification, as the normal problem of slow removal rates due to slow diffusion at low concentrations (< 50 mg/l) of salts does not apply because the National Standards to be met are up to 500 mg/l TDS and sulfate < 250 mg/l. Water purification yield is the most important uncertainty with ESS. Another potential advantage of ESS is the simultaneous conversion of the salts to medium strength concentrated mineral acids and bases, rather than concentrated salts. This provides immediate product streams that the PMP Company could use captively, or which could be marketed locally. The formation of these products also prevents the formation of mineral scales, such as gypsum within the membranes or electrolytic cell. Therefore the mineral scale and solids precipitation problems of conventional membrane-based processes, such as RO, NF, and UF, do not occur with ESS. ESS processing is projected to yield MST product water in the ph range with TDS < 500 mg/l. Operations costs were estimated from literature values for power, reported to be on the order of between 1.39 KWH/kg to 2.8 KWH/kg, for generation of acids or bases. This translates to an order-of-magnitude annual cost of between US$ 50K 150K. Additional operating costs would include any pretreatment costs, pumping costs, disposal of concentrates (mixed acids and bases, which may have low-grade uses), and maintenance of the salt splitting system, e.g. membrane cleaning, etc. The other high-ranking technologies were membrane-based, but were not analyzed indepth because of lower water product yields, residuals handling and disposal issues. CONCLUSIONS Battelle recommended that the PMP Company consider evaluating Ettringite Precipitation and Electrochemical Salt Splitting for use in removing sulfate ion from MST waters. Both have good potential for removing sulfate and TDS to National Standards. Ettringite precipitation is being considered by the PMP Company as the primary technology for bench and pilot testing. 152

15 REFERENCES Lorax Environmental. (2003) Treatment of Sulphate in Mine Effluents. INAP Johnson W., (1990). "Properties and Applications of a Novel Bipolar Membrane", Fourth Forum Proceedings, published by The Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. Pletcher D., Genders J.D., N Weinberg.L., Spiegel, E.F. (September, 1993) "Electrochemical Methods for the Production of Alkali Metal Hydroxides without the Co-production of Chlorine", US Patent 5,246,551. Lutin F., Hanada F., (1995) "Production of Organic Acids with Bipolar Technology", presented at Electrochemical Processing - A Clean Alternative, Toulouse, proceeding published by ICI C&P. 153

Wastewater Reuse. Typical treated wastewater is:

Wastewater Reuse. Typical treated wastewater is: Wastewater Reuse Most metal finishing industries have in-house wastewater treatment to economically dispose of the acids, alkali, oils, and dissolved metals in the rinse water and occasional tank solution

More information

CO2 applications. for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment

CO2 applications. for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment CO2 applications for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment Dr. Dr. Hermans Hermans 03.2013 11.2009 Carbon dioxide in water is -a natural food additive, non poisonous

More information

Environmental Technology March/April 1998

Environmental Technology March/April 1998 Treating Metal Finishing Wastewater Sultan I. Amer, Ph.D. AQUACHEM INC. Environmental Technology March/April 1998 Wastewater from metal finishing industries contains high concentrations of contaminants

More information

CORROSION CONTROL OF ELECTROLYZER, ANOLYTE TANK AND DECHLORINATION TOWER TANK OF A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT BY AN INNOVATIVE METHOD

CORROSION CONTROL OF ELECTROLYZER, ANOLYTE TANK AND DECHLORINATION TOWER TANK OF A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT BY AN INNOVATIVE METHOD CORROSION CONTROL OF ELECTROLYZER, ANOLYTE TANK AND DECHLORINATION TOWER TANK OF A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT BY AN INNOVATIVE METHOD Sazal Kumar Kundu* Global Heavy Chemicals Limited (GHCL), Dhaka, Bangladesh

More information

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0 Lime Softening Chemical precipitation is one of the more common methods used to soften water. Chemicals normally used are lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 ) and soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 ).

More information

Hardness ions also interfere with many chemical processes such as chemical compounding and aqueous cleaners.

Hardness ions also interfere with many chemical processes such as chemical compounding and aqueous cleaners. Water Softeners Industrial Water Purification (800) CAL-WATER By Dave Peairs, Cal Water, Technical Director Rev: 06/08/2004 Before any discussion of water softeners, we must first define what hard water

More information

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL The term leachate refers to liquids that migrate from the waste carrying dissolved or suspended contaminants. Leachate results from precipitation entering the landfill and

More information

TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES

TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES JOHN F. BOSSLER, SIEMENS Water Technologies Corp., Hoffman Estates, IL RONALD TRAVIS, SIEMENS Water Technologies

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness Water Softening for Removal 1 in Water High concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions in water cause hardness Generally, water containing more than 100 mg/l of hardness expressed as calcium

More information

IMPACT OF CHEMICALS ADDITION IN WATER/WASTEWATER TREATMENT ON TDS CONCENTRATION AND SLUDGE GENERATION Jurek Patoczka, PhD, PE Hatch Mott MacDonald 27 Bleeker Str., Millburn, NJ 07041 (973) 912 2541 jurek.patoczka@hatchmott.com

More information

LACR Method for Alkalinity and TOC Control

LACR Method for Alkalinity and TOC Control LACR Method for Alkalinity and TOC Control Marvin Gnagy, P.E., President PMG Consulting, Inc. OTCO Water Workshop March 5, 014 Agenda LACR Defined Applicability of LACR in Treatment Development of LACR

More information

Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s)

Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s) Water Softening (Precipitation Softening) (3 rd DC 178; 4 th DC 235) 1. Introduction Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s) Complexation

More information

Purification and reuse of mine waters. EuroMining, May 21 st, 2015 Summarized by Hanna Kyllönen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Purification and reuse of mine waters. EuroMining, May 21 st, 2015 Summarized by Hanna Kyllönen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Purification and reuse of mine waters EuroMining, May 21 st, 2015 Summarized by Hanna Kyllönen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland PuMi Purification and monitoring concept for mining water treatment

More information

DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL"

DEIONIZATION IN A NUT SHELL Deionized Water (DI) DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL" City water is passed through dark amber colored, caviar sized plastic beads called cation ion exchange resin. The cation resin is in the hydrogen form

More information

A NOVEL ION-EXCHANGE/ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMMONIA IN WASTEWATER

A NOVEL ION-EXCHANGE/ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMMONIA IN WASTEWATER A NOVEL ION-EXCHANGE/ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMMONIA IN WASTEWATER ABSTRACT Leonard P. Seed, M.Sc., P.Eng., Enpar Technologies Inc. * Daren D. Yetman, A.Sc.T., Enpar Technologies

More information

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four No Brain Too Small Level 1 Science 2015 90944 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of acids and bases Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

Water and Wastewater Engineering Dr. Ligy Philip Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 12 Softening

Water and Wastewater Engineering Dr. Ligy Philip Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 12 Softening Water and Wastewater Engineering Dr. Ligy Philip Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture 12 Softening Last class we were discussing about coagulation and flocculation

More information

Lime-Soda Softening CE 370. Definition. Lime-Soda Softening: What is Hardness: is a process used in water treatment to remove Hardness from water.

Lime-Soda Softening CE 370. Definition. Lime-Soda Softening: What is Hardness: is a process used in water treatment to remove Hardness from water. CE 370 Lime-Soda Softening Definition Lime-Soda Softening: is a process used in water treatment to remove Hardness from water. What is Hardness: Hardness of water is a measure of its capacity to precipitate

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF REGENERATION SOLUTIONS FROM ION- EXCHANGE TREATMENT OF WATER WITH PRODUCTION OF ACIDS AND ALKALIS

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF REGENERATION SOLUTIONS FROM ION- EXCHANGE TREATMENT OF WATER WITH PRODUCTION OF ACIDS AND ALKALIS ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF REGENERATION SOLUTIONS FROM ION- EXCHANGE TREATMENT OF WATER WITH PRODUCTION OF ACIDS AND ALKALIS T. Shabliy, E. Goltvianytskaya, N. Gomelya Department of Ecology and Plant

More information

Ion Exchange Treatment for Metals and Nitrate in Mine Water

Ion Exchange Treatment for Metals and Nitrate in Mine Water Ion Exchange Treatment for Metals and Nitrate in Mine Water MSAWWA/MWEA Conference May 2006 Logan McInnis, P.E. Mark Reinsel, P.E., PhD Apex Engineering, PLLC Presentation Outline 1. Background 2. Design

More information

Ion Exchange for Industrial Applications

Ion Exchange for Industrial Applications Ion Exchange for Industrial Applications Ion Exchange Technologies Softening Ion exchange equipment the ion exchange process is an exchange of one ion for another, using a synthetic resin to perform the

More information

Removing Heavy Metals from Wastewater

Removing Heavy Metals from Wastewater Removing Heavy Metals from Wastewater Engineering Research Center Report David M. Ayres Allen P. Davis Paul M. Gietka August 1994 1 2 Removing Heavy Metals From Wastewater Introduction This manual provides

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Christopher Harto Argonne National Laboratory

Christopher Harto Argonne National Laboratory Managing Water from CCS Programs Christopher Harto Argonne National Laboratory John A. Veil - Argonne National Laboratory Andrea McNemar - DOE/NETL GWPC Energy and Water Sustainability Symposium Pittsburgh,

More information

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service Chemistry at Work How Chemistry is used in the Water Service WATER TREATMENT Everyday, more than 100 water treatment works in Northern Ireland put approximately 680 million litres of water into the supply

More information

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Why? Solubility of a salt depends upon the type of ions in the salt. Some salts are soluble in water and others are not. When two soluble salts are mixed together

More information

ACID MINE DRAINAGE: CASE STUDY OF ONE OF THE LARGEST COPPER MINE SITES IN THE WORLD Veronique Bonnelye SUEZ Environnement Australia, Sydney, NSW

ACID MINE DRAINAGE: CASE STUDY OF ONE OF THE LARGEST COPPER MINE SITES IN THE WORLD Veronique Bonnelye SUEZ Environnement Australia, Sydney, NSW ACID MINE DRAINAGE: CASE STUDY OF ONE OF THE LARGEST COPPER MINE SITES IN THE WORLD Veronique Bonnelye SUEZ Environnement Australia, Sydney, NSW ABSTRACT Mining operations are often a very intensive water

More information

A meaningful, cost-effective solution for polishing reverse osmosis permeate

A meaningful, cost-effective solution for polishing reverse osmosis permeate A meaningful, cost-effective solution for polishing reverse osmosis permeate Electrodeionization or EDI, is a continuous and chemicalfree process of removing ionized and ionizable species from the feed

More information

Using Magnesium Hydroxide

Using Magnesium Hydroxide Industrial Wastewater Neutralization Using Magnesium Hydroxide May 15, 2012 Steve Leykauf, Presenter Discussion Topics What is Magnesium Hydroxide? Technical Benefits of Magnesium Hydroxide Economic Benefits

More information

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material W. Wolfe 1, C.-M. Cheng 1, R. Baker 1, T. Butalia 1, J. Massey-Norton 2 1 The Ohio State University, 2 American Electric

More information

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014)

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) 1. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram of a Cl-35 atom. To achieve a stable arrangement, is this atom most likely to gain

More information

Single and Double Displacement Reactions

Single and Double Displacement Reactions Single and Double Displacement Reactions Objectives To perform and observe a variety of single and double displacement reactions To record observations in detail To identify the products formed in each

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Electroplating. Industry Description and Practices. Pollution Prevention and Control. Waste Characteristics

Electroplating. Industry Description and Practices. Pollution Prevention and Control. Waste Characteristics Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook WORLD BANK GROUP Effective July 1998 Electroplating Industry Description and Practices Electroplating involves the deposition of a thin protective layer (usually

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Waste Water Treatment for Fossil Fuelled Power Plant: Current Practice and Future Trends.

Waste Water Treatment for Fossil Fuelled Power Plant: Current Practice and Future Trends. Waste Water Treatment for Fossil Fuelled Power Plant: Current Practice and Future Trends. Richard Harries, Associate Consultant E.ON New Build & Technology Contents 1. Historical Overview. 2. Sources of

More information

_ENNTEC. TREATMENT SOlUTioNS. Industrial Water Supply

_ENNTEC. TREATMENT SOlUTioNS. Industrial Water Supply _ENNTEC WATER TREATMENT SOlUTioNS Industrial Water Supply Water is widely used in industry, whether it is encountered as raw water, process water or waste water. Very often make-up water must be treated

More information

Feasibility study of crystallization process for water softening in a pellet reactor

Feasibility study of crystallization process for water softening in a pellet reactor International A. H. Mahvi, Journal et al. of Environmental Science & Technology Feasibility study of crystallization... Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 1-4, Winter 5 Feasibility study of crystallization process for

More information

Corrosion in your distribution. the silent pipe killer. Clean and Safe Drinking Water Workshop Gander, NL Liza Ballantyne, P.Eng.

Corrosion in your distribution. the silent pipe killer. Clean and Safe Drinking Water Workshop Gander, NL Liza Ballantyne, P.Eng. Corrosion in your distribution NEWFOUNDLAND DESIGN ASSOCIATES LIMITED system the silent pipe killer Clean and Safe Drinking Water Workshop Gander, NL 2004 Liza Ballantyne, P.Eng. Overview of Presentation

More information

Coagulation and Flocculation

Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and Flocculation Groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water.

More information

Chlor-alkali industry. Chlorine. Caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide) +2NaOH + H 2. O Cl 2. Application. Application

Chlor-alkali industry. Chlorine. Caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide) +2NaOH + H 2. O Cl 2. Application. Application Chlor-alkali industry Until 1890 chlorine and sodium hydroxide produced only by chemical way chlorine : 4HCl + O 2 Cl 2 +2H 2 O (Deacon process) (HCl form Leblanc soda production) sodium hydroxide: Na

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

New technological root for regenerating demineralized water plants for safe environment

New technological root for regenerating demineralized water plants for safe environment International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Vol. 3(2), pp. 52-56, February 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ijwree ISSN 2141-6613 2011 Academic Journals

More information

ECOAZUR BLUEWATER WATER PURIFICATION PLANTS

ECOAZUR BLUEWATER WATER PURIFICATION PLANTS ECOAZUR BLUEWATER WATER PURIFICATION PLANTS CONTACT EcoAzur Calle 11a #492 x 60 y 62 Tel: +52-999-920-1972 Col. Residencial Pensiones Email: info@eco-azur.com C.P. 97217 Merida, Yucatan, Mexico Website:

More information

EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS. Learning Outcomes. Introduction. Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS. Learning Outcomes. Introduction. Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Examine different types of chemical reactions. 2) Express chemical equations in molecular,

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Module: 3 Lecture: 12

Module: 3 Lecture: 12 Module: 3 Lecture: 12 SODIUM HYDROXIDE INTRODUCTION Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda is a highly caustic metallic base which is a white solid available in pellets, flakes, granules,

More information

Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System

Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System 14 Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System TAKESHI TERAZAKI *1 HOZUMI OTOZAI *2 KOSUKE SHIGIISHI *2 HIDEO SUZUKI *3 HIROSHI NAKASHOJI *4 HIROYUKI KAWAMOTO *5 Recycling and the

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

EPB 223- Introduction to Iron and Manganese Removal

EPB 223- Introduction to Iron and Manganese Removal Note: As of October 1, 2012 The Water Security Agency and Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment share responsibility and authority for the administration of The Environmental Management and Protection Act,

More information

Ammonium Sulfate WFGD Technology OVERVIEW FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY INFORMATION July 2007

Ammonium Sulfate WFGD Technology OVERVIEW FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY INFORMATION July 2007 Ammonium Sulfate WFGD Technology OVERVIEW FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY INFORMATION July 007 Background Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET) has developed an effective ammonia scrubbing technology that removes

More information

ION EXCHANGE RESINS INTRODUCTION

ION EXCHANGE RESINS INTRODUCTION ION EXANGE RESINS Ion exchange resins are polymers that are capable of exchanging particular ions within the polymer with ions in a solution that is passed through them. This ability is also seen in various

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB exists as A + and B

More information

softeners and reverse osmosis

softeners and reverse osmosis Guidance Leaflet Reducing water use softeners and reverse osmosis Most water supplies contain dissolved solids (e.g. salts and other minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium). The type and level of

More information

Case Study: Excessive Sulfuric Acid Dosing Resulting in Irreversible Scale Formation. M. Malki, American Water Chemicals, Inc.

Case Study: Excessive Sulfuric Acid Dosing Resulting in Irreversible Scale Formation. M. Malki, American Water Chemicals, Inc. Case Study: Excessive Sulfuric Acid Dosing Resulting in Irreversible Scale Formation M. Malki, American Water Chemicals, Inc. Abstract Many consultants in the RO water treatment industry recommend sulfuric

More information

COOLING TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

COOLING TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE PAPER NO: CATEGORY: TP10-08 CLEANING SYSTEMS COOLING TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE COOLING TOWER WATER CONSERVATION JON J. COHEN HENRY A. BECKER H-O-H WATER TECHNOLOGY The studies and conclusions reported in this

More information

Similarities and Differences Galvanic and Electrolytic Cell:

Similarities and Differences Galvanic and Electrolytic Cell: Electrolytic Cells Voltaic cells are driven by a spontaneous chemical reaction that produces an electric current through an outside circuit. These cells are important because they are the basis for the

More information

Treatment of Sulphate in Mine Effluents

Treatment of Sulphate in Mine Effluents Treatment of Sulphate in Mine Effluents October 2003 ENVIRONMENTAL EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Executive Summary In the treatment of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) little attention has focused on the mitigation of dissolved

More information

Lewatit DW 630 will not significantly exchange any major water constituents (Cl -, HCO 3-

Lewatit DW 630 will not significantly exchange any major water constituents (Cl -, HCO 3- Lewatit DW 630 is a strongly basic macroporous anion exchange resin (type I) with beads of uniform size (monodisperse) based on polystyrene. The resin has been thouroughly washed with sulfuric acid and

More information

Drinking Water Chemistry

Drinking Water Chemistry Drinking Water Chemistry CTB3365x Introduction to water treatment Dr. ir. Doris van Halem Assistant Professor in Drinking Water This lecture Ion balance ph Carbonic acid equilibrium Saturation index (SI)

More information

Wastewater Reuse Considerations at a Petroleum Refinery

Wastewater Reuse Considerations at a Petroleum Refinery Virginia Water Environment Association 2012 Industrial Waste and Pretreatment Seminar Charlottesville, Virginia March 5, 2012 Wastewater Reuse Considerations at a Petroleum Refinery Presented by Lucy Pugh,

More information

Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts

Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts 1 Elements, compounds and molecular weights Table 1 lists some basic information regarding elements that an environmental chemist may encounter. Certain groupings of

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

More information

FE REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

FE REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FE REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Y. T. Wang Chemical Equilibrium and Stoichiometry 1. The chloride (C1 - ) concentration in a lake is found to be 10-2 M. The HgC1 2 (aq) concentration is found to be

More information

Operating Experience on the Treatment on FGD Scrubber Blowdown From Existing Generating Stations

Operating Experience on the Treatment on FGD Scrubber Blowdown From Existing Generating Stations Operating Experience on the Treatment on FGD Scrubber Blowdown From Existing Generating Stations Michael L. Pudvay Infilco Degremont, Richmond, VA IWC 05 XX Keywords: FGD wastewater treatment, Chemical

More information

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.) Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.) Chemical reactions occur when bonds (between the electrons of atoms) are formed or broken Chemical reactions involve l changes in the chemical composition of matter

More information

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133 A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater SBIR Topic N06 133 1 Normal Ave, CSAM RI 121A Montclair, NJ 07043 973 655 7385 SIROM TECHNOLOGY SIROM has developed a

More information

Single Process Arsenic and Antimony Removal Using Coagulation and Microfiltration

Single Process Arsenic and Antimony Removal Using Coagulation and Microfiltration Single Process Arsenic and Antimony Removal Using Coagulation and Microfiltration Presented by: Joe R. Tamburini, PE H.C. Liang, PhD Sam J. Billin, PE October 18, 2010 Tailings and Mine Waste 10 Outline

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 Ionic solutes are involved in three types of reactions in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions - sparingly soluble ionic substances produced when two

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

What is a chemical reaction?

What is a chemical reaction? Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations What is a chemical reaction? How do we know a chemical reaction occurs? Writing chemical equations Predicting chemical reactions Representing reactions in aqueous

More information

Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion

Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion Chapter 5 Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion Toxicity in AD A variety of inorganic and organic wastes can cause toxicity in anaerobic digesters. Many toxic wastes are removed in primary clarifiers

More information

Comparison of natural radioactivity removal methods for drinking water supplies: A review

Comparison of natural radioactivity removal methods for drinking water supplies: A review Comparison of natural radioactivity removal methods for drinking water supplies: A review E. Esmeray, M. E. Aydin Selcuk University Environmental Engineering Department, Konya Turkey e-mail: eesmeray@selcuk.edu.tr

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Mine Water Management & Treatment Mining & Metals

Mine Water Management & Treatment Mining & Metals Mine Water Management & Treatment Mining & Metals Water is a critical resource for mining projects. Its management and protection are of paramount importance to every mine. Amec Foster Wheeler offers industry-leading

More information

Valencia Water Company Water Treatment Plant. Crystalactor Zero Liquid Discharge Water Softening

Valencia Water Company Water Treatment Plant. Crystalactor Zero Liquid Discharge Water Softening Valencia Water Company Water Treatment Plant Crystalactor Zero Liquid Discharge Water Softening Valencia Water Company Population served 113,000 Water supply is 28.4 MGD EDF4 Total Hardness ~ 350 mg/l

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

Treatment and Biosolids Technologies. City of Morro Bay New Water Reclamation Facility

Treatment and Biosolids Technologies. City of Morro Bay New Water Reclamation Facility Treatment and Biosolids Technologies City of Morro Bay New Water Reclamation Facility Engineering Component of Siting Study Project engineering team will look at the following parameters related to each

More information

GROUP II ELEMENTS. Beryllium to Barium

GROUP II ELEMENTS. Beryllium to Barium 1 GROUP II ELEMENTS Beryllium to Barium Introduction Elements in Group I (alkali metals) and Group II (alkaline earths) are known as s-block elements because their valence (bonding) electrons are in s

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

Chemistry 132.E.1. Double Replacement Reactions

Chemistry 132.E.1. Double Replacement Reactions Chemistry 132.E.1. Double Replacement Reactions The most common reaction between two ionic substances dissolved in water is called a double replacement reaction. The general form of a double replacement

More information

GREEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR SULPHATE AND METAL REMOVAL IN MINING AND METALLURGICAL EFFLUENTS

GREEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR SULPHATE AND METAL REMOVAL IN MINING AND METALLURGICAL EFFLUENTS GREEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR SULPHATE AND METAL REMOVAL IN MINING AND METALLURGICAL EFFLUENTS Oscar Lopez, BioteQ Water (Chile) SpA, Chile David Sanguinetti, Michael Bratty and David Kratochvil BioteQ Environmental

More information

Provides state of the art Metal stabilization technology along with hazardous waste management solutions to environmental consulting and

Provides state of the art Metal stabilization technology along with hazardous waste management solutions to environmental consulting and Provides state of the art Metal stabilization technology along with hazardous waste management solutions to environmental consulting and environmental contracting clients globally. Services Soil Stabilization

More information

Tutorial 3 THE MOLE AND STOICHIOMETRY

Tutorial 3 THE MOLE AND STOICHIOMETRY T-21 Tutorial 3 THE MOLE AND STOICHIOMETRY A chemical equation shows the reactants (left side) and products (right side) in a chemical reaction. A balanced equation shows, in terms of moles, how much of

More information

WISCONSIN WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION

WISCONSIN WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION Integrity. People. Knowledge. WISCONSIN WASTEWATER OPERATORS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL CONFERENCE GREEN BAY Resources. MEETING LOW LEVEL PHOSPHORUS LIMITS BY CHEMICAL ADDITION WHAT IS PHOSPHORUS Atomic # 15 Electron

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS Allessandra Volta (1745-1827) invented the electric cell in 1800 A single cell is also called a voltaic cell, galvanic cell or electrochemical cell. Volta joined several cells together

More information

SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10

SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10 SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to observe double and single replacement reactions and to predict the activity of metals using experimental

More information

AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria

AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria AP*Chemistry Solubility Equilibria SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA (K sp, THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT) Saturated solutions of salts are another type of chemical equilibria. Remember those solubility rules? The fine print

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

The Treatment of Cupric Chloride Solution after the Etching Process by Ion Exchange Membrane Electrodialysis*

The Treatment of Cupric Chloride Solution after the Etching Process by Ion Exchange Membrane Electrodialysis* Desalination, 62 (1987) 251-257 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - Printed in The Netherlands The Treatment of Cupric Chloride Solution after the Etching Process by Ion Exchange Membrane Electrodialysis*

More information

Standard methods in water analysis

Standard methods in water analysis Branch General analytical laboratories; water analysis Keywords Water analysis; standard methods; ASTM; DIN; ISO; USP; EPA; SLMB; EN; SCA; titration; ion chromatography; voltammetry; branch 1; branch 2

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. Presented at 12 th IWA ASPAC Regional Conference and Exhibition, Water Beyond 2000, 5 9 November 2000, Chiangmai, THAILAND

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. Presented at 12 th IWA ASPAC Regional Conference and Exhibition, Water Beyond 2000, 5 9 November 2000, Chiangmai, THAILAND Presented at 12 th IWA ASPAC Regional Conference and Exhibition, Water Beyond 2000, 5 9 November 2000, Chiangmai, THAILAND Ratana Kanluen and Sultan I. Amer AQUACHEM INC. Canton, Michigan, U.S.A. ABSTRACT

More information

Metal Ion + EDTA Metal EDTA Complex

Metal Ion + EDTA Metal EDTA Complex Simplified Removal of Chelated Metals Sultan I. Amer, AQUACHEM INC. Metal Finishing, April 2004, Vol. 102 No. 4 Chelating agents are used in large quantities in industrial applications involving dissolved

More information

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB 35 IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB

More information