1 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp , April 1997 Biochemistry A general purpose RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme (antisense catalytic DNA in vitro selection RNA cleavage) STEPHEN W. SANTORO AND GERALD F. JOYCE* Departments of Chemistry and Molecular Biology and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA Communicated by Leslie Orgel, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA, February 24, 1997 (received for review February 6, 1997) ABSTRACT An in vitro selection procedure was used to develop a DNA enzyme that can be made to cleave almost any targeted RNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic domain of 15 deoxynucleotides, flanked by two substrate-recognition domains of seven to eight deoxynucleotides each. The RNA substrate is bound through Watson Crick base pairing and is cleaved at a particular phosphodiester located between an unpaired purine and a paired pyrimidine residue. Despite its small size, the DNA enzyme has a catalytic efficiency (k cat K m ) of 10 9 M 1 min 1 under multiple turnover conditions, exceeding that of any other known nucleic acid enzyme. Its activity is dependent on the presence of Mg 2 ion. By changing the sequence of the substrate-recognition domains, the DNA enzyme can be made to target different RNA substrates. In this study, for example, it was directed to cleave synthetic RNAs corresponding to the start codon region of HIV-1 gag pol, env, vpr, tat, and nef mrnas. DNA has long been regarded as a passive molecule, ideally suited for carrying genetic information but structurally monotonous and therefore functionally impoverished. After the discovery of catalytic RNA (1, 2), it became clear that nucleic acid molecules of a particular sequence and 3-dimensional structure are able to carry out specific chemical reactions, often with an efficiency comparable to that of protein enzymes (3). In recent years, the first examples of DNA enzymes have appeared, each having been obtained by in vitro selection methodology (4 7). Although it is remarkable that DNA can have catalytic activity, all of the DNA enzymes generated to date have little utility in a biological context. This is in contrast to some of the naturally occurring RNA enzymes, such as the hammerhead and hairpin ribozymes, which have been used to cleave and thereby inactivate target viral and messenger RNAs (reviewed in ref. 8). We sought to develop a DNA enzyme that could be made to cleave almost any RNA substrate, efficiently and specifically under physiological conditions. Such a molecule could be used to inactivate a target RNA, probe a structured RNA, or assist in the manipulation of recombinant RNA. Compared with synthetic RNA enzymes, DNA enzymes are easier to prepare and less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic degradation. In a previous study, DNA was shown to catalyze the Mg 2 - dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester embedded within an otherwise all-dna substrate (6). Although that DNA enzyme was unable to cleave an all-rna substrate, its properties suggested that a DNA enzyme with general purpose RNA cleavage activity might be attainable. Using in vitro selection, we carried out an extensive search of DNA sequences, seeking molecules that best met the following criteria: (i) ability to cleave RNA with multiple turnover under simulated physiological conditions (e.g., 2 mm Copyright 1997 by THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USA $ PNAS is available online at http: MgCl mm KCl, ph 7.5, 37 C); (ii) ability to recognize the RNA substrate through Watson Crick base pairing; (iii) generalizability to other RNA substrates by changing the sequence of the substrate-recognition domain(s); (iv) catalytic efficiency meeting or exceeding that of comparable RNA enzymes; and (v) total composition of no more than 50 deoxynucleotide subunits (and preferably fewer). We obtained a variety of candidate DNA enzymes. These were examined individually, and the two most promising molecules were optimized using a combination of in vitro selection and enzyme engineering procedures. This resulted in a DNA enzyme comprised of 30 deoxynucleotides that met all of the above criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS In Vitro Selection. An initial library was generated by templatedirected extension of 50 pmol of 5 -biotin-d(ggaaaaa)r- (GUAACUAGAGAU)d(GGAAGAGATGGCGAC)-3 on 100 pmol of 5 -GTGCCAAGCTTACCG-N 50 -GTCGC- CATCTCTTCC-3 (N G, A, T, or C) in a 50- l reaction mixture containing 10 units l 1 Superscript II reverse transcriptase (GIBCO BRL), 3 mm MgCl 2, 75 mm KCl, 50 mm Tris HCl (ph 8.3), and 0.2 mm of each dntp. A trace amount of 5-32 P-labeled primer was included in the reaction mixture to allow extension efficiency to be monitored. All components except reverse transcriptase were combined, incubated at 65 C for 5 min, and then cooled to 45 C over 10 min. Reverse transcriptase was added, and the mixture was incubated at 45 C for 45 min, then quenched by addition of Na 2 EDTA. NaCl was added to a final concentration of 1 M, and the extension products were immobilized by repeated passing through four streptavidin affinity columns (Genosys, The Woodlands, TX). The columns were washed with five 100- l volumes of wash buffer (1 M NaCl 0.1 mm Na 2 EDTA 50 mm Tris HCl, ph 7.5) followed by five 100- l volumes of 0.1 N NaOH and five 100- l volumes of wash buffer at 37 C and then eluted at 37 C over1hwiththree 20- l aliquots of reaction buffer (10 mm MgCl 2 1 M NaCl 50 mm Tris HCl, ph 7.5). Eluted molecules were recovered and amplified by PCR (6) using the primers 5 -biotin-ggaa- GAGATGGCGAC-3 and 5 -GTGCCAAGCTTACCG-3. The PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin columns, as above, which were washed with five 100- l volumes of wash buffer and eluted with 40 l of 0.1 N NaOH to obtain the nonbiotinylated strand. The isolated DNAs were ethanol precipitated and used as templates in a primer extension reaction to begin the next round of selection. Rounds 2 10 were carried out as above, except that the reaction scale was reduced 5-fold during the extension step and 2-fold during PCR. Randomization and Reselection. The reselections based on the 8-17 and molecules involved six different lineages for each motif. Each lineage entailed 5 21 rounds of in vitro selection, differing with respect to the selection protocol and reaction times. All cleavage reactions were carried out in 2 mm MgCl 2, 150 mm NaCl, and 50 mm Tris HCl (ph 7.5) at 37 C. Reaction times varied from 60 min in early rounds to 1 min in *To whom reprint requests should be addressed. scripps.edu. 4262
2 Biochemistry: Santoro and Joyce Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 4263 later rounds. Each starting pool of templates was based on a sequence complementary to the prototype, with fixed binding arms of 7 nt each and a catalytic core randomized to 25% degeneracy at each nucleotide position. For the 8-17 and motifs, the templates had the sequence 5 -gtgccaagcttaccgagtaacttcgtccggctcggragatgggtcgtctgtccttccatctctagttactttttc-3 and 5 -gttgccaagcttaccgggaaaaatcgttgtagctagcctaactaggtcgtctgtccttccatctctagttactttttc-3, respectively (PCR primer sites in lower case; substrate-binding arms underlined; randomized positions italicized). The primer used in the template-directed extensions had the sequence 5 -biotin- r(ggaaaaa GUAACUAGAGAUGG)d(AAGAGATG- GCGAC)-3. The PCR primers for the 8-17-based selections were 5 -GTGCCAAGCTTACCGAGTAACT-3 and 5 d(ggaaggacagacgacc CATC)rU and for the based selections were 5 -GTGCCAAGCTTACCGG- GAAAAA-3 and 5 -d(ggaaggacagacgacctagt- T)rA. The PCR primers encompassed the binding arms, thus fixing these sequences. One of the PCR primers in each set contained a 3 -terminal ribonucleotide, allowing isolation of the template strand from the double-stranded PCR products by alkaline hydrolysis of the nontemplate strand (9) and subsequent purification by PAGE. A gel-based selection scheme was used in some of the lineages. In those cases, the PCR primers were 5 -biotin-gtgccaagcttaccg-3 and 5 -GAAAAAGTAACTAGAGATGGAAGGACAGACGA- CC-3, and the extension reactions were carried out on the solid support using the primer 5 -r(ggaaaaaguaacua- GAGAUGGAAG)-3. A trace amount of [ - 32 P]-dATP was included in the mixture to label the extension products, which were eluted with alkali, purified by denaturing polyacrylamide gel purification, and recovered by electroelution. The molecules then were reacted, and those that underwent cleavage were isolated by gel electrophoresis. Separation of Catalyst and Substrate. After the 8th and 10th rounds of the initial selection, individual molecules were cloned and sequenced, as described (10). The 17th clone from round 8 (8-17) and 23rd clone from round 10 (10-23) had the sequence 5 -cacggttcga atggcgttatgcatcacacta- TTTTTCATTGAAGCAGGCCGAGCCTTCCACCTTCcagcggtag agaagg-3 and 5 -cacggttcgaatggcatgttaa- GTTCGTCCCTTTTTAGCAACATCGATCGG- ATTGGTTTCCCcagcggtagagaagg-3, respectively (primer sites in lower case; substrate-binding arms underlined). For the intermolecular reaction, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides were prepared based on the cloned sequences but lacking the regions outside of the substrate-binding arms. These were used to cleave an all-rna substrate having the same sequence as the primer used to construct the initial library (see above). Subsequently, the substrate-binding arms of the DNA enzyme were reduced to 7 nt each and made perfectly complementary to the RNA substrate. Analysis of Cleavage Products. RNA substrate, prepared by in vitro transcription in the presence of [ - 32 P]-ATP, was cleaved by the corresponding DNA enzyme to generate two labeled products of the correct size, as judged by their electrophoretic mobility in comparison to standards that were prepared by partial alkaline hydrolysis of a 5-32 P-labeled substrate. The 5 cleavage product could not be extended with [ - 32 P]-dATP and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, consistent with the presence of a 2, 3,or2,3 -cyclic phosphate. The 3 cleavage product was readily phosphorylated with [ - 32 P]-ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase, consistent with the presence of a free 5 hydroxyl. Kinetic Analysis. All reported kinetic values were determined in multiple turnover reactions, typically exhibiting 20% variation for identical experiments performed on different days. Kinetic values obtained in single and multiple turnover experiments were similar; values obtained with synthetic RNA substrates were slightly less favorable than those obtained with in vitro-transcribed substrates. Reported k cat and K m values were determined from the y intercept and negative slope, respectively, of the best-fit line to a modified Eadie Hofstee plot of k obs vs. k obs [S]. Each plot consisted of 10 data points for a range of [S] that spanned K m, with [S] in 10-fold excess over [E]. k obs values were typically based on five data points obtained over the first 10% of the reaction. Substrate and enzyme molecules were preincubated separately for 10 min in reaction buffer, then combined to initiate the reaction. All reactions were carried out in the presence of 0.01% SDS to prevent adherence of material to the vessel walls. The ph was maintained by addition of 50 mm 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-1-propanesulfonic acid. Kinetic values did not depend on the identity of the buffer. Reaction products were separated by electrophoresis in a denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel and were quantitated using a PhosphorImager (Molecular Dynamics). RESULTS In Vitro Selection. A search of random DNA sequences was undertaken, beginning with a library of different nucleic acid molecules. Each molecule contained a 5 biotin moiety, followed (in a direction) by a short oligodeoxynucleotide spacer, 12 target ribonucleotides, and 50 random deoxynucleotides surrounded by fixed-sequence deoxynucleotides (Fig. 1, Inset). These molecules were applied to a streptavidin-coated solid support and eluted with a solution containing 10 mm MgCl 2 at ph 7.5 and 37 C. This resulted in cleavage of an RNA phosphoester within a small fraction of the bound molecules, releasing the 3 cleavage product into the eluate. The released material was recovered and amplified by PCR, using the fixed regions surrounding the random region as sites for primer hybridization. From the PCR products, a progeny population was constructed, restoring the 5 biotin, deoxynucleotide spacer, and embedded target ribonucleotides. This selective amplification procedure was repeated, progressively enriching the population with DNA sequences that best promoted the cleavage of an RNA phosphoester. During the course of 10 rounds of selective amplification, two sites within the target domain emerged as the most favorable for cleavage, one dominating during rounds 6 8 and the other dominating during rounds 9 and 10 (Fig. 1). We FIG. 1. In vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAs. A library of chimeric molecules was constructed (Inset), each containing a 5 biotin (encircled B), 12 target ribonucleotides (sequence shown), and 50 random sequence deoxynucleotides (N 50 ). Ten rounds of selective amplification yielded molecules that underwent phosphoester cleavage after either the first (dark arrow) or seventh (light arrow) target ribonucleotide. Self-cleavage activity was measured for each successive population. Dark and light bars correspond to cleavage at positions indicated by the dark and light arrows, respectively. Reaction conditions: 1 nm 5-32 P-labeled precursor, 10 mm MgCl 2, and 1 M NaCl (ph 7.5) at 37 C for2h.
3 4264 Biochemistry: Santoro and Joyce Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) FIG. 2. Composition of the 8-17 and catalytic motifs. The DNA enzyme (bottom strand) binds the RNA substrate (top strand) through Watson Crick pairing. Cleavage occurs at the position indicated by the arrow. R AorG;Y UorC. cloned individual molecules from the population after the 8th and 10th rounds. Examination of a total of 62 cloned sequences revealed a variety of catalytic motifs, each of which promoted cleavage at one of the two favored sites within the ribonucleotide region. We surveyed the biochemical properties of many of these molecules and chose two for further analysis based on their catalytic activity and propensity to be generalized to other target sequences. Most of the selected motifs did not exhibit obvious Watson Crick pairing between the catalytic and substrate domains. Motifs 8-17 and 10-23, however, had extensive complementarity to target nucleotides located both upstream and downstream of the cleavage site. Refinement of Catalytic Motifs. The 8-17 and motifs were recast in an intermolecular cleavage format by separating the DNA catalytic domain from the RNA substrate (Fig. 2). Both catalysts directed the site-specific cleavage of the RNA substrate in a reaction that proceeded with multiple turnover under simulated physiological conditions (2 mm MgCl mm KCl, ph 7.5, 37 C; k cat 0.01 min 1 ). Cleavage occurred after an unpaired purine nucleotide of the substrate that was flanked by oligonucleotides complementary to the enzyme. The 5 and 3 cleavage products bore a 2 (3 ) phosphate and 5 hydroxyl, respectively (see Materials and Methods). The same termini are produced by several other RNA and DNA enzymes that cleave an RNA phosphoester (4, 6, 11 13), indicative of a reaction mechanism involving attack by a 2 hydroxyl on an adjacent phosphate. For both the 8-17 and enzymes, the sequence of the substrate could be changed without loss of catalytic activity as long as the substrate-binding arms of the enzyme were changed in a complementary manner. The 8-17 enzyme had a special requirement for a rg-dt wobble pair located immediately downstream from the cleavage site. Substitution of a Watson Crick pair at this position eliminated catalytic activity. The substrate-binding arms of the enzyme interacted with the substrate entirely through standard Watson Crick pairing. The catalytic core of the 8-17 and enzymes, located between the two substrate-binding arms, contained 13 and 15 deoxynucleotides, respectively. To define more precisely the sequence requirements of the catalytic core, we generated a library of variants of each motif, introducing random mutations at a frequency of 25% per nucleotide position throughout the core. Each library was subjected to six different in vitro selection protocols, involving a total of 52 rounds of selective amplification. The method and stringency of selection were varied to conduct a thorough examination of sequences related to the two prototype molecules (see Materials and Methods). Individuals from the selected populations were cloned, sequenced, and tested for catalytic activity. In the case of the 8-17 enzyme, sequence variation among the cloned individuals suggested that the catalytic core consisted of a short internal stem-loop followed by an unpaired region of 4 5 nt (Fig. 2). The stem always contained 3 bp, at least 2 of which were G-C. The loop was invariant, having the sequence 5 -AGC-3. Synthetic constructs in which the stem was lengthened or the sequence of the loop was altered did not FIG. 3. Catalytic activity of the DNA enzyme under multiple turnover conditions. (A) Initial velocities were measured over the first 10% of the reaction, using a fixed concentration of enzyme (0.004 nm) and varying concentrations of substrate ( nm). The 17-mer RNA substrate, corresponding to the start codon region of HIV-1 gag pol mrna, was prepared by in vitro transcription. Reaction conditions: 2 mm MgCl 2 and 150 mm NaCl (ph 7.5) at 37 C. Data from two independent experiments are shown and were fit to the Michaelis Menten equation: v k cat [E] (K m [S]). (B) Catalytic rates were determined in the presence of saturating substrate (100 nm) and varying concentrations of MgCl 2 (2 300 mm). Reaction conditions were otherwise as above. Data from two independent experiments are shown and were fit to the Michaelis Menten equation to obtain the apparent K m for Mg 2.
4 Biochemistry: Santoro and Joyce Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 4265 FIG. 4. DNA-catalyzed cleavage of RNA under laboratory conditions P-labeled RNA substrate (S), having the sequence 5 - GGAGAGAGA UGGGUGCG-3, was cleaved by the corresponding DNA enzyme to generate a single-labeled product (P). Reaction conditions: 1 M substrate, 10 nm enzyme, and 50 mm MgCl 2 (ph 8.0) at 37 C; sampled at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 min. Reaction products were separated by electrophoresis in a denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel, an autoradiogram of which is shown. The ladder at the right was produced by partial alkaline hydrolysis of the substrate; at short oligonucleotide lengths, products terminated by a 2 or 3 phosphate have slightly faster mobility compared with those with a 2,3 -cyclic phosphate. exhibit catalytic activity. The unpaired region, connecting the 3 half of the stem to the downstream substrate-binding domain, had the sequence 5 -WCGR-3 or 5 -WCGAA-3 (W AorT;R A or G). Variants having the sequence 5 -TCGAA-3 in this region exhibited the highest level of catalytic activity, but this enhancement relative to the 8-17 enzyme was not generalizable to other substrate sequences. The enzyme was almost completely intolerant of variation. The eighth nucleotide position of the catalytic core was found to occur as either T, C, or A although atatthis position (as in the prototype) provided the highest level of activity. A survey of several different combinations of RNA substrate and corresponding DNA enzyme revealed that the motif was highly generalizable with respect to substrate sequence. Cleavage occurred on the 3 side of a single unpaired nucleotide, preferably a purine, that was followed by a pyrimidine. Target sites surrounded by A and U were cleaved most efficiently, with a catalytic rate of 0.1 min 1 under simulated physiological conditions. Application to HIV-1 Targets. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA at an A U site could, in principle, be used to target any mrna start codon (A UG). As a test case, we prepared both synthetic and in vitro-transcribed versions of a 17-mer RNA corresponding to the translation initiation region of HIV-1 gag pol mrna (5 -GGAGAGAGA UGGGUGCG-3 ). Both versions of the substrate were cleaved at the expected position by the corresponding DNA enzyme in a reaction that proceeded with a k cat of 0.15 min 1 and K m of 0.47 nm under simulated physiological conditions (catalytic efficiency, k cat K m M 1 min 1 ) (Fig. 3A). The catalytic rate increased with increasing MgCl 2 concentration, with an apparent K m for Mg 2 of 180 mm at ph 7.5 and 37 C (Fig. 3B). The catalytic rate increased in a roughly log linear fashion with increasing ph over the range (data not shown), consistent with a reaction mechanism involving deprotonation of the 2 hydroxyl that lies adjacent to the cleaved phosphoester. In the presence of 50 mm MgCl 2 at ph 8.0 and 37 C, conditions that might be used in the laboratory manipulation of RNA, k cat was 3.4 min 1 and K m was 0.76 nm (Fig. 4). The catalytic efficiency of the DNA enzyme, under both physiological and laboratory conditions, compares favorably with that of known RNA-cleaving RNA enzymes (14, 15). Compared with the protein enzyme ribonuclease A (16), the DNA enzyme has fold lower k cat but fold more favorable K m (Table 1). The enzyme can be used to cleave a variety of biologically relevant RNAs. We prepared synthetic RNA substrates corresponding to nt surrounding the translation initiation site of HIV-1 gag pol, env, vpr, tat, and nef mrna. Each was cleaved at the expected position by a synthetic DNA enzyme that contained the catalytic core flanked by substrate-binding arms of 7 or 8 nt each (Table 2). In all cases, the catalytic rate was 0.1 min 1 under simulated physiological conditions. The value for K m, however, varied with the nucleotide composition of the substrate. For the guanosine-rich gag pol substrate, K m was 1 nm when either the 7- or 8-nt substrate-binding arms were used. The env and vpr substrates were cleaved with a much less favorable K m when the 7-nt binding arms were used, but K m improved substantially when the arms were increased to 8 nt each. Previous experience with RNA-cleaving RNA enzymes suggests that the optimal arm length will vary depending on the target sequence and reaction conditions (18 20). DISCUSSION It is remarkable that a 15-mer oligodeoxynucleotide can specify the catalytic core of a general purpose RNA-cleaving DNA Table 1. Catalytic activity of various RNA-cleaving enzymes Enzyme k cat, min 1 K m,m k cat K m, M 1 min 1 Ribonuclease A* UpA substrate Poly(C) substrate Hairpin ribozyme Hammerhead ribozyme DNA enzyme *From ref. 16; 100 mm NaCl (ph 6.0), 25 C. From ref. 14; 10 mm MgCl 2 and 2 mm spermidine (ph 7.5), 37 C. From ref. 15; 10 mm MgCl 2 (ph 7.5), 25 C. 50 mm MgCl 2 (ph 8.0), 37 C; k cat 0.49 min 1 in 10 mm MgCl 2 (ph 7.5), 37 C; K m 1 nm in 2 50 mm MgCl 2 (ph 7.5), 37 C.
5 4266 Biochemistry: Santoro and Joyce Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) Table 2. DNA-catalyzed cleavage of HIV-1 mrna substrates under simulated physiological conditions Target Substrate Arm length k cat, min 1 K m,nm gag pol (G)GAGAGAGA UGGGUGC(G) env (C)AGUGGCAA UGAGAGU(G) vpr (G)AGGAUAGA UGGAACA(A) tat GCAAGAAA UGGAGCC nef CUAUAAGA UGGGUGA Kinetic values were obtained under multiple turnover conditions, with synthetic RNA substrate in 10-fold excess over synthetic DNA enzyme. Reaction conditions: 2 mm MgCl 2 and 150 mm NaCl (ph 7.5), 37 C. Substrate sequences correspond to 15 or 17 nt surrounding various mrna start codons (underlines) of the BH10 clone of HIV-1 (17). enzyme. Might such a simple motif exist in nature, perhaps within the genome of a single-stranded DNA virus? A search of the available sequence database did not reveal either the 8-17 or motif. However, the vast majority of sequences in the database are derived from double-stranded DNA, which is not expected to have enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the 8-17 and motifs are but two of many motifs that were isolated by our in vitro selection procedure and thus need not resemble those that occur in biological systems. The catalytic efficiency (k cat K m ) of the enzyme is 10 9 M 1 min 1, measured under either single or multiple turnover conditions. In the multiple turnover experiments, initial rates were measured over the first 10% of the reaction, which involved up to 100 turnovers of the enzyme (Fig. 3A). Thus, the ratelimiting step of the reaction is not the release of the cleavage products. With subsaturating RNA substrate, the rate-limiting step is binding. The second-order rate constant of 10 9 M 1 min 1 is consistent with the rate of helix formation between two oligonucleotides, estimated to be M 1 min 1 (21 23). The K m of the enzyme is remarkably sensitive to the length and composition of the substrate-binding arms (Table 2). This can be rationalized by considering the thermodynamic stability of the relevant RNA DNA heteroduplexes. Assuming that the bulged adenosine of the substrate and the catalytic core of the enzyme have a constant effect on the stability of the flanking duplexes, the predicted stability (24) of the various enzyme-substrate complexes has the order: gag pol 8 8 env 8 8 and gag pol 7 7 vpr 8 8 env 7 7 and vpr 7 7. This order mirrors that of the corresponding values for K m. The gag pol enzyme with 7-nt binding arms is expected to bind the substrate very tightly and does not benefit when the arms are lengthened to 8 nt each. On the other hand, the env and vpr enzymes with 7-nt arms bind the substrate much less tightly, allowing substantial improvement in K m when the arms are increased to 8 nt. Further lengthening of the binding arms might eventually be counterproductive because it would slow the rate of product release and thus reduce the catalytic rate under multiple turnover conditions. The DNA enzyme can be made to cleave almost any target RNA that contains a purine pyrimidine junction. Synthetic DNAs of the length necessary to specify this motif are inexpensive and readily obtainable. We expect that the enzyme will have utility in the laboratory manipulation of RNA, acting as a sequence-specific endoribonuclease. A more intriguing possibility is that it could be used to inactivate target cellular RNAs, similar to antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Antisense compounds recognize a target viral or mrna through Watson Crick base pairing and rely on cellular ribonuclease H or other host factors to inactivate the target (25 28). An RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme, in contrast, is responsible for both target recognition and cleavage and operates with catalytic turnover. The enzyme has a catalytic rate of 0.1 min 1 and K m 1nM under simulated physiological conditions. Given the opportunity to express these properties, it may prove capable of playing an active role in cellular biochemistry. We thank Ronald Breaker for helpful advice and Dan Herschlag for comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the R. W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, and the Corbin Foundation for Molecular Biology Research. 1. Kruger, K., Grabowski, P. J., Zaug, A. J., Sands, J., Gottschling, D. E. & Cech, T. R. (1982) Cell 31, Guerrier-Takada, C., Gardiner, K., Marsh, T., Pace, N. & Altman, S. (1983) Cell 35, Herschlag, D. & Cech, T. R. (1990) Biochemistry 29, Breaker, R. R. & Joyce, G. F. (1994) Chem. Biol. 1, Cuenoud, B. & Szostak, J. W. (1995) Nature (London) 375, Breaker, R. R. & Joyce, G. F. (1995) Chem. Biol. 2, Li, Y. & Sen, D. (1996) Nat. Struct. Biol. 3, Christoffersen, R. E. & Marr, J. J. (1995) J. Med. Chem. 38, Walder, R. Y., Hayes, J. R. & Walder, J. A. (1993) Nucleic Acids Res. 21, Tsang, J. & Joyce, G. F. (1994) Biochemistry 33, Dahm, S. C., Derrick, W. B. & Uhlenbeck, O. C. (1993) Biochemistry 32, Wu, H.-N., Lin, Y.-J., Lin, F.-P., Makino, S., Chang, M.-F. & Lai, M. M. C. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, Chowrira, B. M. & Burke, J. M. (1991) Biochemistry 30, Hampel, A. & Tritz, R. (1989) Biochemistry 28, Fedor, M. J. & Uhlenbeck, O. C. (1992) Biochemistry 31, delcardayré, S. B. & Raines, R. T. (1994) Biochemistry 33, Ratner, L., Haseltine, W., Patarca, R., Livak, K. J., Starcich, B., Josephs, S. F., Doran, E. R., Rafalski, J. A., Whitehorn, E. A., Baumeister, K., Ivanoff, L., Petteway Jr., S. R., Pearson, M. L., Lautenberger, J. A., Papas, T. S., Ghrayeb, J., Chang, N. T., Gallo, R. C. & Wong-Staal, F. (1985) Nature (London) 313, Werner, M. & Uhlenbeck, O. C. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, Hegg, L. A. & Fedor, M. J. (1995) Biochemistry 34, Hertel, K. 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Chapter 6 DNA Replication Each strand of the DNA double helix contains a sequence of nucleotides that is exactly complementary to the nucleotide sequence of its partner strand. Each strand can therefore
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INTEGRATED DNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. Dicer Substrate RNAi Design How to design and order 27-mer Dicer-substrate Duplex RNAs for use as RNA interference reagents The following document provides a summary of
Real-Time PCR Vs. Traditional PCR Description This tutorial will discuss the evolution of traditional PCR methods towards the use of Real-Time chemistry and instrumentation for accurate quantitation. Objectives
CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS What is the chemical structure of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule? DNA is a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides. All nucleic acids consist of nucleotides as building
DNA Fingerprinting Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA fingerprinting The name used for the unambiguous identifying technique that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequence
Protocol for GenomePlex Whole Genome Amplification from Formalin-Fixed Parrafin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue Application Guide... 2 I. Description... 2 II. Product Components... 2 III. Materials to be Supplied
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RNA Cloning Method Flowchart Extract total RNA containing small RNAs. Check quality on denaturing gel with EtBr staining 5' End label RNA markers 18.113 (18mer) and 44.12 (24mer) with Kinase and 32P-gamma-ATP.
Forensic DNA Testing Terminology ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer a capillary electrophoresis instrument used by forensic DNA laboratories to separate short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the basis of their size.
Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: It is a double-stranded structure that follows the AT/GC rule. C2. Answer: Bidirectional replication refers to DNA replication in both directions starting from one origin.
Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in human promoters and 30 UTRs by comparison of several mammals Xiaohui Xie 1, Jun Lu 1, E. J. Kulbokas 1, Todd R. Golub 1, Vamsi Mootha 1, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
5364 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 5364-5372 Kinetics of RNA Degradation by Specific Base Catalysis of Transesterification Involving the 2 -Hydroxyl Group Yingfu Li and Ronald R. Breaker* Contribution from
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DNA and Forensic Science Micah A. Luftig * Stephen Richey ** I. INTRODUCTION This paper represents a discussion of the fundamental principles of DNA technology as it applies to forensic testing. A brief
Enzymes & Proteins Wide range of high-quality enzymes and proteins for molecular biology ENZYMES & PROTEINS We offer a wide range of high-quality enzymes and proteins for molecular biology including proteases,
DNA, RNA, replication, translation, and transcription Overview Recall the central dogma of biology: DNA (genetic information in genes) RNA (copies of genes) proteins (functional molecules) DNA structure
Translation Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. In translation, the cell uses the genetic information contained in mrna to
HCS604.03 Exercise 1 Dr. Jones Spring 2005 Recombinant DNA (Molecular Cloning) exercise: The purpose of this exercise is to learn techniques used to create recombinant DNA or clone genes. You will clone
Precise TM Whitepaper Introduction LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING RNA-SEQ METHODS Correctly designed gene expression studies require large numbers of samples, accurate results and low analysis costs. Analysis
RNA Viruses A Practical Approac h Alan J. Cann List of protocols page xiii Abbreviations xvii Investigation of RNA virus genome structure 1 A j. Easton, A.C. Marriott and C.R. Pringl e 1 Introduction-the
Transcription in prokaryotes Elongation and termination After initiation the σ factor leaves the scene. Core polymerase is conducting the elongation of the chain. The core polymerase contains main nucleotide
mrna EDITING mrna EDITING http://dbb.urmc.rochester.edu/labs/smith/research_2.htm The number of A to I sites in the human transcriptome >15;000 the vast majority of these sites occurring in Alu repeats
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Chapter 25 DNA Metabolism Multiple Choice Questions 1. DNA replication Page: 977 Difficulty: 2 Ans: C The Meselson-Stahl experiment established that: A) DNA polymerase has a crucial role in DNA synthesis.
Nucleic Acids Research Advance Access published August 15, 2007 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, 1 12 doi:10.1093/nar/gkm591 DNA polymerase proofreading: active site switching catalyzed by the bacteriophage
DNA Ligase enzyme catalysing formation of phosphodiesteric bound between group 3 -OH of one end of DNA molecule and group 5 -phosphate of the second end of DNA DNA ligase ATP (or NAD+) Ligase cofactors
Bio 102 Practice Problems Chromosomes and DNA Replication Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. Which one of the following enzymes is NT a key player in the process
RT-PCR: Two-Step Protocol We will provide both one-step and two-step protocols for RT-PCR. We recommend the twostep protocol for this class. In the one-step protocol, the components of RT and PCR are mixed
Common Course Topics Biology 1406: Cell and Molecular Biology 1. Introduction to biology --the scientific study of organisms --properties of life --assumptions, methods and limitations of science --underlying
1 of 8 11/7/2004 11:00 AM National Center for Biotechnology Information About NCBI NCBI at a Glance A Science Primer Human Genome Resources Model Organisms Guide Outreach and Education Databases and Tools
Genomic DNA Extraction Kit INSTRUCTION MANUAL Table of Contents Introduction 3 Kit Components 3 Storage Conditions 4 Recommended Equipment and Reagents 4 Introduction to the Protocol 4 General Overview
Introduction to Proteins and Enzymes Basics of protein structure and composition The life of a protein Enzymes Theory of enzyme function Not all enzymes are proteins / not all proteins are enzymes Enzyme
Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering g Genetic Manipulation: Tools Kathleen Hill Associate Professor Department of Biology The University of Western Ontario Tools for Genetic Manipulation DNA, RNA, cdna
- PNA BRAF Mutation Detection Kit Catalog Number KA2102 50 tests/kit Version: 01 Intended for research use only www.abnova.com Introduction and Background Intended use The PNA BRAF Mutation Detection Kit
Exercise 6 - Enzyme Activity Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts that regulate the rate of chemical reactions. Their 3-dimensional conformation and therefore their function can be affected by
Replication Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. Self-reproduction is a function of life that human-engineered systems have
1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of
Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Kun-Mao Chao 1,2,3 1 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics 2 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering 3 Graduate
Next Generation Sequencing DNA sequence represents a single format onto which a broad range of biological phenomena can be projected for high-throughput data collection Over the past three years, massively
APPLICATION NOTE Real-Time PCR Real-time PCR: Understanding C t Real-time PCR, also called quantitative PCR or qpcr, can provide a simple and elegant method for determining the amount of a target sequence
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IMBB 2013 Genomic DNA purifica8on Why purify DNA? The purpose of DNA purifica8on from the cell/8ssue is to ensure it performs well in subsequent downstream applica8ons, e.g. Polymerase Chain Reac8on (PCR),
Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential
Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Nucleic acids play an important role in the storage and expression of genetic information. They are divided into
Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Q&A Interferons are species specific, so that interferons to be used in humans must be produced in human cells. Can you think
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Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing the enzyme activity we selected for (starch
Expression and Purification of Recombinant Protein in bacteria and Yeast Presented By: Puspa pandey, Mohit sachdeva & Ming yu DNA Vectors Molecular carriers which carry fragments of DNA into host cell.
Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.
Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts They are not consumed or altered during the reaction They do not change the equilibrium, just reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. They increase the rate
Supporting Information DNA Assembly and Enzymatic Cutting in Solutions: A Gold Nanoparticle Based SERS Detection Strategy Elizabeth Crew 1, Hong Yan 1, Liqin Lin 1, Jun Yin 1, Zakiya Skeete 1, Timur Kotlyar
IIID 14. Biotechnology in Fish Disease Diagnostics: Application of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Background Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa,
Common Course Topics Biology 1414: Introduction to Biotechnology I Assumptions Students may be enrolled in this course for several reasons; they are enrolled in the Biotechnology Program, they need a science
Calculus for the Life Sciences I es Joseph M. Mahaffy, email@example.com Department of Mathematics and Statistics Dynamical Systems Group Computational Sciences Research Center San Diego State University