Solutions Know these terms: soluble, solute, solvent, solution, electrolyte, nonelectrolyte, saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated

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1 Chemistry Final Exam Review Sheet 100 questions, all multiple choice. The material covered on your exam will include (but is not limited to) chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Remember that there are concepts from earlier chapters that you are supposed to master in order to understand the theory learned in second semester. You will receive a formula sheet, which will include the solubility rules. You will receive a copy of the periodic table, You may use a scientific calculator (graphing or not, but NO cell phone/ipad/ipod apps). Sharing calculators is NOT allowed. Chemical Bonding Draw Lewis structures Determine the type of bond (ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent) Find the electron and molecular geometry (VSEPR) Electronegativity and polarity Describe the changes of state between solids, liquids, and gases; calculate the energy involved. Interpret/draw a heating curve. Chemical Reactions Types of reactions: Combination (Synthesis), Decomposition, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, and Combustion Predict the right side of an equation when given the left side Balance Equations Functional groups Biochemical compounds Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry Avogadro s Number Moles Molar Mass Convert moles to grams Convert grams to moles Convert atoms/molecules to moles Convert moles to atoms/molecules Find the empirical and molecular formula of a compound Find the percent composition of a compound Find a mole ratio Convert moles/grams of a substance to moles/grams of a different substance (stoichiometry) Find the limiting reactant & calculate product based on limiting reactant Calculate percent yield and percent error Energy in chemical reactions Gas Laws Know units of pressure: mm Hg, in Hg, atm, torr Know units of volume: ml, L Convert Celsius to Kelvin Solve gas law problems (Boyle s, Charles s, Gay-Lussac s, Avogadro s, Dalton s) and combined gas law Solve ideal gas law problems Use molar volume of a gas (22.4 L = 1 mole at STP) to do stoichiometry Convert to and from STP Solutions Know these terms: soluble, solute, solvent, solution, electrolyte, nonelectrolyte, saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated

2 Calculate changes in boiling and melting point in a solution Calculate Molarity Calculate molality Concentration of solutions Dilution and chemical reactions Properties of Solutions Reaction Rates Rates of reactions Chemical equilibrium Equilibrium constants Using equilibrium constants Le Chatelier s Principle Equilibrium in saturated solutions Acids & Bases Know properties of acids, Strength of acids and bases Know definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Lewis Review naming acids Dissociation constants for acids and bases Ionization of water Calculate the ph, poh and concentrations of H + and OH - Reactions of acids and bases Acid-Base titration, Buffers

3 Chemistry Final Exam Formula Sheet Stoichiometry: % yield = actual mass of product X 100 theoretical mass of product % error = actual theoretical X 100 theoretical Acids/Bases: ph = -log [H + ] poh = -log [OH - ] ph + poh = 14 Gas Laws: Ideal Gas Law: PV = nrt Combined Gas Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures: P tot = P a + P b + P c Solutions: Molarity = mol solute L solution % mass = g solute g solution % volume = v solute v solution Dilution/Titration formula: C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 Molality = mol solute_ (kg) solvent

4 Chemistry Review Problem Set Name Balance these equations: 1. Ca(OH) 2(s) + HCl (aq) ---> CaCl 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) 2. Ag 2 O (s) ---> Ag (s) + O 2(g) 3. C 4 H 10(g) + O 2(g) ---> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (g) Find the molar mass of each compound. 4. BaI 2 5. AgC 2 H 3 O 2 Convert moles of Sn to atoms g of K 2 O to molecules g of CaCl 2 to moles moles of H 2 O to grams g of Cl 2 to atoms Find the percent composition for each element in the compound. 11. Mn 2 O AuNO 3 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 13. NutraSweet is 57.14% C, 6.16% H, 9.52% N, and 27.18% O. Calculate the empirical formula of NutraSweet and find the molecular formula. (The molar mass of NutraSweet is g/mol) Stoichiometry 14. Na + I 2 ---> NaI If 2.8 grams of sodium were used for the reaction, and an excess of iodine was present, how many moles of sodium iodide would be produced? 15. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 CrO 4 --> PbCrO KNO 3 If you started with 0.97 g of K 2 CrO 4 and excess Pb(NO 3 ) 2, how many grams of KNO 3 could be produced? 16. Given the following reaction: (hint: balance!) If you start with 14.8 g of C 3 H 8 and 3.44 g of O 2, C 3 H 8 + O > CO 2 + H 2 O a) determine the limiting reagent b) determine the number of moles of carbon dioxide produced c) determine the number of grams of H 2 O produced d) determine the number of grams of excess reagent left

5 Reactions. Complete and balance. 17. K 2 CO 3 + BaCl 2 à 18. NaCl + O 2 à 19. ZnCO 3 à 20. MgCl 2 à 21. C 6 H 6 + O 2 à 22. Ra + Cl 2 à Gases. Solve. 23. Given 500. cm 3 of methane gas at 2.5 atm and 20. o C. What is the volume of the gas at STP? 24. What pressure is exerted by 2.0 moles of a gas in a 500. cm 3 container at 25 o C? 25. Two hundred cubic centimeters of a gas are collected by water displacement. The conditions at time are 1.1 atm and 30 o C. The vapor pressure of water at 30 o C is 31.8 mm Hg. What would be the pressure of the dry gas? C 2 H O 2 --> 4 CO H 2 O How many milliliters of ethane (C 2 H 6 ) at STP are required to produce 22 g of carbon dioxide? 27. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) -----> 2 NH 3 (g) How many liters of NH 3 can be produced at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 760 torr, if 20. moles of N 2 are consumed? Solutions. 28. A solution is prepared by mixing 10.0 grams of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) in 150 g of water to create a solution total volume of 102 ml. Calculate the molarity and mass percent of benzene in the solution. 29. If I dilute 200. ml of 0.10 M lithium acetate solution to a volume of 750 ml, what will the concentration of this solution be? 30. How many milliliters of M HCl are required to neutralize 25.0 ml of M Ba(OH) 2? Lewis structures & Molecular Geometry 31. Draw the Lewis structure and state the molecular geometry for H 2 O, nitrate, and carbon dioxide. Name the following acids. 32. H 3 PO HCl 34. H 2 Se 35. HNO H 2 CO 3 Solve. 37. [H+] = 5.32 X 10-6 [OH-] = ph = poh = Acid or Base? 38. [H+] = [OH-] = 8.32 X ph = poh = Acid or Base?

6 Bronsted-Lowry Pairs Label each compound in the equation using the following terms: acid, base, conjugate acid, conjugate base. 39. NH 3 + H 2 O <===> NH OH 40. HNO 2 + H 2 O <===> H 3 O + + NO 2 ph of strong acids/bases Find the ph of each of the following M HCl M KOH Combining Ideas It is highly recommended that you do the following problems from your textbook: 13 17, p , and 21 28, p The workbook is another great resource to review for the exam.

7 Chemistry Review Problem Answers 1. Ca(OH) 2(s) + 2 HCl (aq) à CaCl 2(aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) Ag 2 O (s) à 4 Ag (s) + O 2(g) 3. 2 C 4 H 10(g) + 13 O 2(g) à 8 CO 2(g) + 10 H 2 O (g) g/mol g/mol 6. 2x10 23 atoms x10 23 molecules mol g x10 23 atoms 11. Mn=49.5%, O=50.5% 12. Au=76.1%, N=5.4%, O=18.5% 13. Empirical/Molecular formula: C 14 H 18 N 2 O mol g 16. a) O 2 b) mol CO 2 c) 1.55 g H 2 O d) g excess C 3 H Molecular: K 2 CO 3 + BaCl 2 à BaCO KCl NIE: CO Ba +2 à BaCO Molecular: 4 NaCl + O 2 à 2 Na 2 O + 2 Cl 2 NIE: 4 Cl - + O 2 à 2 O Cl Molecular: ZnCO 3 à CO 2 + ZnO NIE: Same 20. Molecular: MgCl 2 à Mg + Cl 2 NIE: Mg Cl - à Mg + Cl C 6 H O 2 à 12 CO H 2 O 22. Ra + Cl 2 à RaCl L atm torr (1.06 atm) ml L tetrahedral; bent trigonal planar; trigonal planar 32. Phosphorous Acid 33. Hydrochloric Acid 34. Hydroselenic Acid 35. Nitrous Acid 36. Carbonic Acid 37. [H+] = 5.32 X 10-6 [OH-] = 1.88 X 10-9 ph = 5.27 poh = 8.73 Acid or Base? Acid 38. [H+] = 1.20 X 10-3 [OH-] = 8.32 X ph = 2.92 poh = Acid or Base? Acid linear; linear 39. base + acid à conj acid + conj base 40. acid + base à conj acid + conj base M = 1.3 M % mass = 6.3% M ml

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