CONNECTING CARE AND CHALLENGE: TAPPING OUR HUMAN POTENTIAL INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: A REVIEW OF PROGRAMMING AND SERVICES IN NEW BRUNSWICK

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1 CONNECTING CARE AND CHALLENGE: TAPPING OUR HUMAN POTENTIAL INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: A REVIEW OF PROGRAMMING AND SERVICES IN NEW BRUNSWICK A. Wayne MacKay C.M., B.A., MA, B.Ed, LL.B. AWM Legal Consulting January

2 Table of Contents Preface...12 Acknowledgements...18 PHASE 1:...20 BACKGROUND RESEARCH...20 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...21 PART I:...22 INTRODUCTION...22 PART II:...25 LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS...25 THE LIGHTHOUSE OF EQUALITY: SIGNALS THROUGH THE FOG...25 Individual Accommodation: The Guiding Light...27 Systemic Design: Newer Reflections of the Light...28 Another Beacon: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child...29 Adding to the Fog?...30 Social Inclusion and Safe Schools...36 Managing Violence in Schools: How Big a Problem is it?...37 The Safe School Environment: a Legal Concept...38 Duty to Work Proactively for Equality, Inclusion and Safe Schools..38 Rights, Responsibilities & Relationships: the New 3 R s in Education...39 Premises of the New 3 R s in Education...39 The Student-Teacher Relationship: Position of Trust and Authority...41 Students Freedom of Expression and the Position of Trust and Authority...41 Managing Behaviour: Discipline, the New 3 R s, and Inclusive Education...45 The Intersection of the Criminal Law and the School Context...45 School Consequences for Criminal Behaviour...47 School Discipline for Non-Criminal Misbehaviour...48 Conclusion...51 PART III:...52 BEST PRACTICES IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION...52 Academic Literature Review...52 Systemic Features with Challenges for Inclusion...56 Health and Wellness...58 Curriculum and Educational Structure

3 Discipline and Safe Schools...64 Technology...65 PART IV:...68 REVIEW OF PRACTICES AND RESEARCH FROM OTHER JURISDICTIONS IN CANADA...68 Legislation...68 Inclusion / Special Education Reports Across the Country...71 Inclusive Education Programming for Pre-Service and In-Service Training of Personnel...78 School Funding...81 PART V:...88 THE NEW BRUNSWICK CONTEXT...88 Historical Outlook and Overview of Current Practices...88 Statistical Context...93 Other Provincial Partners Conclusion PHASE 2 : CONSULTATION REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PART I: INTRODUCTION PART II: EMERGENT THEMES ELEMENTS OF A POLICY STATEMENT ON INCLUSION FOR THE NEW BRUNSWICK GOVERNMENT General Acceptance of Inclusion as the Appropriate Model of Education Inclusion is Not Just a Placement Maximizing Student Potential and the Need to be Student Centered The Importance of Belonging High Expectations in Meeting Student Needs and Behavioral Challenges The Importance of Leadership, Attitude and a Common Vision Links Between Inclusion, Equity and Equality Education s Goals and Purposes

4 WORKING DEFINITION OF EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT Problems with the Term Exceptional Defining Educational Delay Decision Made by the Superintendent in Consultation with Qualified Persons : Problems of Application The Definitional Escape Hatch: Inconsistent Application RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A NEW SERVICE DELIVERY MODEL TO REPLACE THE SUPPORT SERVICES TO EDUCATION AGREEMENT 123 Lack of Resources The Role of Teacher Assistants (TAs) in Inclusion Lack of Available Professional Support The Need to Work as an Educational Team: The Collaboration Imperative Lack of Adequate Training for Teaching Personnel and School Leadership Lack of Meaningful Communication Examples of Effective Strategies and Best Practices The Need for Greater Variety and Options for Curriculum and Courses Bullying and Violence: Behavior Problems in Schools French Immersion: Its Impact on Inclusion Support Services and Relationships with Partner Departments : The Gap in Practice Other Commonly Cited Challenges to More Effective Inclusion The Challenges of Rural Living The Unique Needs of Secondary Education Transition Planning Reactive rather than Proactive Practices Physical Accessibility The Paper Trail and Forms Services Follow Labels: Prioritizing Disabilities and Needs.142 Vision for a New System Atlantic Provinces Special Education Authority (APSEA) Voucher System STANDARDS/ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK Indicators of Successful Inclusion Evaluation Policy and Accountability for Decision Making Policy vs. Practice PROPOSED FUNDING MODEL PART III: COMPILATION OF SUBMITTED WRITTEN RECOMMENDATIONS

5 Association des Enseignantes et des enseignants francophones du N- B (AEFNB) Autism Society New Brunswick Canadian Parents for French New Brunswick Canadian Union of Public Employees (local 2745/1253) Inclusive Education: Exceptional Students: Our Members and the Work We Do Teacher Assistants School Intervention Workers Library Assistants Administrative Support Staff Bus Drivers Custodial Staff Job Evaluations standards and norms Top 4 challenges identified: Family Autism Centre for Education (FACE) Learning Disabilities Association of New Brunswick New Brunswick Association for Community Living New Brunswick Association of Psychologists and Psychometrists in the Schools New Brunswick Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists (NBASLPA) Recommendations with regard to Audiology/Audiologists Recommendations with regard to Speech-language pathology services: New Brunswick First Nations Education Initiative Committee New Brunswick Medical Society New Brunswick Teacher s Association Broad Recommendations: Phonic Ear Canada Premier s Council on the Status of Disabled Persons School Districts District Scolaire 01 (Dieppe) District Scolaire 5 (Restigouche, Baie des Chaleurs) School District 6 (Rothsay, Sussex) School District School District District Scolaire 11 (president Cyrille Sippley) District 10 Student Services Team Agente pédagogique en adaptation scolaire au district scolaire PHASE RECOMMENDATIONS

6 INTRODUCTION: CHILD CENTERED SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL CENTERED COMMUNITIES DELIVERABLE ELEMENTS OF A STATEMENT ON INCLUSION PREAMBLE TO THE EDUCATION ACT Recommendation 1: Preamble to the Education Act DEFINITION OF INCLUSION Recommendation 2: Definition of Inclusion CLASS COMPOSITION Recommendation 3: Class Composition COMMUNICATION Recommendation 4: Communication ENDOWED CHAIRS IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Recommendation 5: Endowed Chairs in Inclusive Education DELIVERABLE EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT Recommendation 6: Exceptional Student STATUTORY CHANGES TO SECTIONS 11 AND 12 OF THE EDUCATION ACT Recommendation 7: Statutory Changes to Sections 11 and 12 of the Education Act PLANNING PROCESS REGULATIONS Recommendation 8: Planning Process Regulations STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES Recommendation 9: Students with Disabilities REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION AND UNDUE HARDSHIP Recommendation 10: Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship DELIVERABLE HUMAN RESOURCES AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION LEADERSHIP FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Recommendation 11: Leadership for Inclusive Education OUTSIDE SERVICE PROFESSIONALS Recommendation 12: Outside Service Professionals KEY OUTSIDE SERVICE PROFESSIONALS COMMUNITY AUDIOLOGISTS Recommendation 13: Community Audiologists

7 CORE SKILLS, ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE THAT PROMOTE INCLUSION Recommendation 14: Core Skills, Attitudes and Knowledge that Promote Inclusion TEACHER S STATUTORY ROLE AND PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN TEACHERS Recommendation 15: Teacher s Statutory Role Recommendation 16: Public Confidence in Teachers SKILLS, ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHERS Recommendation 17: Skills, Attitudes and Knowledge for Teachers TRAINING VOCATIONAL TEACHERS Recommendation 18: Training Vocational Teachers IN-SERVICE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Recommendation 19: In-service Professional Development ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPALS Recommendation 20: Role and Professional Development of Principals ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCE TEACHERS Recommendation 21: Role and Professional Development of Resource Teachers THE ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS Recommendation 22: Role and Professional Development of Guidance Counselors THE ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHER ASSISTANTS Recommendation 23: The Role and Professional Development of Teacher Assistants (TAs) THE ROLE OF THE STUDENT ATTENDANT Recommendation 24: The Role of the Student Attendant THE ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARIANS AND LIBRARY ASSISTANTS Recommendation 25: The Role and Professional Development of Librarians and Library Assistants THE ROLE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CUSTODIANS AND BUS DRIVERS Recommendation 26: The Role and Professional Development of Custodians and Bus Drivers THE ROLE OF MEDICAL STAFF (NURSES) Recommendation 27: The Role of Medical Staff (Nurses) THE ROLE OF AUTISM SUPPORT WORKERS Recommendation 28: The Role of Autism Support Workers THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT WORKERS Recommendation 29: Behaviour Intervention Workers

8 DELIVERABLE INTEGRATED SERVICE DELIVERY INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT Recommendation 30: Premier s Interdepartmental Steering Committee on Integrated Service Delivery Recommendation 31: Student Record and Information System Recommendation 32: School Based Services Recommendation 33: Identifying and Managing Student Service Needs Recommendation 34: School Based Service Delivery Teams Recommendation 35: Service Delivery to Aboriginal Students DELIVERABLE EARLY INTERVENTION AND PRESCHOOL EARLY INTERVENTION AND PRESCHOOL Recommendation 36: Early Intervention and Preschool INCLUSIVE DAYCARE AND PRESCHOOL Recommendation 37: Inclusive Day Care and Preschool PRESCHOOL AND EARLY INTERVENTION FOR FIRST NATIONS Recommendation 38: Preschool and Early Intervention for First Nations DELIVERABLE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE DELIVERY INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT COMMUNICATING AND CONNECTING Recommendation 39: Communicating and Connecting VOCATIONAL OPTIONS Recommendation 40: Vocational Options THE IMPACT OF FRENCH IMMERSION Recommendation 41: The Impact of French Immersion APSEA AND EDUCATION IN NEW BRUNSWICK Recommendation 42: APSEA and Education in New Brunswick SIGN LANGUAGE IN SCHOOLS Recommendation 43: Sign Language in Schools PROVINCIAL LEARNING DISABILITIES STRATEGY Recommendation 44: Provincial Learning Disabilities Strategy PROVINCIAL ENRICHMENT STRATEGY Recommendation 45: Provincial Enrichment Strategy PROVINCIAL AUTISM STRATEGY Recommendation 46: Provincial Autism Strategy PROVINCIAL CONSULTANTS Recommendation 47: Provincial Consultants

9 INCLUSIVE CURRICULUM Recommendation 48: Inclusive Curriculum RESOURCE CENTERS Recommendation 49: Resource Centers POST-SECONDARY TRANSITIONS Recommendation 50: Post Secondary Transitions THE PARENTAL ROLE IN EDUCATION Recommendation 51: The Parental Role in Education FRANCOPHONE AND ANGLOPHONE COLLABORATION Recommendation 52: Francophone and Anglophone Collaboration DELIVERABLE SCHOOL FACILITIES AND TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL FACILITIES AND TRANSPORTATION Recommendation 53: School Facilities Recommendation 54: FM Systems in Schools Recommendation 55: School Transportation Recommendation 56: School Transportation Safety DELIVERABLE DISCIPLINE, SAFE SCHOOLS AND INCLUSION INTRODUCTION Recommendation 57: Protection for Teachers STUDENT DISCIPLINE Recommendation 58: Student Discipline DISCIPLINE AND DISABILITY Recommendation 59: Discipline and Disability Recommendation 60: Manifestation Hearings Recommendation 61: Workshop on Discipline and Disabilities DISCIPLINE AND ABORIGINAL / FIRST NATIONS STUDENTS Recommendation 62: Discipline and Aboriginal / First Nations Students DELIVERABLE ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK THE CHALLENGES OF ACCOUNTABILITY Recommendation 63: Consultative Process for an Accountability Framework PROVINCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY STRUCTURES Recommendation 64: Liaisons and Contacts with Saskatchewan.301 ACCOUNTABILITY AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT: POLICY IMPLEMENTATION

10 Recommendation 65: School Improvement Process PROVINCIAL EDUCATION PLANS, DISTRICT AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE REPORTS Recommendation 66: Provincial Education Plans Recommendation 67: District and School Performance Reports SCHOOL REVIEW PROCESS Recommendation 68: School Review Process TRACKING INDICATORS OF SUCCESS Recommendation 69: Tracking Indicators of Success EVALUATING SCHOOL PERSONNEL Recommendation 70: Evaluating School Personnel STUDENT EVALUATION Recommendation 71: Student Evaluation GRADUATION DIPLOMAS Recommendation 72: Graduation Diplomas ACCOUNTABILITY TO PARENTS AND STUDENTS Recommendation 73: Communication with Parents Recommendation 74: Safe School Environment PARENTAL CHOICE AND VOUCHERS Recommendation 75: Parental Choice and Vouchers FAIR AND ACCESSIBLE OPPRTUNITIES TO CHALLENGE DELIVERABLE MEDIATION, REVIEW AND APPEALS PROCESS PLACEMENT, PROGRAMMING AND SERVICES Recommendation 76: Placement, Programming and Services THE MEDIATION PROCESS Recommendation 77: The Mediation Process SELECTION AND TRAINING OF MEDIATORS Recommendation 78: Selection and Training of Mediators THE TIME LIMIT FOR FILING APPEAL Recommendation 79: Time Limit for Filing Appeal SEPARATE APPEAL PROCESS Recommendation 80: Separate Appeal Process APPEAL BOARD Recommendation 81: Appeal Board QUALIFICATIONS OF THE APPEAL BOARD Recommendation 82: Qualifications of the Appeal Board FAIR HEARING Recommendation 83: Fair Hearing SUPPORT FOR PARENTS Recommendation 84: Support for Parents JUDICIAL REVIEW Recommendation 85: Judicial Review USER S GUIDE

11 Recommendation 86: User s Guide DELIVERABLE FRAMEWORK FOR A FUNDING MODEL INCREASED LEVEL OF FUNDING Recommendation 87: Increased Level of Funding BROADER BASED FUNDING Recommendation 88: Broader Based Funding EQUALITY AND EQUITY IN FUNDING Recommendation 89: Equality and Equity in Funding FRAMEWORK FOR A FUNDING MODEL Recommendation 90: Framework for a Funding Model: A Hybrid Model CONCLUSION: ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS Recommendation 91: On-Going Consultation and Dialogue Recommendation 92: Implementation Leadership Recommendation 94: Increased Commitment of Government Resources Recommendation 95: Areas for Future Study APPENDICES

12 Preface High Expectations and Many Challenges 12

13 The challenges inherent in this broad ranging Review of inclusive education in New Brunswick are exceeded only by the Review s importance. New Brunswick has much to be proud of as a pioneer in inclusion and it has achieved impressive results in the face of many obstacles. The goals of the New Brunswick system are ambitious and the expectations high. It is a dual language system that respects both official language groups and encourages bilingualism through french immersion programs. It attempts to serve rural and urban populations with some degree of equality. It aspires, through the Quality Learning Agenda, to greatly improve its performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores, as administered by the Organization for Economic and Cultural Development (OECD). And last but by no means least, it wants to deliver high quality inclusive education for all New Brunswick students. This is a tall order made even taller by the small population base and the limited budget available in the province. There are many positive features in New Brunswick that also offer hope. The government has signaled through its Quality Learning Agenda and the commissioning of this Review, that it is committed to improving the education system in the province. Based on the extremely useful consultations described in detail in Phase II of this Review, many people care about the education of children and are committed to making the education system even better. These people include school administrators, teachers, students, parents and a wide range of citizens and community groups, who shared their thoughts and insights with us. There is a strong desire to do an even better job of delivering inclusive education. A willingness to contemplate change also emerged from this process, and this was clear in the consultations. Change of a significant nature can be a slow process. This was a point that was emphasized by a recent visit to Finland in October, 2005 to examine their education system, which achieved the highest international results on the most recent PISA scores. The process of significant change in Finland occurred over more than a decade, but the first steps towards change were taken immediately. There is a widespread acceptance of the concept of inclusion in New Brunswick, but much less consensus as to how it can be most effectively delivered in New Brunswick schools. It is some of these aspects of the educational delivery that need to be changed to make the reality close to the ideal. A continuance of the status quo is not an acceptable response. It should also be stated at the outset that integration of every child into a mainstream classroom is not a panacea. The benefits of inclusion in making children belong and advancing their social skills are relatively clear. The promotion of tolerance for diversity and the acceptance of difference are important results of inclusion. The academic benefits of integration for some children are not as clear. There is a growing diversity of learners and it is clear that one size does not fit all. The benefits of full-time integration in the regular classroom for medically fragile and multiply disabled children must be seriously 13

14 considered. There may also be occasions where it will be in the best interests of both the exceptional child and the rest of the class, to engage in a carefully controlled pull out of the regular class. Of course, the child who is removed must be provided with a positive learning alternative and returned to the classroom, when it can be feasibly arranged. Flexibility, not dogma, should prevail in the implementation of inclusion in New Brunswick. While it would be an over statement to say that the New Brunswick education system is in a state of crisis, it would be fair to conclude that it is under considerable stress and at an important turning point. This stress is reflected in the high anxiety of many teachers about what some consider unrealistically high expectations on teachers to perform well, with limited resources and support. It is also a time when parents are concerned about the education of their children, and are increasingly expressing their concerns to teachers and administrators on the front lines of education. On a Canada wide level, there has been a concerning tendency for parents to step across the line between spirited advocacy and harassment of teachers. This is no more prevalent in New Brunswick than anywhere else, and most parents are reasonable advocates for their children. There are, however some parents who do cross the line. The results of these challenges are teacher burn-out, frustration and a high turn-over rate, which provide some cause for concern. Teachers are part of New Brunswick s human potential and this potential should be maximized. Inclusion of the diversity of learners in a regular classroom is a significant and growing challenge. It is a challenge that is worth meeting, but one that also requires some flexibility of implementation. The schools cannot do what they need to do on their own but must be part of a broader coalition of public and private partners committed to providing children with the best opportunity to receive a high quality education. This message emerged loud and clear from the consultations held during this Review. Many feel that the expectations of the New Brunswick education system are too high and they question how inclusive schools can be in a society which is not itself fully inclusive. The challenges can be met, but only by ensuring that there are adequate resources and that they are efficiently and effectively deployed. One of the major challenges is to provide inclusive education in a way that benefits all the students in the classes. Inclusion is not just about students with disabilities or exceptionalities. It is an attitude and an approach that encourages all students to belong, and an approach that nurtures the self esteem of all students. It is about taking account of diversity in all its forms, and promoting genuine equality of opportunity for all students in New Brunswick. As is indicated in the legal context part of the Phase I background report which follows, this equality imperative is one that is based upon the recognition and accommodation of differences be they linguistic, cultural, of Aboriginal origin, geographic origin, socio-economic status or levels of ability, to name but a few. Inclusion, defined broadly, not only supports the equality mandates of the Charter of Rights and the 14

15 provincial human rights code, but also will lay a solid foundation for the New Brunswick of tomorrow, which hopes to attract a growing number of immigrants to offset its declining populations in all but the Aboriginal sector. Canada is becoming an increasingly multi-cultural society and the accommodation of the diversity of our immigrant population is a growing issue. For reasons of declining population as well as the richness that a more diverse population brings, New Brunswick wants to share in this immigration growth. An inclusive education system that truly takes account of difference in an effective way will be a major attraction for would-be immigrants to New Brunswick. A growth in this sector will raise issues of English as a Second Language (ESL) programs, which has already become a major issue in urban centers such as Toronto and Vancouver. Indeed, this was one aspect of the class size and class composition issues that were at the heart of the two week illegal strike of British Columbia teachers in October, This high profile strike and the challenges facing schools in respect to special education and diversity in all its forms, emphasize the timeliness of this Review. One of the lessons drawn from the visit to Finland in October, 2005 is that their education system is focused on people, and students in particular, rather than upon systems or elaborate theories. Finland also firmly believes that high standards and results can be married with care for the well being of students. Indeed as one commentator at the October 10, 2005 PISA Conference in Helsinki put it: (t)he well-being of students is the soil from which good education grows. Finland appears to operate an effective integrated services model that combines both care and academic challenge. Another interesting observation is that Finland seems to focus its resources on the weakest students, thereby raising their achievement scores at the lowest levels. This is crucial to success. Now the Finnish analogy only goes so far, as Finland is a much more homogeneous society than New Brunswick with only about two percent of their population being immigrants. However, it should be noted that the immigrant population of New Brunswick is only about three percent and it too could be described as fairly homogenous. There is, however, a greater consensus at the political levels in Finland about both the goals and modes of delivering education. In respect to handling diversity and more heterogeneous students, Finland may have lessons to learn from New Brunswick. In terms of inclusion theory and practice, Finland lags far behind New Brunswick. However, both jurisdictions agree that care for the more academically challenged students goes hand in hand with high standards and challenges for all the students. A school system should never apologize for setting high standards for all the students under its care. In that respect, the 2002 Report by Elana Scraba, Schools Teach Parents and Communities Support Children Learn Everyone Benefits, may have been wrong in at least one respect. The kindness and caring that she observed in the New Brunswick school system is consistent with high standards of achievement 15

16 and challenge and they are not antithetical to each other. Care and challenge can and must be connected. The trick is to find out how to do it. New Brunswick is a small province with a small population base, and this can facilitate the speed with which changes can be made. It should also facilitate the process of communication and connection that is vital to reaching a political consensus on important matters such as education. While this should be true, much was said during the consultations about break downs in communications at all levels. One of the unanimous views that emerged from the consultations was that the process of dialogue and debate about these important issues was very important and should be continued. Through this dialogue and communication the many stakeholders - students, parents, administrators, teachers, politicians and community groups - can be connected and work towards a shared consensus about the vision and direction of education in New Brunswick. The importance of this point is emphasized by using connection as the first of the three C s of education the others being care and challenge. Care and challenge should be connected, as stated earlier. Another aspect of New Brunswick s small population base is that it must make the most of the human resources that it has. People should never be regarded as disposable even in a large population, but it is certainly true in a small place, such as New Brunswick. All the children of New Brunswick have the potential to contribute to the society rather than detract from it. The challenge is to fully tap that human potential. This is true for all members of society but particularly so for the students. The real potential of a particular child is not really known until later in life and that is one reason that it is wise to avoid streaming based upon selffulfilling prophecies about what a child can do. The theme of tapping human potential also applies to the educators, parents and general citizenry which can be vital partners in building a better education system for New Brunswick. Some of the changes needed in New Brunswick will require a re-deployment of existing resources, both financial and human. One example of this would be the adoption of a truly integrated service delivery model which operates on the basis of serving children at all levels in the schools. This also returns to a concept that many New Bunswickers would embrace: the old concept that the school is the center of the community. In a time of changing family structures, institutions such as schools have to fill some of the void. However, schools cannot do it alone and interdepartmental cooperation and team work is vital and legally mandated in terms of delivering a quality education for all students. Parents also have an important role to play. Other changes will involve the investment of money to provide the resources and supports needed to achieve the demanding goals set for New Brunswick education. This money is an investment in the future of New Brunswick and will pay dividends in the longer term by tapping all of New Brunswick s human potential. Early intervention and delivering resources to meet the diverse needs 16

17 of the province s students is vital to an improved delivery of an inclusive and quality education for all. It is a significant challenge but one that New Brunswick cannot afford to ignore. It is the best investment in a prosperous future for the people of New Brunswick. 17

18 Acknowledgements The author would like to take the opportunity to thank the team of people who have contributed to this Review process and report. Without their support and assistance both the Review and this report would be less valuable and coherent. Janet Burt-Gerrans, my researcher and administrative assistant, was a vital and valuable component of this Review. She was a major organizational support to me in this daunting task. Her insights, hard work, organizing skills and bilingual abilities added much to this Review. She was not only a major research support, but actively engaged in drafting and preparing parts of the background report and the summary of the consultation themes. She compiled the impressive summary of consultations in Appendix M and was the main architect of the literature review in Appendix E. She also assisted with the compilation of the recommendations but the writing and responsibility for them were mine alone. Her continued good humour and dedication were much appreciated. I could not have completed this Review within this time frame without the able assistance and first class support of my colleague, Janet Burt-Gerrans. She is a dedicated and outstanding project manager. This Review also sub-contracted tasks and sub-areas to a variety of others. All of the people who have worked on specific tasks or aspects of the Review have contributed in significant ways. Pierre Dumas, a retired Department of Education employee, contributed his insight, research, and assistance in a variety of ways including providing a quality check on translation into French. In particular, Monsieur Dumas significantly assisted the Review in meeting the imperatives of the dual language system in New Brunswick. He also brought his extensive knowledge and insights about how the school system in New Brunswick works. Monsieur Dumas produced the very useful work in Appendices G and H. Dr. Michael Fox of Mount Allison University completed A Review of Inclusive Education Programming for Pre-Service Teachers, Teaching Assistants and Student Services Administrators included as Appendix I to this report. Dr. Fox provided creative ideas for improving the professional development of teachers and staff. Annette Roy, a retired educator, provided facilitation services at all of our francophone consultation sessions. Madam Roy s insight and tremendous abilities were much appreciated contributions to our meetings. The translation services were also first class and I thank them for assisting me in tapping into the richness of the francophone education sector. Pierre Dumas, Annette Roy and Janet Burt-Gerrans were also very helpful to me in this regard. 18

19 Dwain MacLean, a retired teacher, provided facilitation services at some of our larger anglophone consultation sessions. Mr. MacLean s dedication and sensitivity were much appreciated by the participants in our sessions and by both Janet and me. Later in the Review process Cathy Thorburn, a recently retired supervisor in the New Brunswick public school system, did some very useful research for me on integrated service delivery and the fruits of her labours appear in Appendix R. Accountants with the firm of Grant Thornton, and in particular Melanie Pond, did some work on the financial aspects of the funding model in New Brunswick and some selected comparisons. This work was vital to the recommendations on the proposed funding model for New Brunswick. Some of this work appears in Appendix S. Dalhousie law student Sean MacDonald (to graduate in 2007), completed research and analysis of education statutes across Canada and appeal process regulations in selected provinces. Some of the results of his research appear in Appendix F. Dalhousie political science student Candace Salmon, a New Brunswick expatriate from Woodstock supported the consultation process by assisting with bookings and communication on a part time basis. Her bilingualism and organizational skills were very helpful. JoAnn Martell, my spouse and moral support throughout this Review, brought her proof reading and typing skills to the final version of the recommendations section of this report, and her skill and patience were much appreciated. Last but not least, I would like to thank the many officials and staff at the New Brunswick Department of Education who were co-operative and helpful throughout this Review process. A. Wayne MacKay AWM Legal Consulting Ltd. 19

20 PHASE 1: BACKGROUND RESEARCH 20

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