# Heat and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

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1 1 st and 2 nd law of Thermodynamics crucial for understanding all sciences Heat and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 4 Great Idea: Heat is a form of energy that flows from warmer to cooler objects

2 Chapter Outline Nature s Direction Coming to Terms with Heat Heat Transfer The Second Law of Thermodynamics Consequences of the Second Law

3 Nature s Direction

4 Second Law of Thermodynamics

5 Coming to Terms with Heat

6 Heat and Temperature Heat Energy in motion Warm to cool Temperature Atomic movement Temperature Scales Fahrenheit scale Celsius Kelvin Absolute zero

7 Comparison of Temperature Scales

8 Temperature Conversions Conversion to Fahrenheit: F = (1.8 x C) + 32 Conversion to Celsius: C = ( F 32)/1.8

9 Specific Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity Quantity of heat needed to raise 1g of a substance by 1 C Water Highest specific heat 1 cal/g C

10 Heat Transfer

11 Heat Transfer Conduction Movement of heat by atomic-scale collision Thermal conductivity Convection Bulk transfer of molecules Convection cell Radiation

12 Conduc9on

13 Infrared Imaging Detects Heat Loss

14 Convec9on

15 Home Insulation Technology

16 The Science of Life Animal Insulation and Feathers

17 The Science of Life Temperature Regulation

18 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

19 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Heat does not flow spontaneously from cold to hot No engine can exclusively convert heat to work Every isolated system tends toward disorder

20 Heat Will Not Flow Spontaneously from a Cold to a Hot Body Can you do it???

21 Efficiency of an Engine Determined by the second law of thermodynamics

22 Every Isolated System Becomes More Disordered with Time Ordered System Regular predictable pattern Disordered System Random Entropy Measure of disorder The entropy of an isolated system remains constant or increases

23 Highly Ordered Regular vs. Disordered Patterns

24 Consequences of the Second Law

25 The Arrow of Time Four dimensions 3 have no directionality The 4 th has direction Time Second law and time

26 Built-in Limitations of the Universe The Second Law s consequences Some things cannot happen Fossil fuels Hierarchy of energy

27 The Science of Life Evolution and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

28 Let s go back to Energy. How do we get energy from fossil fuels? One example. ThinkQuest

29 How Do Fossil Fuels and Biomass Pollute? All fossil fuels and biomasses consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms. When these fuels are burned, or "combusted," carbon atoms unite with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide.

30 Energy content of various fuels: Energy from fuels Direct heat, lighting Run an engine.heat, Other work Unit of energy is Joules

31 What is the problem???????? Efficiency Engines: Efficiency = work done/energy put into the system = What you got out/what you put in 100% efficiency not possible. friction, viscosity insulation other A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. The mechanical output is called work, and the thermal energy input is called heat.

32 Think of an engine as operating between two thermal reservoirs One at High Temperature engine takes the heat (Q H from hot reservoir does work with it and returns the rest to the cooler reservoir Energy Conservation. Q H =Work + Q C If you want engine to operate you must provide Q H Efficiency = W/Q H

33 No perfect engines.. We can only convert some of the heat to work not all of it 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Time Travel Beam me up Scotty.. perfume

34 Real power plants.40% Example: In the US, 85% of the electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels to produce steam, Which in turn drives alternators that produce electricity. Power plants can produce steam with a temperature as high as C by pressurizing the steam. The resulting waste heat must be exhausted into the environment at a temperature of 20 0 C (1- T cold /T hot )x 100%= maximum efficiency =873 degree Kelvin =293 1-(293/873) x 100%=66.4%

35 So what does this mean for energy? Electricity is a manufactured product. It is not something you pump out of the ground or mine or collect from the sun or wind. Electric power is manufactured from a rotating machine that we call an electrical generator. After it is generated, (manufactured) it is then delivered through copper wires to where it is utilized

36 But the invention of the machine to generate power is right next to the invention of the printing press in the list of major contributions to the advancement of human civilization.

37 A "generator" and "motor" are essentially the same thing: what you call it depends on whether electricity is going into the unit or coming out of it. Electric generators are essentially very large quantities of copper wire spinning around inside very large magnets, at very high speeds. Example: A commercial utility electric generator -- for example, a 180-megawatt generator -- can be quite large. It is 20 feet in diameter, 50 feet long, and weighs over 50 tons. The copper coils (called the "armature") spin at 3600 revolutions per minute. Although the principle is simple (copper wire and magnets), it's not necessarily easy! Steam turbine generators, gas turbine generators, diesel engine generators, alternate energy systems (except photovoltaics), even nuclear power plants all operate on the same principle - magnets plus copper wire plus motion equals electric current. The electricity produced is the same, regardless of source.

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