Space Physics and Aeronomy

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1 Space Physics and Aeronomy Lecture 1: Our little corner in the Universe + physics concepts Lecture 2: The Sun Lecture 3: The Magnetosphere and the Ionosphere Lecture 4: Space Weather and Aurora

2 Lecture 1: Our little corner in the Universe + physics concepts

3 Waves λ

4 Mechanical Waves

5 Electromagnetic Waves - Propagate through empty space - Time varying electric field produces magnetic field (Ampere's law) - Time varying magnetic field produces electric field (Faraday s law) - + λ C=3*10 8 m/s Energy Momentum

6 Oscillating dipole

7 Sources of EM radiation

8 Do colors exist? Λ=400 nm Λ=700 nm

9 Sources of visible light White

10 Visible light %

11 Doppler Effect

12 Doppler Effect Spread out waves Red-shifted Compressed waves: Blue-shifted

13 Doppler shift

14 Red shift of galaxies Edwin Hubble recognized the red shift as a Doppler effect. He concluded that galaxies were moving away at great speed. No galaxies were found heading toward Earth. Hubble deduced that the whole Universe must be expanding

15 History of the Universe

16 History of the Universe Kennedy Space Center, April 20, 2001 Cosmic microwave background The oldest light in the Universe White hot fog of H plasma The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

17 Atoms and molecules combined into gaseous nebulae. Gravity caused collapse of gaseous nebulae. Collapse resulted in increases in: Temperature. Density. Rate of rotation

18 Birth of the First Stars Mass in nebulae was not equally distributed. An initially more massive region began to pull in gas. This region gained mass and density. Mass compacted into a smaller region and began to rotate. Rotation rate increased, developing a disk shape. The central ball of the disk became hot enough to glow. A protostar is born.

19 Birth of the First Stars The protostar continued to grow, pulling in more mass and creating a denser core. Temperatures soared to 10 million degrees. At these temps, hydrogen nuclei fused to create helium. With the start of nuclear fusion, the protostar ignited.

20 Gigantic power generator Pressure H H H H T= C Energy He The energy is created deep inside the core.

21 H, He, Li, Be, B Nebulae from which first-generation stars formed consisted entirely of light elements. These first-generation stars exhausted H2 fuel rapidly. As the stars became H2-starved, they initiated: Collapse and heating. Catastrophic supernova.

22 Where do elements come from? Stellar nucleosynthesis Stars are element factories.

23 Where do elements come from? First-generation stars left a legacy of heavier elements. Second-generation stars repeated heavy element genesis. Succeeding generations contain more heavy elements. The sun may be a 3rd, 4th, or 5th-generation star. The mix of elements found on Earth include: Primordial gas from the Big Bang. The disgorged contents of exploded stars. We really ARE all made out of stardust!

24 Where do elements come from?

25 Solar System Formation The ball at the center grows dense and hot. Fusion reactions begin; the sun is born. Dust in the rings condenses into particles. Particles coalesce to form planetesimals.

26 Earth Formation Planetesimals clump into a lumpy protoplanet. The interior heats, softens, and forms a sphere. The interior differentiates into: A central iron-rich core, and A stony outer shell a mantle.

27 Formation of the Moon Mars-sized protoplanet collides with Earth. The planet and a part of Earth s mantle are disintegrated. Collision debris forms a ring around Earth. The debris coalesces and forms the moon. The moon has a composition similar to Earth s mantle.

28 The Atmosphere and Oceans The atmosphere develops from volcanic gases. When Earth becomes cool enough: Moisture condenses and accumulates. The oceans come into existence.

29 Dynamo S The motion of an electric charge produces a magnetic field Earth s magnetic field is like a giant dipole bar magnet The field weaken with distance N

30 Plasma It is a fourth fundamental state of mater Plasma is a gas of ionized atoms (or molecules). Plasma acts like a fluid and it is affected by electric and magnetic forces

31 Where can we see plasma on Earth? Neon Light Lightning Laboratory

32 Our little corner of the Universe The Sun makes up about 99.8% of all of the mass in our solar system You are here!

33 Our little corner of the Universe human activity (including air traffic) ~ 15 km Neutral Atmosphere ~ 100 km PLASMA

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