Chapter 7 Creating a Republic

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1 The American Nation Chapter 7 Creating a Republic Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 The American Nation Chapter 7: Creating a Republic Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Section 4: A Loose Confederation The Constitutional Convention Ideas Behind the Constitution Ratification and the Bill of Rights Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

3 A Loose Confederation Chapter 7, Section 1 Why did state governments write constitutions? What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? What process did the Articles create for admitting new states? Why did many Americans call for changes in the Articles?

4 Chapter 7, Section 1 Most States Wrote Constitutions Constitution document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government Bill of Rights list of freedoms that the government promises to protect Reasons for a written constitution: would spell out the rights of all citizens would limit the power of government

5 The Articles of Confederation Chapter 7, Section 1 Articles of Confederation first American constitution; created a loose alliance of independent states Congress could: declare war appoint military officers coin money take care of foreign affairs Congress s powers were limited: nine states had to approve a law before it could go into effect could not regulate trade had no power to tax; had to ask the states for money; states could not be forced to contribute there was no president to execute, or carry out, the laws there were no courts to settle conflicts

6 Chapter 7, Section 1 Weaknesses of the Confederation Conflicts between states The central government did not have power to resolve such conflicts. Money problems The central government did not have power to raise taxes. States often refused to contribute money. The government could not pay its debts. Continental Congress had printed paper currency, or money. However it had little value because it was not backed by gold or silver. Each state printed its own money, which caused confusion. Foreign countries took advantage of the confederation Britain refused to pull troops from the Ohio Valley. Spain closed the port of New Orleans to Americans.

7 How Congress Admitted New States to the Union Chapter 7, Section 1 Land Ordinance of 1785 set up a survey system that divided the land into townships and sections set aside land to support public schools Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set up a government for the Northwest Territory guaranteed basic rights to settlers outlawed slavery in the territory provided for the region to be divided into separate territories; once a territory had 660,000 free settlers, it could ask Congress to be admitted as a new state, equal to the original states

8 Chapter 7, Section 1 Land Ordinance of 1785

9 Why Americans Called for a Change in the Articles Chapter 7, Section 1 The nation suffered a depression a period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises. Massachusetts raised taxes, and the courts seized the farms of those who could not pay. Many farmers took part in Shays Rebellion, led by Daniel Shays. They attacked courthouses and kept officials from seizing farms. Many Americans saw Shays Rebellion as a sign that the Articles of Confederation did not work.

10 Section 1 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 1 Under the Articles of Confederation, a) the President had the power to conduct foreign affairs. b) Congress passed tax laws that were a burden on farmers. c) the central government was too weak to enforce the laws passed by Congress. d) the approval of all 13 states was needed to pass a law. What was a major accomplishment of the Northwest Ordinance? a) It provided a way to admit new states to the nation. b) It settled disputes between the states over claims to western lands. c) It demanded that the British remove troops from the Ohio Valley. d) It set up a survey system for the Northwest Territory. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

11 Section 1 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 1 Under the Articles of Confederation, a) the President had the power to conduct foreign affairs. b) Congress passed tax laws that were a burden on farmers. c) the central government was too weak to enforce the laws passed by Congress. d) the approval of all 13 states was needed to pass a law. What was a major accomplishment of the Northwest Ordinance? a) It provided a way to admit new states to the nation. b) It settled disputes between the states over claims to western lands. c) It demanded that the British remove troops from the Ohio Valley. d) It set up a survey system for the Northwest Territory. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

12 The Constitutional Convention Chapter 7, Section 2 Who were the leading delegates to the Constitutional Convention? What were the main differences between the two rival plans for the new Constitution? What compromises did the delegates have to reach before the Constitution could be signed?

13 Chapter 7, Section 2 Leading Delegates to the Convention When the Constitutional Convention met on May 25, 1787, to consider a new system of government, every state except Rhode Island sent representatives. Revolutionary Leaders: Benjamin Franklin oldest delegate signed Declaration of Independence George Washington president of convention New Generation: Alexander Hamilton wanted strong central government James Madison ideas on democratic government influenced others Father of the Constitution

14 Chapter 7, Section 2 Rival Plans for the New Constitution Virginia Plan Purposed by Edmund Randolph and James Madison of Virginia Supported by large states Strong national government with three branches. legislative branch passes laws executive branch carries out laws judicial branch courts would decide if laws were carried out fairly Legislative branch two houses Seats awarded on basis of population. Larger states would have more representatives than smaller states. New Jersey Plan Purposed by Wiliam Paterson of New Jersey Supported by small states Supported by small states Legislative branch one house Each state gets one vote. Small states and big states would have equal representation.

15 The Delegates Compromised Chapter 7, Section 2 Compromise a settlement in which each side gives up some demands in order to reach an agreement. Great Compromise Large states wanted two houses of Congress with a state s representatives decided according to the state s population. Small states wanted Congress to have one house and each state to have two senators. The compromise a two-house legislature. Members of the lower house the House of Representatives would be elected by popular vote. Seats would be awarded according to population. Members of the upper house the Senate would be chosen by state legislatures. Each state would have two senators.

16 The Delegates Compromised Chapter 7, Section 2 Three-Fifths Compromise Southerners wanted to include slaves in the population count to determine seats in the House, even though they could not vote. Northerners objected. Since slaves could not vote, they should not be counted. The compromise - Three fifths of the slaves in any state would be counted. The Slave Trade Northerners wanted to ban the slave trade. Southerners said a ban on the slave trade would ruin their economy. The compromise - Congress would not outlaw the slave trade for at least 20 years. After that, Congress could regulate the slave trade. Meanwhile, no state could stop a fugitive slave from being returned.

17 Section 2 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 2 In the Great Compromise the delegates decided Congress would have a) two houses, one where each state had two senators and one with seats awarded according to state populations. b) one house, in which each state had one vote. c) two houses, both with seats awarded according to state populations. d) one house, in which seats are awarded according to state populations. What did the Constitutional Convention decide to do about the slave trade in the United States? a) ban the slave trade in the entire nation b) do nothing c) allow each state to decide forever for itself d) say Congress could not outlaw the slave trade for 20 years, then could reconsider Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

18 Section 2 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 2 In the Great Compromise the delegates decided Congress would have a) two houses, one where each state had two senators and one with seats awarded according to state populations. b) one house, in which each state had one vote. c) two houses, both with seats awarded according to state populations. d) one house, in which seats are awarded according to state populations. What did the Constitutional Convention decide to do about the slave trade in the United States? a) ban the slave trade in the entire nation b) do nothing c) allow each state to decide forever for itself d) say Congress could not outlaw the slave trade for 20 years, then could reconsider Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

19 Ideas Behind the Constitution Chapter 7, Section 3 What did American leaders learn from studying ancient Rome? What traditions of freedom did Americans inherit from Great Britain and from their own colonial past? How did Enlightenment ideas shape the development of the Constitution?

20 What the Founding Fathers Learned From Ancient Rome Chapter 7, Section 3 Founding Fathers the patriots who laid the groundwork for the United States, such as Madison and Jefferson. They admired the Roman Republic. They created a republic, a government in which citizens rule themselves through elected representatives. They admired Roman citizens who served the republic out of a sense of public service. They saw the collapse of Rome s republic as a warning. They wanted to avoid a dictatorship, a government in which one person or small group holds complete authority.

21 Traditions of Freedom Chapter 7, Section 3 British Traditions of Freedom Magna Carta English monarchs themselves had to obey the law. For example, the king could not raise taxes without consulting the Great Council. English nobles and later, other people had rights, including rights to property and the right to trial by jury. English Bill of Rights It stated that parliamentary elections should be held regularly. It upheld the right to trial by jury. It allowed citizens to bear arms. It affirmed the right of habeas corpus, the idea that no person could be held without being charged with a specific crime.

22 Traditions of Freedom Chapter 7, Section 3 The American Experience Constitutional Tradition Mayflower Compact, the first document of self-government in North America written colonial charters Revolutionary Era memory of grievances against the English king, expressed in the Declaration of Independence experience of the Second Continental Congress experience with the Articles of Confederation experience with state governments and state constitutions

23 Traditions of Freedom Chapter 7, Section 3 Teachings of the Enlightenment John Locke Two Treatises of Government All people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Government is an agreement between ruler and ruled. The ruler must enforce the laws and protect the people. If a ruler violates the people s natural rights, the people have a right to rebel. Baron de Montesquieu The Spirit of the Laws The powers of government should be clearly defined. There should be a separation of powers, that is, the powers of government should be divided up among branches of government so no person or group gains too much power. A government should have three separate branches legislative, executive, and judicial.

24 Section 3 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 3 A republic is a kind of government where a) one person or group holds complete authority. b) military power is placed above civilian authority. c) citizens rule themselves through elected representatives. d) all citizens vote on all the laws. Separation of powers means that a) the powers of government should be clearly defined and divided up among different branches of government. b) the powers of government are decided by the legislative branch and approved by the judicial branch. c) no person shall be held in jail without first being charged. d) the Founding Fathers worked separately from each other to suggest plans for a government. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

25 Section 3 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 3 A republic is a kind of government where a) one person or group holds complete authority. b) military power is placed above civilian authority. c) citizens rule themselves through elected representatives. d) all citizens vote on all the laws. Separation of powers means that a) the powers of government should be clearly defined and divided up among different branches of government. b) the powers of government are decided by the legislative branch and approved by the judicial branch. c) no person shall be held in jail without first being charged. d) the Founding Fathers worked separately from each other to suggest plans for a government. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

26 Chapter 7, Section 4 Ratification and the Bill of Rights What were the key issues in the debate between the Federalists and the Antifederalists? How was the Constitution finally ratified? How was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

27 Chapter 7, Section 4 Key Issues in the Debate Between Federalists and Antifederalists Federalists for a strong federal, or national, government. The Constitution gave the national government enough power to function effectively. The Constitution still protected the rights and powers of the states. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay wrote a series of essays The Federalist Papers to explain and defend the Constitution. The Constitution already protected the rights of citizens well enough. Antifederalists against the Constitution. The Constitution made the national government too strong. The Constitution made the states too weak. Patrick Henry gave a speech saying that, under the Constitution, the President had too much power and that someday a President might try to become king. The Constitution had no bill of rights to protect natural rights, such as freedom of speech and religion.

28 After Much Debate, the Constitution Was Finally Ratified Chapter 7, Section 4 December 1787 February 1788 June 1788 July 1788 November 1789 May 1790 Delaware was the first to ratify. Pennsylvania and New Jersey soon followed. Sam Adams and John Hancock convinced the Massachusetts convention to recommend adding a bill of rights to the Constitution. Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify. When New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, the new government could go into effect. Still, the largest states New York and Virginia had not yet ratified the plan. Virginia voted to ratify the Constitution when the Federalists promised to support a bill of rights. In New York the struggle between Federalists and Antifederalists went on until July. North Carolina Rhode Island became the last state to ratify.

29 A Bill of Rights Was Added Chapter 7, Section 4 The first election under the Constitution for President and members of Congress was held in January The first Congress met in New York City. Congress turned its attention to a bill of rights. To amend, or change, the Constitution, Congress followed the process established in the Constitution. Congress proposed twelve amendments. The amendments went to the states for their approval. By December 1791, three fourths of the states had ratified 10 of the 12 amendments. These 10 amendments became known as the Bill of Rights.

30 Causes The Writing of the Constitution Effects Effects Today The Writing of the Constitution Chapter 7, Section 4 Articles of Confederation creates weak national government Trade and money problems arise between states Foreign nations take advantage of weak government Shays Rebellion breaks out Convention meets to revise Articles of Confederation New government includes President and two-house legislature Power is divided between national and state governments Compromises allow slavery to continue States debate and ratify Constitution Bill of Rights is added United States is world s oldest continuing constitutional democracy Debate about federal versus state power continues Amendments extend rights to more citizens New democracies look to the Constitution as a model

31 Section 4 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 4 One issue the Federalists and Antifederalists argued over was a) how to amend the Constitution and add a bill of rights. b) where the nation s first capital should be. c) how many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could go into effect. d) whether the Constitution made the central government too strong. Antifederalists fought to add a bill of rights to the Constitution in order to a) provide a process for amending the Constitution. b) protect the people s natural rights. c) explain the political theory behind the American system of government. d) make it less difficult for the government to function. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

32 Section 4 Assessment Chapter 7, Section 4 One issue the Federalists and Antifederalists argued over was a) how to amend the Constitution and add a bill of rights. b) where the nation s first capital should be. c) how many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could go into effect. d) whether the Constitution made the central government too strong. Antifederalists fought to add a bill of rights to the Constitution in order to a) provide a process for amending the Constitution. b) protect the people s natural rights. c) explain the political theory behind the American system of government. d) make it less difficult for the government to function. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.

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