Prebiyotik Ola. Kocatepe Vet J (1): DERLEME REVIEW. durum hem insan hem de hayvanlarda patojenik bakterilerin antibiyotiklere

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1 DERLEME Prebiyotik Ola REVIEW *, Kocatepe Vet J (2012) 5 (1): 2935 Anahtar Kelimeler K Performans Pprebiyotik Sindirilmeyen Oligosakkarit durum hem insan hem de hayvanlarda patojenik bakterilerin antibiyotiklere Key Words Performance Poultry Prebiotic Nondigestible Oligosaccharide Hayvan Besleme vebeslenme E Importance of Nondigestible Oligosaccharides Used as Prebiotic in Poultry Nutrition * Corresponding author Tel: 90 (505) S U M M A R Y Chemotherapeutics and antibiotics have been widely used in broiler rations to provide economical benefits and improve the welfare of animals. However, the pathogenic bacteria developed resistance to the antibiotics in both animals and human, thus using antibiotics were prohibited due to the increased concerns about the risk. That is why, there has been a great interest on prebiotics which promote the growth factor of limited beneficial microorganisms and suppress the pathogenic bacteria in the digestive system of human and animals. Prebiotics are also defined as undigestable feed and food ingredients, and growth factor for antibiotic alternatives (performance enhancers). Kocatepe Vet J (1):

2 sindirilemeyen karbonhitratlar (oligo ve enzimi tki (Swanson ve ark 2002, Mikkelsen ve ark 2003). Fruktooligosakkaritler Aurebasidum pullulans ve Aspergillus niger sentezlenerek elde edilir (Sangeetha ve ark 2004, Shin ve ark 2004). Bu oligosakkaritler tek mideli hayvanlarda ve Bifidobacteria ve Lactobacillus bulunan lardan lar hem linear hem de i en prebiyotikler (sindirilemeyen al onosakkaritler ve disakkaritlerden enzimatik veya kimyasal olarak sentezlenebilirler. Polisakkaritlerden ise enzimatik hidroliz ile elde edilebilirler ( Vegas ve ark 2006). (Perin ve ark 2001, Berg ve ark 2005). Bu E.coli, Salmonella spp. ve Clostridium perfringens gibi patojen e ve enzim aktivitesi artarak besin maddelerinin sindirimi artabilmektedir (Fleming ve ark 2004). Bifidobacteria Bu fermentasyon laktat Ticar (12) fruktozil (Waterhouse ve Chatterton 1993). bu 1999) Tablo 1. (Moshfegh ve ark (Coskun 2006). sindirilmeyen oligosakkaritler; fruktooligosakkaritler tler (MOS), kitosanoligosakkaritler(kos),dekstranoligosakkaritler (DOS), izomaltooligosakkaritler (IMO) ve soya oligosakkarit (SOS) lerdir (Jiang ve ark 2006, Huang ve ark 2007). zamanlar Fruktooligosakkaritler (FOS) Bitkisel Kaynaklar ) (yumru) Hindiba Enginar (yaprak) Muz Konserve Arpa (1 Kocatepe Vet J (1):

3 performans, yumurta kalitesi ve yumurta kolesterol fruktan zincirindeki (12) ran enzimdir (Vandamme ve Derycke 1983). sentezlenmektedir (Gupta ve ark 1994, Pessoni ve ark 1999, Tsujimoto ve ark 2003). Funguslar (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus ve Fusarium), Maya (Kluyveromyces) Bakteriler (Flavobacterium multivorum, Bacillus subtilis, Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Chen ve Chen (2004) oligofruktoz ve inulin %4.44 gofruktoz ve inulinin ilavesi Chen ve ark (2005a) hindiba oligofruktoz ve timi ve Chen ve ark oligofruktoz ve %1 inulin ilavesinin, kontrol grubuna Broilerle (Van Loo 2007). UYA ve valerik asit konsantrasyonunu (Gruzauskas ve ark 2003). %18.64 ve % % 2010). nma (Alatas ve ark etlik Chen ve Chen (2003a), inulin ya da (Chen ve ark 2005c). Mannanoligosakkaritler (MOS) Mannanoligosakkaritler, cerevisiae %8.6) Saccharomyces mannan, %30 glukan ve %12.5 proteinden Chen ve Chen (2003b), broylerlerde hindiba Kocatepe Vet J (1):

4 Mannozspesifikintestin intestinal kanalda ilerlemektedir. Bu suretle rasyonda MOS mevcudiyeti, intestinal lumene tutunabilecek Kitosan oligosakkaritler (KOS) biyolojik olarak Mannanoligosakkaritler patojen 2007). Lactobacillus ve Bifidobacteria (Ferket ve ark 2002, Parks ve ark nedeniyle kitosan oligosakkarit formu (KOS) Keser 2009). (Bilal ve 1995). n ve Roberfroid rda IgG ve IgA patojenik bakteri (E. coli, S. typhimurium Lactobacillus im 2007). (Hooge ark 2005). (Wang ve ark 2003, Wang ve (Mohamed ve ark 2008), 2.5 g/kg MOS ve 2.5 g/kg MOS+60 mg/kg Borik asidin Huang ve ark pozitif kontrol grubunda da antibiyotik olarak yemden ya %0.10 ve %0.15 MOS ve 150 tir. probiyotik ile 1 kg/ton prebiyotik ilavesi yumurta Huang ve ark (2007), broyler yemlerine KOS Gerek probiyotik, gerekse prebiyotik yla 50, 100 ve 150 mg/kg KOS ilave probiyotik ve prebiyotik ilave edilen gruplarda bursa Kocatepe Vet J (1):

5 KOS kul Isomalto oligosakkaritler (IMO) Isomaltooligosakkaritler enzimatik an broylerlerde (Vetere ve ark 2003). Zhang ve ark sindirilebi Soya oligosakkaritler (SOS) Dekstranoligosakkaritler (DOS) agillerde bulunur. Trisakkarit olan Dekstranlar, glikoz monomerlerinin 1,6 1,2; 1,3; 1,4) glikozid Acetobacter Leuconostoc mesenteriodes ve streptococcus (Pearce ve ark 1990). Bozkurt ve ark (2008), rasyona 10 mg antibiyotik, 1 ave edilmesinin etlik (Choct ve ark 2010). Bifidobacterium Prebiyotiklerin; Barsakta Clostridium spp., Salmonella spp. gibi tir. engelleyerek sindirim sisteminin 3 ve 0 6 (Vitamin, mineral, aminoasit gibi),. Kocatepe Vet J (1):

6 KAYNAKLAR Yumurta oligosakkaritin Vet Bil Derg. 5(3): Berg EL, Fu CJ, Porter JH, Kerley MS Fructooligosaccharide supplementation in the yearling horse: Effects on fecal ph, microbial content and volatile fatty acid concentrations. J Anim Sci. 83(7): Bilal T, Keser O Kitosan oligosakkaritin hayvan b Enst Derg. 49(2): Growth performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens feed with antibiotic, MOS and DOS supplemented diets. Int J Poult Sci. 7(10): The efffects of probiotic and mannanoligosaccharide on some haematological and immunnological parameters in turkeys. J Vet Med A. 52: Chen YC, Chen TC. 2003a. Effect of adding chicory fructans in feed on broiler growth performance, serum cholesterol and intestinal lenght. Int J Poult Sci. 2(3): Chen YC, Chen TC. 2003b. Effect of adding chicory fructans in feed on fecal and intestinal microflora and excreta volatile ammonia. Int J Poult Sci. 2(3): Chen YC, Chen TC Mineral utilization in layers as influenced by dietary oligofructose and inulin. Int J Poult Sci. 3(7): Chen YC, Nakthong C, Chen TC. 2005a. Improvement of laying hen performance by dietary prebiotic chicory oligofructose and inulin. Int J Poult Sci. 4(2): Chen YC, Nakthong C, Chen TC. 2005b. Effects of chicory fructans on egg cholesterol in commercial laying hen. Int J Poult Sci. 4(2): Chen YC, Nakthong C, Chen TC, Buddington RK. 2005c. The influence of dietary betafructan supplement on digestive functions, serum glucose and yolklipid content of laying hens. Int J Poult Sci. 4(9): Choct M, DersjantLi Y, Mcleish J, Peisker M Soy oligosaccharides and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides: A review of digestion, nutritive and antinutritive effects in pigs and poultry. AsianAust J Anim Sci. 23(10): Coskun T Pro, pre 49: Ferket PR, Parks CW, Grimes JL Benefits of dietary antibiotic and mannanoligosaccharide supplementation for poultry. In: Proc. MultiState Poult. Feeding and Nutr Conf, Indianapolis, Indiana USA. May 1416, p: 22. Fleming JS, Freitas JRS, Fontoura P, Montanhiri NH, Arruda JS Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding. Braz J Poult Sci. 6: Gao F, Zhou GH, Han ZK Effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on growth performance, immune function and endocrine secretion in chicks. Acta Zool Sinica. 13: Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiotica: Introducing the concept of prebiotica. J Clin Nutr. 125: Gruzauskas R, Semaskaite A, Zdunczyk Z, Stupeliene A, Sasyte V Growth performance and digestive processes in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with xylanase ve fructooligosaccharides. In: 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, August, Strasbourg, France, Gupta AK, Singh DP, Kaur N, Singh R Production, purification and immobilisation of inulinase from Kluyveromyces fragilis. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 59: Hajati H, Rezaei M The application of prebiotics in poultry production. Int J Poult Sci. 9(3): Hooge MD Dietary mannan oligosaccharides improve broiler and turkey performance.http//:www.engormix.com/dietary_ mannan_oligosaccharides_improve_e_articles_12 Huang RL, Yin YL, Wu GY, Zhang YG, Li TJ, Li LL, Li MX, Tang ZR, Zhang J, Wang B, He JH, Nie XZ Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers. Poult Sci. 84: Huang RL, Deng ZY, Yang CB, Yin YL, Xie MY, Wu GY, Li TJ, Li LL, Tang ZR, Kang P, Hou ZP, Deng D, Xiang H, Kong XF, Guo YM Dietary oligochitosan supplementation enhances immune status of broilers. J Sci Food Agric. 87: Jiang HQ, Gong LM, Ma YX, He YH, Li DF, Zhai HX Effect of stachyose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and caecal fermantation characteristics in broilers. Br Poult Sci. 47: Effects of probiotic and prebiotic (mannanoligosaccharide) supplementation on performance, egg quality and hatchability in quai Fak Derg. 58: dekstran Kocatepe Vet J (1):

7 g. 15(2): Li XJ, Piao XS, Kim SW, Liu P, Wang L, Shen YB, Jung SC, Lee HS Effects of chitooligosaccharide supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and serum composition in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 86: Mikkelsen LL, Jacobsen M, Jensen BB Effects of dietary oligosaccharides on microbial diversity and fructooligosaccharide degrading bacteria infaeces of piglets postweaning. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 109: Mohamed, MA, Hassan, HMA, ElBarkouky, EMA Effect of mannan oligosaccharide on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. J Agric Soc Sci. 4(1): Moshfegh J.A, Friday EJ, Goldman JP, Ahuja JK Presence of inulin and oligofructose in the diets of Americans. J Nutr. 129: Parks CW, Grimes JL, Ferket PR, Fairchild AS The case for mannanoligosaccharides in poultry diets. An alternative to growth promotant Pearce BJ, Walker GJ, Slodki ME, Schuerch C Enzymic and methylation analysis of dextrans and (1 3) Dglucans. Carbohydr Res. 203: Perin S, Warchol M, Gril JP, Schneider F Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides and their components by Bifidobacterium infantis ATTC on batch culture in semisynthetic medium. J Appl Microbiol. 90: Pessoni RAB, FigueredoRibeiro RCL, Braga MR Extracellular inulinases from Penicillium janczemskii, fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of Vernonia herbacea (Asteracea). J Appl Microbiol. 87: Sangeetha PT, Ramesh MN, Prapulla SP Production of fructooligosaccharides by fructosyl transferase from Aspergillus oryzae CFR 202 and Aureobasidium pullulans CFR 77. Proc. Biochem. 39: Shin HT, Baig SY, Lee SW, Suh DS, Kwon ST, Lim YB, Lee JH Production of fructooligosaccharides from molasses by Aureo basidium pullulans cells. Biores Technol. 93: Swanson KS, Christine MG, Elizabeth AF, Laura LB, Healy HP, Dawson KA, Merchen NR, Fahey CG Supplemental fructooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides influence immune function, ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities, microbial populations and concentrations of protein catabolites in the largebowel of dogs. American Society Nutr Sci. 132: Tsujimoto Y, Watanabe A, Nakano K, Watanabe K, Matsui H, Tsuji K, Tsukihara T, Suzuki Y Gene cloning, expression, and crytallization of a thermostable exoinulinase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KP1289. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 62: Wang XW, Du YG, Bai XF, Li SG The effects of oligochitosan on broiler gut flora, microvilli density, immune function and growth performance. Acta Zoologica Sinica. 15: Wang XW, Lin X, Zhang L, Du YG, Bai XF, Shu SG Effect of oligochitosan on broiler performance, small intestine structure and muscle mineral element concentration. J China Cereal Oil Ass. 20: Waterhouse AL, Chatterton NJ Glossary of fructan terms. In: Suzuki M, Chatterton NJ, editor. Science and Technology of Fructans. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 27. Van Loo J Inulin and oligofructose: Health benefits and claimsa critical review: How chicory fructans contribute to zootechnical performance and WellBeing in livestock and companion animals. J Nutr. 137: Vandamme EJ, Derycke DG Microbial inulinases: Fermentation process, properties and applications. Adv Appl Microbiol. 29: Alvarez JR, Luque S Purification of oligosaccharides from rice husk autohydrolysis liquors by ultraand nanofiltration. Desalination. 199: Vetere A. Gamini A, Campa C, Paoletti S Regiospecific transglycolytic synthesis and structural characterization of 6oalphaglucopyranosylglucopyranose (isomaltose). Biochem. Biophys Res Commun. 274: Mannan Oligosaccharides (MOS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in broilers: Effects on performance and blood biochemistry. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 32(1): The Effect of Dietary Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) on Performance, Egg Quality Characteristics and Egg Cholesterol Content in Laying Hens. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 51(8): akli P, Gungor, T, Uysal H The Effect of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) on Blood Parameters, Liver Enzymes and Intestinal ph in Laying Hens. J Anim. Vet. Adv. 2008, 7 (10): Rasyonlara ilave edilen maya ve borik asidin broylerlerde. Kafkas Univ. Vet Fak Derg. 17(3): Zhang WF, Li DF, Lu WQ, Yi GF Effects of isomaltooligosaccharides on broiler performance and intestinal microflora. Poult Sci. 82: Kocatepe Vet J (1):

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