Micropiles an Introduction

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1 Micropiles an Introduction GeoProfound Engineering Sdn Bhd Micropiles - Timeline First introduced in Italy for foundation restoration (underpinning) of WWII damaged buildings 1960 s Widely used in Europe for underpinning old sensitive structures mid 70 s First introduced in USA (New York & Boston) 1980 s Being introduced in East Asia Today Micro-mini Revolution worldwide

2 Micropile Applications Rock Socketting where driven piles cannot penetrate. Supporting New Loads in Congested Areas Seismic Retrofit Arresting Structural Settlement Resisting Uplift/Dynamic Loads Underpinning Excavation Support in Confined Areas Different Types of Micropiles Flexibility Suits the soil, Suits your needs

3 Benefits of Micropiles No.1 Reason When you have problems of low headroom and restricted access Benefits of Micropiles No.2 Reason : High Performance Loading fr tons! Higher A s /A c compared to RC Driven pile A s Micropile 4-8% vs A s RC Pile <3% -> Better in Bending, Lateral Loading Shear resistance, Seismic performance

4 Benefits of Micropiles High As/Ac Good for High Lateral/ Seismic Loading Benefits of Micropiles No.3 Reason : Can Penetrate Anything Drilling thru stiff clay, sandstone, timber, granite (except buried steel). Easier penetration in rock compared to bored pile. By various creative ways of drilling

5 Benefits of Micropiles Can penetrate anything Wash Boring Roller (Tricone) Bit Auger Down Hole Hammer Buried Steel Use Down-Hole-Hammer with Air Compressor to drill thru Rock/Granite Benefits of Micropiles No.4 Reason : Flexibility (Many Ways) to adjust to difficult soils Enhance End Bearing Cross-Breed with other Ground Improvement technique

6 Typical Pile Loading Capacity (Geotech+Structural) Depending on soil & pile structure, some typical working loads : Dia 250mm, Rebar 6T25, 5m socket in Granite rock - (70+ tons) Dia 250mm, API Pipe A s /A c =8%, 40m in soft soils - (100 tons) Dia 150mm, Rebar 3T25, 20m thru soft clay + hard sandy silt end-bearing - (50 tons)

7 DESIGN PILE CAPACITY In SOIL (Typical Design using SPT Values) Skin Friction, f s = 2N kn/m 2 End Bearing, f b = 400N/3 or kn/m 2 DESIGN PILE CAPACITY In ROCK (Socketing) Skin Friction Use extrapolation of SPT (e.g.granite N= , Sandstone N=200) f s = 2N kn/m 2 Or use Rowe & Armitage (1987): Skin Fric, f s =0.45 to 0.6(q u ) 0.5 Zhang & Einstein (1998): End Bearing, f b = 3.0 to 6.6(q u ) 0.5

8 Structural Capacity of Piles Typical Reinforcement = Rebar T16, 20, 25, 32 Ultimate Axial Load: f u = 0.4*f cu *A c *f y *A s Example : 6Y25 rebar in φ250mm micropile, grout grade 30MPa, f y =500 N/mm 2 f u = 1693kN = 169tons CO$T RM$ /meter Price Depends on : Reinforcement Type Rock Socketing? Volume (φ) of hole Grouting Method (any post grouting) Location - Accessibility Length/Quantity of piles

9 Production Typical Production Wash Boring Φ250mm x 25m, Drag/roller bit, 4T25 cage, silty soil,3m casing 2 piles/day -ditto- sandstone/granite socket 2m, DTH Hammer 2-3 piles/day Typical Manpower Requirement e.g. 100 micropiles, wash bore, φ250mm, 20m, 2 rigs. Rig (2 No.) Fabrication Grouting etc TOTAL Production 1x2 driller 2x2 helpers 1 welder 2 general workers grout mixer agitator tank 1 pump operator 1 hoseman 14 men 3 piles/day/rig Can cut down to only 8-9 men for concurrent activity planning & utilising ready mix or slurry pump mixer, steel pipe & crane. Production >4 piles/day/rig Overall cost reduction ~ 20-30% by increased production.

10 Typical Site Setup Clearing of new area for setting out Entrance/ Delivery Grouting Plant Preparing to grout pile here Air Compressor Access Rd Water Tank Current Drilling Location Drilling Pump Fabrication Yard Small Quantity Small Piles For small sites, use simpler rigs with lower torque, faster RPM (depending on soil type) e.g. SI rigs

11 Small/Constrained sites - SI Rig/ Portable Drill frame e.g. Jacro is the solution! Big Quantity, Small machines Tmn Kotamas, Kota Tinggi, Johor

12 Small Quantity, Big machine JB Inner Ring Road Johor Bahru Big Quantity, Big machine Vibro unit

13 Drilling Tools Drilling Rig (Flexible) Size, Rotary Torque, RPM, maneuverity Drilling Type Wash Bore, Dry Auger, DTH hammer (Rock Drill) Drill Bit & Rods Drag Bit, Roller Bit, DTH (flat/convex), Tubex. Pump Recirculating fluid Diaphragm pump / Piston pump. Jack-in- Micropile

14 Monitor drilling parameters : Thrust Force on Drilling bit Drilling Fluid Flow Rate & Pressure Rotary/top drive RPM Rotary/top drive torque Air Compressor Output Pressure Recirculating Fluid Viscosity Why? Thrust Force : The thrust force is the force acting along the axis of the drill during cutting. The thrust force plays a significant role in the buckling of the drill. Torque/RPM : The Torque/RPM signifies the power needed by the machine tool to drill the hole. Also, Torque acting on the drill can result in torsional vibrations affecting hole quality. 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T8 Line 2 b4

15 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T8 Line 2 After 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T13 Line 2

16 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T8 Line 2 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T38 Line 1

17 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works T38 Line 1 500kV Transmission Line Micropiling Works Uplift Load Test

18 Solutions for the Difficult Ground

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