History of the Atomic Model. History of the Atomic Model John Dalton (Late 1700 s) History of the Atomic Model Henri Bacquerel (1896)

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1 hapter 4 Atoms and Elements 1 Basic hemistry 4.3 The Atom Democritus (400 B..) Believed that matter was composed of invisible particles of matter he called atoms. Antoine Lavoisier (1700 s) Law of onservation of Mass Matter is not created or destroyed. Joseph Proust (1700 s) Law of constant composition compounds are composed of atoms in definite ratios. John Dalton (Late 1700 s) First atomic theory explaining chemical reactions Henri Bacquerel (1896) While studying the effect of x-rays on photographic film, he discovered some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off very penetrating rays. J.J. Thomson (1897) Discovered the electron using cathode ray tubes. Proposed the Electron loud model, or more commonly called the Plum Pudding model Thomsen s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom J.J.Thomsen discovered that cathode rays were streams of small negatively charged particles called electrons proposed the plum pudding model of an atom in which protons and electrons were distributed throughout the atom 5 Basic hemistry Marie urie (1898) Studied uranium and thorium and called their spontaneous decay process "radioactivity, leading Rutherford to discover the alpha particle. Hantaro Nagaok (1903) Postulated a "Saturnian" model of the atom with flat rings of electrons revolving around a positively charged particle. Robert Millikan (1909) Found the charge and mass of the electron in his famous oil-can experiment. 1

2 Milikan Oil Drop Experiment (1909) Using voltage and change in the rate of fall of charged oil drops, he was able to determine the charge on each drop. From Thompson s charge to mass ratio, Milikan determined the charge and mass of an electron. Ernest Rutherford (1911) Discovered the nucleus in his famous gold foil experiment. Data from his experiments led Rutherford to propose a planetary model in which a cloud of electrons surrounded a small, compact nucleus of positive charge. Only such a concentration of charge could produce the electric field strong enough to cause the heavy deflection of alpha particles observed. Particles of Radioactivity Three types of radiation were discovered by Ernest Rutherford: particles particles rays Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment (1911) Ernest Rutherford shot particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and observed the pattern of scatter of the particles. Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment (1911) Since some particles were deflected at large angles, Thompson s model could not be correct. James hadwick (1932) Further developed the atomic model by theorizing that alpha and beta radiation results from the decomposition of a neutral particle found in the nucleus, the neutron H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4 2

3 Subatomic Particles Atoms contains subatomic particles: protons have a positive (+) charge electrons have a negative (-) charge like charges repel and unlike charges attract neutrons are neutral Structure of the Atom An atom consists of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons of electrons in the large empty space around the nucleus Like charges repel, and unlike charges attract. In an atom, the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus, whereas the electrons are contained in the large space outside the nucleus. 13 Basic hemistry 14 Basic hemistry Atomic Mass Scale Particles in the Atom On the atomic mass scale for subatomic particles, 1 atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom a proton has a mass of amu a neutron has a mass of about amu an electron has a very small mass of amu 15 Basic hemistry 16 Basic hemistry hapter 4 Atoms and Elements 4.4 Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic Number The atomic number is specific for each element is the same for all atoms of an element is equal to the number of protons in an atom appears above the symbol of an element 32 S, 33 S, 34 S, 36 S Atomic Number Symbol 11 Na 17 Basic hemistry 18 Basic hemistry 3

4 Atomic Numbers and Protons Examples: Hydrogen has atomic number 1, every H atom has one proton. arbon has atomic number 6, every atom has six protons. opper has atomic number 29, every u atom has 29 protons. Gold has atomic number 79, every Au atom has 79 protons. State the number of protons in each atom. A. A nitrogen atom 1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons B. A sulfur atom 1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protons. A barium atom 1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protons 19 Basic hemistry 20 Basic hemistry State the number of protons in each atom. A. A nitrogen atom 2) atomic number 7; 7 protons B. A sulfur atom 2) atomic number 16; 16 protons. A barium atom, 3) atomic number 56; 56 protons Electrons in an Atom An atom of any element is electrically neutral; the net charge of an atom is zero the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons Example: An atom of aluminum Group 3A (13) has 13 protons and 13 electrons. It has a net charge of zero. 13 protons (13 +) + 13 electrons (13 -) = 0 21 Basic hemistry 22 Basic hemistry Mass Number The mass number represents the number of particles in the nucleus is equal to the Number of protons + Number of neutrons An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. A. How many protons are in this zinc atom? 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65 B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom? 1) 30 2) 35 3) 65. What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? 1) 37 2) 65 3) Basic hemistry 24 Basic hemistry 4

5 An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. A. How many protons are in this zinc atom? 1) 30 (atomic number 30) B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom? 2) 35 (65 30 = 35). What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons? 3) 67 ( = 67) An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. A. Its atomic number is 1) 14 2) 16 3) 34 B. Its mass number is 1) 14 2) 16 3) 34. The element is 1) Si 2) a 3) Se 25 Basic hemistry 26 Basic hemistry An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. A. Its atomic number is 1) 14 hapter 4 Atoms and Elements 4.5 Isotopes and Atomic Mass B. Its mass number is 3) 34 ( = 34). The element is 1) Si (Atomic number 14) 27 Basic hemistry 28 Basic hemistry Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons Nuclear Symbol A nuclear symbol represents a particular atom of an element gives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left corner Example: An atom of magnesium with an atomic number of 12 and a mass number of 24 has the following atomic symbol: 29 Basic hemistry 30 Basic hemistry 5

6 Information from Nuclear Symbols The nuclear symbol indicates the number of protons (p + ), neutrons, (n), and electrons (e - ) in a particular atom. 16 O 31 P 65 Zn p + 15 p + 30 p + 8 n 16 n 35 n 8 e - 15 e - 30 e - Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12, 13, and 14. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following protons neutrons electrons 31 Basic hemistry 32 Basic hemistry Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12, 13, and 14. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following protons 6 p + 6 p + 6 p + neutrons 6 n 7 n 8 n electrons 6 e - 6 e - 6 e - Write the nuclear symbols for atoms with the following subatomic particles: A. 8 p +, 8 n, 8 e - B. 17 p +, 20 n, 17e p +, 60 n, 47 e - 33 Basic hemistry 34 Basic hemistry Write the nuclear symbols for atoms with the following subatomic particles: A. 8 p +, 8 n, 8 e O B. 17p +, 20 n, 17e - 37 l p +, 60 n, 47 e Ag Which of the following pairs are isotopes of the same element? 2. In which of the following pairs do both atoms have 8 neutrons? A B Basic hemistry 36 Basic hemistry 6

7 1. B Both nuclear symbols represent isotopes of carbon with six protons each, but one has 6 neutrons and the other has The atom of nitrogen (7) and the atom of oxygen (8) each have 8 neutrons. Atomic Mass The atomic mass of an element is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table gives the mass of an average atom of each element compared to 12 is not the same as the mass number 11 Na Basic hemistry 38 Basic hemistry Isotopes of Magnesium In naturally occurring magnesium, there are three isotopes. Examples of Isotopes and Their Atomic Masses Most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element. 39 Basic hemistry 40 Basic hemistry alculating Atomic Mass The calculation for atomic mass requires the percent(%) abundance of each isotope atomic mass of each isotope of that element sum of the weighted averages Atomic Mass of Magnesium The atomic mass of Mg is due to all the Mg isotopes is a weighted average is not a whole number mass isotope(1) x (%) + mass isotope(2) x (%) Basic hemistry 42 Basic hemistry 7

8 alculating Atomic Mass Isotope Mass Abundance 24 Mg = amu x 78.70/100 = amu 25 Mg = amu x 10.13/100 = amu 26 Mg = amu x 11.17/100 = amu Atomic mass (average mass) Mg Mg = amu Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element: A. calcium B. aluminum. lead D. barium E. iron 43 Basic hemistry 44 Basic hemistry Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element: A. calcium amu B. aluminum amu. lead amu D. barium amu E. iron amu Atomic Mass for l The atomic mass of chlorine is the weighted average of two isotopes 35 l and 37 l. hlorine, with two naturally occurring isotopes, has an atomic mass of Basic hemistry 46 Basic hemistry alculating Atomic Mass for l 35 l has atomic mass (75.76%) and 37 has atomic mass (24.24%). Use the atomic mass and percent of each isotope to calculate the contribution of each isotope to the weighted average x = amu x = amu amu The sum is the weighted average or atomic mass of l amu 47 Basic hemistry 48 Basic hemistry Gallium is an element found in lasers used in compact disc players. In a sample of gallium, there is 60.11% of 69 Ga (atomic mass 68.93) atoms and 39.89% of 71 Ga (atomic mass 70.92) atoms. What is the atomic mass of gallium? 8

9 69 Ga amu x = amu (from 69 Ga) Ga amu x = amu (from 71 Ga) 100 Atomic mass Ga = amu 31 Ga Basic hemistry 9

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