1 MIGHTY BE OUR POWERS How Sisterhood, Prayer, and Sex Changed a Nation at War A MEMOIR LEYMAH GBOWEE with Carol Mithers New York
2 Copyright 2011 by Leymah Gbowee Published by Beast Books Beast Books is a co-publishing venture with the Perseus Books Group All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For information, address the Perseus Books Group, 387 Park Avenue South, New York, NY Books published by Beast Books are available at special discounts for bulk purchases in the United States by corporations, institutions, and other organizations. For more information, please contact the Special Markets Department at the Perseus Books Group, 2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103, or call (800) , ext. 5000, or Editorial production by Marrathon Production Services, Design by Jane Raese Text set in 12 point Bulmer Family photos courtesy of the author. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available for this book. ISBN ISBN (e-book)
3 CONTENTS Prologue xi PART ONE 1 The World Was Mine 3 2 We ll Soon Put an End to the Problem 15 3 I Am Too Young to Die! 27 4 Trapped 41 5 Helpless in a Strange Place 59 6 A Glimpse of Peace 69 PART TWO 7 Yes, You Can 77 8 Taking On Taylor s Boys 85 9 A New Home with Geneva Helping Women Find Their Voices The Women in Peace-building Network Is Born! Don t Ever Stop Standing Up to Charles Taylor and Sitting Down for Peace When Peace Talks Are Just Talk, Take Action 153
4 CONTENTS PART THREE 15 Is the War Really Over? Time to Move On An Unthinkable Loss Building a New Women s Network Pray the Devil Back to Hell Helping My Country The Story Doesn t End 223 Index 231 Acknowledgments 245 About the Authors 246 viii
5 PROLOGUE Modern war stories often resemble each other, not because the circumstances are alike but because they re told in the same way. Commanders are quoted offering confident predictions of victory. Male diplomats make serious pronouncements. And the fighters always men, whether they are government soldiers or rebels, whether they are portrayed as heroes or thugs brag, threaten, brandish grisly trophies and shoot off their mouths and their weapons. It was that way in my country, Liberia. During the years that civil war tore us apart, foreign reporters often came to document the nightmare. Read the accounts. Watch the video clips. They are all about the power of destruction. Bare-chested boys on foot or in pickup trucks fire enormous machine guns, dance crazily in wrecked city streets or crowd around a corpse, holding up a victim s bleeding heart. A young man in sunglasses and red beret regards the camera coolly. We kill you, we will eat you. Now watch the reports again, but look more carefully, at the background, for that is where you will find the women. You ll see us fleeing, weeping, kneeling before our children s graves. In the traditional telling of war stories, women are always in the background. Our suffering is just a sidebar to the main tale; when we re included, it s for human interest. If we are African, we are even more likely to be marginalized and painted solely as pathetic hopeless expressions, torn clothes, sagging breasts. Victims. That is the image of us that the world is used to, and the image that sells. ix
6 PROLOGUE Once, a foreign journalist asked me, Were you raped during the Liberian war? When I said no, I was no longer of any interest. During the war in Liberia, almost no one reported the other reality of women s lives. How we hid our husbands and sons from soldiers looking to recruit or kill them. How, in the midst of chaos, we walked miles to find food and water for our families how we kept life going so that there would be something left to build on when peace returned. And how we created strength in sisterhood, and spoke out for peace on behalf of all Liberians. This is not a traditional war story. It is about an army of women in white standing up when no one else would unafraid, because the worst things imaginable had already happened to us. It is about how we found the moral clarity, persistence and bravery to raise our voices against war and restore sanity to our land. You have not heard it before, because it is an African woman s story, and our stories rarely are told. I want you to hear mine. x
7 CHAPTER 2 WE LL SOON PUT AN END TO THE PROBLEM Right around the time of my high school graduation party, a group of armed rebels crossed the border from Côte d Ivoire into Nimba County, in northern Liberia. Their leader, Charles Taylor, claimed they would overthrow President Doe. My parents weren t concerned. Nimba County was three hours away, and the group of rebels was small. Surely, the government would handle the problem. Take it outside, my mother said whenever we had guests and the conversation turned to politics. I didn t even pay attention; that kind of talk was for old people. During the months that followed, my classmates dispersed, some going to a school outside Monrovia, others to Ghana and Sierra Leone. Josephine enrolled in a private Christian college to study accounting and business management. In March 1990, I started classes at the University of Liberia. After years at B. W. Harris Episcopal High, with its well-stocked science lab and library, I was not prepared for the chaos of a big, government-run institution, where you had to get to class early just to fight for a chair. The students who had gone to public schools where the underpaid teachers 15
8 LEYMAH GBOWEE were always going on strike, and sometimes there were no books laughed at me. I knew at those times that I was a spoiled child. In May, we moved to Paynesville, in the suburbs just outside Monrovia. Ma stayed behind in her house and we rented ours out. My parents were looking ahead: Josephine now spent most of her time with her boyfriend, also a Lebanese, who lived in a neighborhood that group favored; Mala lived on her own; and the rest of us would surely be leaving home soon as well. The new place was on almost an acre of land, set off from neighbors and reached by an unpaved lane that was a twenty-minute walk from the main road. The house was small, but I thought it was beautiful, painted a clean, bright white and newer than Old Road, with paneling on the living room ceiling and wall-to-wall carpets. The dining room had a large window that looked onto a field full of flowers. My mother planted more flowers in the front yard, and corn, peppers and other vegetables in back. Geneva, Josephine and I shared a bedroom that had been painted a soft pink, with a black and white linoleum floor and a light fixture that had the face of a clown. The Old Road house was often hot and stuffy, but here it was always breezy and pleasant. Except for a few hours in the morning and evening, when you could hear the muffled roar of cars on the main road, it was also completely quiet. This was my parents reward for their years of hard work. They expected to retire and grow old here. But the government had not put down the rebellion in Nimba County; in fact, it was growing. Each night when we turned on the BBC s World Service Focus on Africa, we heard reports about Charles Taylor and his rebel soldiers. They were attacking, capturing territory, moving south, toward us. A kind of denial kept my parents complacent. They d lived through instability before. In 1980, Papa had been working under President William Tolbert (as always, a member of the elite) when Samuel Doe, then an army master sergeant, had seized power. Tolbert was disemboweled and shot, and the next day, thirteen members of his administration were publicly executed on the beach. Papa spent nine months in jail. I was very young and my mother kept everything from us somehow we 16
9 MIGHTY BE OUR POWERS imagined he was away traveling and since Papa still won t talk about that time, until today I don t know why. But when he was released, he was offered his old position back, and he took it. He later said he was afraid to say no, but I also knew he valued his prestigious job, especially after having been unemployed so long as a young man. Doe, a Krahn, was the first nonelite president of our country, and his coup was supposed to mean the beginning of a new era of fairness for the indigenous people of Liberia. The native woman has borne a son, and he has killed the Congo People! his supporters sang. (By now, Congo People referred to anyone who was elite.) Doe got generous financial support from Presidents Reagan and Bush, who wanted to keep Liberia as an ally during those Cold War days and who liked that he opposed the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi. But Doe proved corrupt and violent: he stole an election, pocketed hundreds of millions of dollars, and tracked down and killed his political enemies. Some prominent Liberians fled the country. One was Amos Sawyer, a popular University of Liberia professor with a PhD from Northwestern, whom Doe had appointed to head Liberia s Constitutional Drafting Commission. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who had a master s degree in public administration from Harvard and had served as President Tolbert s minister of finance, was another. She ran one of Liberia s largest banks after President Doe took office but later stood up against his corruption. She was arrested twice, threatened with rape and being buried alive, and finally was allowed to leave for the United States. It was during Doe s rule that tribal identity began to matter. Before Doe, the split was between the elite and the indigenous. All of us had our tribal identities: our dances and traditions, our native languages. But we were equal to each other, and tribal intermarriages took place all the time. Doe changed that, awarding all the jobs that came with money and power to his fellow Krahn. Some ethnic groups, like the Gio and Mano, were excluded from politics completely. Bitterness, then opposition, grew. Some of the exiled Liberians, including Sawyer and Sirleaf, formed the Association for Constitutional Democracy in Liberia (ACDL) to lobby the US government to put pressure on Doe. But the Cold War was ending, and with it, Liberia s strategic importance. The opposition 17
10 LEYMAH GBOWEE turned to Charles Taylor. As he began his campaign, they raised tens of thousands of dollars to support him. Still, as we settled into our new home, my parents were not worried. We ll soon put an end to the problem, my dad said confidently. Geneva didn t share his confidence. She had a boyfriend in the opposition movement and knew the depth of hatred many people felt for Doe. She d also heard stories that when government forces went to Nimba County to put down the uprising, they d gone crazy, indiscriminately raping and killing Gio and Mano, since those tribes supported Taylor. This government is wicked! she burst out one day, arriving home from her medical records job. She sat down on the porch with us, angrily pulling off her shoes. Someone had come into the office that day, she said, looking for the records of four hundred children who supposedly had been evacuated from a village in Nimba County and sent to her hospital. But we d never seen them! Later, she had heard that hundreds of sick and wounded children had been in transit to Monrovia, but government troops had instead dumped them in wells to drown. Nobody is that evil! my mother said, horrified. Shut up about things you know nothing about! my dad shouted at Geneva. There was no way to prove or disprove the story. So much of what we heard from now on would be like this, information or rumor passed from one person to the next till it came to you. We should leave, my sister said. Now. And go where? said my dad. Sierra Leone. Anyplace. The embassy could get us visas. War is coming. We should get out of Monrovia. I waited for Papa s answer. I knew that some of my high school friends had already left the country. Some had gone to the US, which was easily arranged for Americo-Liberians; because of their ancestry, many had dual citizenship. Ironically, the rebel leader Charles Taylor was one of these. He had an Americo-Liberian father and Gola mother, and though his large family wasn t wealthy, he earned a degree in economics from Bentley University in Massachusetts. He later worked within the Doe government, but after he was accused of embezzling nearly $1 mil- 18
11 MIGHTY BE OUR POWERS lion, he fled to the US. He was arrested on an extradition warrant and jailed in Massachusetts, but escaped with four other inmates by sawing through the bars in a laundry room and dropping down a knotted rope. (Later, he claimed that his cell door had been left unlocked and his escape had been arranged by US agents who got him out of the country.) If you were indigenous like us, or didn t have a lot of money, fleeing Liberia was a different story. Papa rolled his eyes. What would we do in Sierra Leone? We d never even been there. He knew Geneva had always dreamed about going abroad to study, and now he protested, I promised to send you girls to school, not to pay for travel! That was enough for me. I trusted my dad, and I didn t have much sympathy for the people of Nimba County. If they allied themselves with the enemy, I thought, then they deserved whatever they got. In July, my mother s real mother, whom we called Ma Korto, showed up to stay with us, because there was fighting near her village. She brought along her husband and several of my mother s half-sisters and their children. Still, we didn t imagine we were in danger. There were no cell phones then, no Internet; Paynesville didn t even have a regular phone line. News of the outside world was distant and removed. Information arrived sporadically, from TV or radio reports or from someone passing by to deliver a message. So there was no way we could have known, when we came to a particular midsummer Monday morning, that it would be the last of our old life. Papa, Mama and Geneva left for work as usual. I had late classes that day so I stayed back with Fata, Eric, Mala s kids and the other relatives. I ate a lazy breakfast. And then I heard a strange sound in the distance, like a popping: Pa-poom. Pa-poom. I know that sound, said Ma Korto s husband. He froze. The rebels are here. Pa-poom. Pa-poom. An explosion boom! then pop, pop, pop, like a hard surface being hit. The children were playing outside! I ran to grab Mala s four-year-old son as her three-year-old daughter rose from the sand and raced for the house. She reached the porch just as Ma Korto did, carrying one of the grandchildren she had raised, and whom she favored. In a second, they were all inside the screen door and then I saw 19
12 LEYMAH GBOWEE Ma Korto push Mala s daughter back out. An aunt screamed, That s wickedness! and I froze, because the sight was so shocking I almost could not believe it. Then the moment ended. The noise stopped and no one passed by, so we didn t know who had been shooting. We stayed inside for the rest of the day. At 5 p.m., I closed my eyes, imagining I would soon hear cars on the road. My parents and Geneva would come home, and the radio would announce it was all just a scare. But the evening passed, then the next morning, and no one returned. Friends of my parents, people who also worked for the government, began appearing at the door with bundles on their heads, holding the hands of children exhausted from walking for hours. The rebels had taken over their communities. Soon, there were more than thirty people in our house, filling the bedrooms, living room, hallway. Another day passed without word. The grown-ups who had fled sat in the living room exchanging stories. We were walking... Government soldiers stopped the group and asked everyone for their national identity cards. Anyone from Nimba, they pulled out and shot! Right in front of us! Two more days. Three. Official broadcasting stations announced that the government had the situation under control. On Focus on Africa, Charles Taylor bragged that he was taking Monrovia and that his National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) would get that boy Doe off the backs of the Liberian people! The radio announced a 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. curfew. As the eldest family member, I took care of the guests, assigned them to bedrooms, cooked meals for everyone, and made sure my parents belongings were safe. I wasn t afraid; I was angry. I was a girl who d never before had to take any responsibility or make an important decision, and this should not be my job! And it was hard for me to look in Ma Korto s face. I had always believed that adults gathered children to protect them, especially in times of danger. But I d seen her push Mala s little girl out the door. Into harm s way. The scene would not leave my mind. Until today, I have few memories of that week, but during it, I grew up fast, and the world started to change for me. 20
13 MIGHTY BE OUR POWERS On the sixth day, Mama and Geneva came home, limping and covered with mud. On their way to work they had stumbled into a gun battle between the rebels and Liberian army. They had been diverted from the main road, they said, then soldiers had appeared, shouting, Out of the car! We ran into a nearby house and lay on our bellies while bullets were flying, my mother said in a flat voice. We stayed there day after day... Soldiers would come to the house and the owner would give them money or food or whiskey... During a break in the fighting, they had escaped and walked home the long way, through the swamp. Mama looked old and confused, as if she d been to a place she d never known existed. Another week passed. We heard nothing from my dad. The grownups stayed close to the TV and some days someone would walk twenty minutes to the main road and just stand there, seeking news from anyone passing. Where are you coming from? Have you seen my cousin? I m so sorry, your cousin was killed a few days ago. Have you seen my neighborhood? What about my house? The soldiers have looted everything... At twilight, we turned off all the lights, so no soldiers government or rebel would spot the house. Our distance from the main road might keep us safe, but if anything happened, there was nowhere to run. One afternoon, Fata, Geneva and I were on the road when we saw a cream-colored van flying the US embassy flag and waved it down. We knew the driver, who rode with two US Marines. I ve been looking for you! he exclaimed. I ve come to collect you on the orders of your father. There was no time to think about what to pack. Mama, my sisters and me, Eric, Mala s kids and a cousin pulled open drawers, grabbed a few things, and threw them into bags. Then I stood in my bedroom, looking at its beauty, at all the new clothes I had gotten for graduation, my wonderful Dexter boots. My mother ran to her bedroom to pull out important documents and some cash she d stashed away. She gave handfuls to the people staying behind. Take care of the house, she said. We left 21
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The Darkest Shade of White: An in depth look into the lives of Tanzania s persecuted albinos In Tanzania, the albinos bodies are worth more than gold. Witchdoctors use their appendages including noses,
1 Being Present Luke 1:39-55 Presbyterian pastor Mark Labberton tells the story of one his members named Doris. 1 A very active woman with silver-blond hair, Doris was in her eighties. Every Friday morning
The Invention of Hugo Cabret: Part I Chapters 1-6 Complete. Review 1. Why did Hugo take his uncle's checks? A. He had to make it seem like his uncle was still around. B. The train inspector wanted Hugo
PEOPLE V. HARRY POTTER THE COURT: Members of the jury, the defendant, Harry Potter, is charged in a one-count information which reads as follows: On or about November 23, 2008, HARRY POTTER, did unlawfully
If Your Child Rebels Against Time-Out Time-out Common Time-Out is not expected Mistakes And to work Problems if parents make more than 2 or 3 time-out mistakes. - Lynn Clark 99 Chapter 12 Common Time-Out
BOOK 1, PART 3, LESSON 4 THE FORGIVING FATHER THE BIBLE: Luke 15:11-32 THEME: We can discover what Jesus wants us to do and be by hearing the parables Jesus told. PREPARING FOR THE LESSON MAIN IDEA: Jesus
Whiplash 1 Matthew 16:21-28 (NRSV) From that time on, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and undergo great suffering at the hands of the elders and chief priests and scribes,
Unit 1 1 Making Friends at College Study Buddies Passage 02 One of the most challenging aspects of college life is finding the right balance between social and academic activities. Everyone wants to have
Value: Truth Lesson M1.4 HONESTY Objective: To stimulate awareness of the importance of acting truthfully and honestly. To recognise how their behaviour affects others. Key Words: couple, delicious, enormous,
The Story of King David Background Focus: David, the imperfect but beloved and repentant king (1 Samuel 16-31, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings 1-2) David brings the tent of God into Jerusalem and sets up the possibility