# Isomorphisms and Automorphisms

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1 Isomorphisms and Automorphisms

2 Definition As usual an isomorphism is defined as a map between objects that preserves structure, for general designs this means: Suppose (X,A) and (Y,B) are two designs. They are said to be isomorphic if there exists a bijection α: X Y such that if we apply α to the elements of any block of A we obtain a block of B and all blocks of B are obtained this way. Symbolically we can write this as: B = [ {α(x) x ϵ A} : A ϵ A ]. The bijection α is called an isomorphism.

3 Example We've seen two versions of a (7,4,2) symmetric design: k = 4: {3,5,6,7} {4,6,7,1} {5,7,1,2} {6,1,2,3} {7,2,3,4} {1,3,4,5} {2,4,5,6} Blocks: y = [1,2,3,4] {1,2} = [1,2,5,6] {1,3} = [1,3,6,7] {1,4} = [1,4,5,7] {2,3} = [2,3,5,7] {2,4} = [2,4,6,7] {3,4} = [3,4,5,6] α:= (2576) [1,2,3,4] {1,5,3,4} [1,2,5,6] {1,5,7,2} [1,3,6,7] {1,3,2,6} [1,4,5,7] {1,4,7,2} [2,3,5,7] {5,3,7,6} [2,4,6,7] {5,4,2,6} [3,4,5,6] {3,4,7,2}

4 Incidence Matrices Since the incidence matrix is equivalent to the design there should be a relationship between matrices of isomorphic designs. Theorem: Let M and N be the incidence matrices of two (v,b,r,k,λ)-bibd's. The two BIBD's are isomorphic if and only if there exist permutation matrices P and Q so that M = PNQ, where P is a vxv matrix and Q is a bxb matrix. Pf: PN is a rearrangement of the rows of N which corresponds to the action of the bijection on points. Post multiplying by Q gives a rearrangement of the columns but no columns are changed so the structure is preserved.

5 Automorphisms An automorphism of a design is an isomorphism of a design with itself. The set of all automorphisms of a design form a group called the Automorphism Group of the design, usually denoted by Aut(name of design). The automorphism group of a design is always a subgroup of the symmetric group on v letters where v is the number of points of the design. This is because automorphisms are permutations on the underlying set.

6 Group Actions A group G acting on a set X is a function f: X x G X such that a) f(z,1) = z z X, 1 is the identity of G, and b) f(za, b) = f(z,(ab)) a,b G, z X, where za = f(z,a). Notation: For a group action, f(x,g) will usually be denoted by (x)g or x g. Thus, condition b) in the definition is usually written as ((x)a)b = (x)ab or (x a ) b = x ab.

7 Group Actions Lemma: Given a group action, if x g = y then y g -1 = x. Examples: 1. Dihedral groups acting on the vertices of a regular polygon. 2. Same group acting on the diagonals and sides. 3. Cyclic group of order 4 acting on cells of a 3x3 grid.

8 Group Actions Given an action of G on X, the orbit of x = O x = {y X g G with x g = y}. Note that an orbit of an element of X is a subset of X. Given an action of G on X, the fixed point set of g = Fix g = {y X y g = y}. Note: the fixed point set of a group element is a subset of X also. Given an action of G on X, the stabilizer of x = Stab x = {g G x g = x}. The stabilizer of an element of X is a subset (actually subgroup) of G.

9 Group Actions Orbits of an action are equivalence classes. Of fundamental importance is the: Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem: If group G acts on the set X, then for any y ԑ X, G = Stab y O y. Pf: Let x be in the orbit O y. Suppose g,h ԑ G so that y g = x = y h. Then gh -1 ԑ Stab y and Stab y h = Stab y g. Thus, each element x in the orbit O y is associated with a unique coset of Stab y in G. Hence, O y = G:Stab y = G / Stab y and the result follows.

10 Group Actions Given a group G acting on set X: if X is an orbit (and so, the only one) then G is said to act transitively on X. this is the same as saying that for any ordered pair of elements of X, say (a,b), there is an element g of G so that b = a g. given elements a 1,...,a k and b 1,...,b k with the a i distinct and the b i distinct, if there always exists an element g of G so that b i =a i g for all i, then G acts k-transitively. a transitive action is 1-transitive or simply transitive.

11 The Not Burnside's Lemma (Orbit Counting Lemma) [Cauchy, Frobenius] a.k.a. Burnside's Lemma and sometimes Not Burnside's Lemma. Let group G act on set X. Let O be the set of orbits of this action. Then O = 1 Fix. G g g G Pf: In 3 steps. 1) For any x in X, Stab x O x = G. For each element y in O x, identify a group element g y so that x g y = y. Take any group element g. x g = y for some y in O x. Then x gg y-1 = x, so ggy -1 is in Stabx. So, g = (gg y -1 )gy. This expression is unique, giving the result.

12 The Not Burnside's Lemma (Orbit Counting Lemma) [Cauchy, Frobenius] a.k.a. Burnside's Lemma and sometimes Not Burnside's Lemma. Let group G act on set X. Let O be the set of orbits of this action. Then Pf: 2) O = 1 G Fix g. g G O = 1 G Stab x. x X By taking reciprocals in step 1 we have for each x 1 O x = 1 G Stab x. Now sum both sides over the elements of X and note that on the LHS if an element is in an orbit of size k, there will be k terms of 1/k, so the sum of terms corresponding to elements of an orbit is 1 and the LHS will be the number of orbits.

13 The Not Burnside's Lemma (Orbit Counting Lemma) [Cauchy, Frobenius] a.k.a. Burnside's Lemma and sometimes Not Burnside's Lemma. Let group G act on set X. Let O be the set of orbits of this action. Then Pf: 3) O = 1 G Fix g. g G Stab x = Fix g. x X g G Count the pairs (x,g) with x g = x.

14 Example Take the (7,3,1) design (PG(2,2)) given by {0,1,3}, {1,2,4}, {2,3,5}, {3,4,6}, {0,4,5}, {1,5,6}, {0,2,6}. α := ( ) is an automorphism of this design. The group <α> of order 7 is an automorphism group (a subgroup of the full automorphism group). All the points of the design lie in one orbit of <α>, so the automorphism group is transitive on the points. No block can be fixed by any non-identity element of <α>, so the stabilizer of any block is trivial. Thus the orbit of any block has size 7, and the automorphism group is also transitive on the blocks.

15 Example Let X consist of triples of points of PG(2,2). <α> also acts on this set and we have the following orbits: We will now write 012 for the triple {0,1,2}, etc. Orbit of 012: 012, 123, 234, 345, 456, 056, 016 Orbit of 014: 014, 125, 236, 034, 145, 256, 036 Orbit of 015: 015, 126, 023, 134, 245, 356, 046 Orbit of 024: 024, 135, 246, 035, 146, 025, 136 and since <α> acts transitively on the blocks we also have the additional orbit of blocks: Orbit of 013: 013, 124, 235, 346, 045, 156, 026

16 Example To summarize: There are 28 triangles and 7 collinear triples that make up all 35 triples of points of PG(2,2). Under <α> these triples form 5 orbits each of 7 points, one of which contains all the collinear triples. Consider the automorphism β := (26)(45). The subgroup <α,β> has only two orbits on triples, one orbit consists of all the collinear triples (since this is an automorphism group, the blocks must be preserved) and the other orbit is the union of all the remaining <α>-orbits (this now has size 28).

17 Orbits Let's use the not Burnside lemma. The group <α> acting on the set of 35 triples. The group has order 7, the identity element fixes all 35 triples. There are 5 orbits so, by the lemma, a non-identity element can fix no triple. The group <β> of order 2 has 5 orbits on the set of points (3 fixed points and 2 doubles). Acting on the blocks we see that the non-identity element fixes blocks 013, 026 and 045. Thus, the lemma gives ½(7+3) = 5 orbits on blocks. Acting on triples gives ½( y) orbits, where y is the number of fixed triangles of β, so y must be even and between 0 and 28. In fact y = 4 and there are 21 orbits (7 fixed triples and 14 orbits of size 2).

18 Orbits The full automorphism group of this design is called PGL(3,2) and it is a simple group of order 168. Since αβ = ( )(26)(45) = (016)(235) has order 3, the subgroup <α,β> must have an order divisible by 2, 3 and 7,i.e. divisible by 42. Since <α,β> divides 168, it must be either 42, 84 or 168. This subgroup acts transitively on the triangles, so by the orbit-stabilizer theorem 28 must divide its order, ruling out 42. If the subgroup had order 84, it would be a normal subgroup of the full group, but since the full group is simple this can not occur. Thus, <α,β> = 168 and is the full automorphism group.

19 Orbits The group <α,β> acts transitively on the points of the design. By the not Burnside lemma we have, 1 (168) = 7 + x where x is the number of fixed points of all the nonidentity elements of the group. But x = 161 and there are 161 elements not in <α> in the group. On average there would be 1 fixed point for each of these elements. However, β has 3 fixed points, so there must exist elements in the group not in <α> which also have no fixed points.

20 (16,6,2) Symmetric Designs We will describe these biplanes in terms of Hussain graphs and determine their automorphisms. A complete set of Hussain graphs has 10 graphs, any one of which is either a 6-cycle or two disjoint 3-cycles. Since a 3-cycle uniquely determines its complementary 3-cycle, there are exactly 10 such pairs. Given two pairs of disjoint 3-cycles, they must have exactly two (nonadjacent) edges in common.

21 Biplanes with k = 6 Hussain graphs: P 1 = 123, 456 P 2 = 124, 356 P 3 = 125, 346 P 4 = 126, 345 P 5 = 134, 256 P 6 = 135, 246 P 7 = 136, 245 P 8 = 145, 236 P 9 = 146, 235 P 10 = 156, 234 Biplane B (1) (8) (9) (10) 3 6 (2) (3) (7) (8) 1 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) 2 4 (2) (6) (7) (10) 4 5 (1) (4) (7) (8) 1 3 (1) (5) (6) (7) 2 5 (3) (5) (7) (9) 4 6 (1) (3) (6) (9) 1 4 (2) (5) (8) (9) 2 6 (4) (5) (6) (8) 5 6 (1) (2) (5) (10) 1 5 (3) (6) (8) (10) 3 4 (3) (4) (5) (10) 1 6 (4) (7) (9) (10) 3 5 (2) (4) (6) (9)

22 Isomorphic Biplanes Theorem: Two biplanes B 1 and B 2 are isomorphic if and only if for any block y of B 1 there is a block z of B 2 such that the complete set of Hussain graphs determined by y is isomorphic to the complete set of Hussain graphs determined by z. In particular, there is an automorphism of biplane B sending block y to block z if and only if the complete set of Hussain graphs determined by y is isomorphic to the complete set of Hussain graphs determined by z.

23 Aut(B 2 ) Letting y = {1,2,3,4,5,6}, any permutation stabilizing y will preserve the Hussain graphs of B 2 that are determined by y and so will be an automorphism of B 2. S 6 acts 2-transitively on y, so this subgroup of Aut(B 2 ) will act transitively on the blocks other than y. Aut(B 2 ) can either have the same orbit structure as this subgroup, or it can act transitively on the blocks. Pick any block other than y and construct the Hussain graphs based on this block. All of these 2-factors are the union of two 3-cycles and so is isomorphic to the set of Hussain graphs determined by y. Thus, there is an automorphism which maps y to this other block and so Aut(B 2 ) acts transitively on the blocks of B 2. Aut(B 2 ) = 16(6!) = 11,520.

24 Another Biplane : B3

25 Aut(B 3 ) α = (123456) β = (26)(35) γ = (23)(56) δ = (36) are all automorphisms of B 3 which stabilize y = Consider the 3-cycles in the Hussain graphs which contain the point 1: 125, 145, 134, 136, 124 and 146. Any automorphism which fixes 1 must stabilize this set of 3- cycles, but 4 appears in 4 of these and every other vertex appears only twice, so 4 must be fixed by these automorphisms as well. A similar argument shows that 2 and 5, as well as 3 and 6 must also be fixed together. Let G = Stab y in the group Aut(B 3 ). Since α ԑ G, G is transitive on the points of y.

26 Aut(B 3 ) We wish to calculate the order of G. The subgroup Stab 1 in G contains <b,c> which is itself transitive on the four points 2,3,5,6. So by the orbitstabilizer theorem (applied twice) we have G = Stab 1 Orbit 1 = Stab 1 6 = Stab 1,2 Orbit 1,2 6 = Stab 1,2 4 6 However, Stab 1,2 must also fix 4 and 5, so this subgroup is just <(36)> of order 2 and we have G = = 48. Now we turn to the action of Aut(B 3 ) on the blocks.

27 Aut(B 3 ) Verify the following statements: (a) G has two orbits of 2-sets on y, [{1,4}, {2,5}, {3,6}] and [all other pairs]. (b) G has three orbits of points of B 3 ; [points of y], [(i): G i is a hexagon], [(j): G j is a pair of 3-cycles]. (c) G has two orbits on blocks y. (d) the set of Hussain graphs for the block {1,4} is isomorphic to the displayed one on y. (e) the set of Hussain graphs for the block {1,2} is isomorphic to the displayed one on y. In conclusion, we have that every block has a set of Hussain graphs isomorphic to the displayed one on y.

28 Aut(B 3 ) Therefore Aut(B 3 ) is transitive on the blocks. The subgroup fixing a block ( G ) has three orbits of blocks of sizes 1, 3 and 12. (Verify!) Aut(B 3 ) = G orbit y = = 768. This shows that B 3 can not be isomorphic to B 2.

29 And yet another: B4

30 Aut(B 4 ) The following are automorphisms: α = (12)(45) β = (15)(24) γ = (36) δ = (245) This set of Hussain graphs is the only other possibility besides the two we have displayed (Verify! - difficult). This means that all the Hussain graphs obtained from different blocks must be the same, so Aut(B 4 )is transitive on the blocks. Let H be the subgoup of Aut(B 4 ) which fixes y. H is not transitive on the points of y, it has two orbits [3,6] and [1,2,4,5]. H = = 24 and Aut(B 4 ) = = 384

31 Aut(B 4 ) H has three orbits of 2-sets: [{3,6}], [{1,2}, {1,4}, {1,5}, {2,4}, {2,5}, {4,5}] and [{1,3}, {2,3}, {4,3}, {5,3}, {1,6}, {2,6}, {4,6}, {5,6}]. Thus, H has four orbits of blocks with sizes 1,1,6 and 8.

32 An Orbit Distribution Matrix Let G act on the set X. Let O 1,..., O n be the orbits of the k- subsets of X and P 1,...,P m are the orbits of the 2-subsets. We define an n x m matrix A k,2 in the following way: First, for each P j, choose a representative Y j (a 2-set). Then let a ij = the number of k-subsets in O i which contain Y j. This matrix is well-defined (independent of the choice of orbit representatives). If Y and Z are 2-sets in the same orbit, then there exists a g ԑ G with Z = Y g. For every k-set in a particular orbit which contains Y, the image under g will contain Z and still be in the same orbit. All k-sets containing Z in this orbit arise in this way. Thus, the number a ij does not depend on representative choice.

33 Kramer-Mesner Theorem Theorem: There exists a (v,k,λ)-bibd having G as a subgroup of its automorphism group if and only if there exists a solution z in non-negative integers to the matrix equation z A k,2 = λ j m. Pf: Suppose z = (z 1,...,z n ) is a solution. Take as blocks the multiset consisting of z i copies of each k-set in orbit O i for all i. Each pair of elements is in a unique P i and appears in λ blocks since that is the dot product of z with the i th column for any i. Let w be an element of X. Suppose that w appears in x blocks of the design. The element w appears in v-1 pairs and each pair is in λ blocks. On the other hand, w is paired with k-1 elements in each of x blocks, so x = λ(v-1)/(k-1) a constant (= r) independent of w, and design is a BIBD.

34 Kramer-Mesner Theorem Theorem: There exists a (v,k,λ)-bibd having G as a subgroup of its automorphism group if and only if there exists a solution z in non-negative integers to the matrix equation z A k,2 = λ j m. Pf: (cont) This BIBD admits G as an automorphism group since the blocks can be partitioned into orbits of G. Conversely, a BIBD admitting the automorphism G must have a multiset of orbits of G as blocks. Let z i be the number of times a block in the orbit O i occurs in the design. Then z = (z 1,..., z n ) is a solution of the equation. The design is simple iff z is a 0-1 vector.

35 Example Suppose we had reason to believe that a (7,4,2)- symmetric design would admit as an automorphism the permutation α = ( ), so G = <α> of order 7 would be an automorphism group. Using Kramer-Mesner we look at the 3 orbits of pairs P1 = {01, 12, 23, 34, 45, 56, 06} P2 = {02, 13, 24, 35, 46, 05, 16} P3 = {03, 14, 25, 36, 04, 15, 26} and the 5 orbits of 4-sets O1 = {0123, 1234, 2345, 3456, 0456, 0156, 0126} O2 = {0124, 1235, 2346, 0345, 1456, 0256, 0136} O3 = {0125, 1236, 0234, 1345, 2456, 0356, 0146} O4 = {0134, 1245, 2356, 0346, 0145, 1256, 0236} O5 = {0135, 1246, 0235, 1346, 0245, 1356, 0246}

36 We now have to solve: Example z 1, z 2, z 3, z 4, z = 2,2,2 By inspection, a solution is (0,1,0,0,0) and we get the design: 0124, 1235, 2346, 0345, 1456, 0256, 0136 another solution is (0,0,1,0,0) giving the design: 0125, 1236, 0234, 1345, 2456, 0356, 0146 These are isomorphic show it!

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