ANIMAL FARM HIS FATHER WORKED FOR THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE.

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1 ANIMAL FARM THE NOVEL WAS PUBLISHED IN THE YEAR GEORGE ORWELL IS THE AUTHOR. HE WAS BORN ERIC BLAIR IN BENGAL, INDIA IN HIS FATHER WORKED FOR THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE. INDIA WAS A COLONY OF GREAT BRITAIN AT THIS TIME. ORWELL RETURNED TO ENGLAND TO ATTEND SCHOOL. HE GRADUATED FROM EATON SCHOOL IN AFTER GRADUATION, HE JOINED THE CIVIL SERVICE IN BURMA (NOW MYANMAR) AND BECAME A SERGEANT IN THE INDIAN IMPERIAL POLICE. HE SERVED IN BURMA FROM 1922 TO HE GREW TO DISLIKE THE IDEA OF A COUNTRY LIKE GREAT BRITAIN RULING THE LIVES OF PEOPLE WHO LIVED THOUSANDS OF MILES AWAY. WHEN HE RETURNED TO ENGLAND ON LEAVE IN 1927, HE RESIGNED HIS POST. ORWELL THEN DECIDES TO TRY TO BECOME A WRITER. ALTHOUGH HE WAS WEALTHY, HE LIVES ON THE STREETS OF LONDON AND PARIS FOR OVER A YEAR. THAT RESEARCH WAS THE BASIS FOR HIS FIRST NOVEL WHICH WAS ENTITLED DOWN AND OUT IN PARIS AND LONDON AND PUBLISHED IN IN THE LATE 1930 S, HE WORKED AS A REPORTER COVERING THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR. THIS EXPERIENCE LEADS HIM TO BECOME A SOCIALIST. A SOCIALIST IS ONE WHO ADVODATES PUBLIC OR COMMON OWNERSHIP OF RESOURCES AND PRODUCTION. HE ALSO GREW TO HATE FOUR TYPES OF GOVERNMENT: COMMUNISM, TOTALITARIANISM, DESPOTISM, MARXISM. DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR, HE WORKED ON HIS NOVEL ANIMAL FARM.

2 THE NOVEL IS A SATIRE OF RUSSIA (THE SOVIET UNION- UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS). A SATIRE IS WRITING THAT MAKES FUN OF SOMETHING. THE THREE LEADING TARGETS FOR A SATIRE: GOVERNMENT, UPPER CLASS, AND CHURCH. THE NOVEL IS ALSO A FABLE. A FABLE FEATURES ANIMALS, PLANTS, FORCES OF NATURE, MYTHICAL CREATURES, AND/OR INANIMATE OBJECTS BEING GIVEN HUMAN QUALITIES. HE FINISHED HIS NOVEL BEFORE WORLD WAR II ENDED, BUT HE WAS UNABLE TO GET IT PUBLISHED UNTIL AFTER THE WAR ENDED IN HIS NOVEL 1984 WAS PUBLISHED IN THIS NOVEL PRESENTS A GOVERNMENT THAT IS ALWAYS KEEPING TABS ON ITS CITIZENS. NORTH KOREA CLOSELY RESEMBLES THE COUNTRY DEPICTED IN THE BOOK WHEN 1984 ROLLED AROUND. ORWELL DIED OF TUBERLOCIOSIS IN ANIMAL FARM PRESENTS A GROUP OF ANIMALS LOOKING FOR A UTOPIAN SOCIETY. UTOPIA IS A PERFECT PLACE. UTOPIA IS ALSO A NOVEL BY SIR THOMAS MORE. SYMBOLISM IS HUGE IN THE NOVEL. MANOR FARM IS THE NAME OF THE FARM WHEN THE NOVEL BEGINS. MANOR FARM SYMBOLIZES THE COUNTRY OF RUSSIA. WHEN THE ANIMALS TAKE OVER THE FARM, THEY CHANGE THE NAME TO ANIMAL FARM. ANIMAL FARM SYMBOLIZES THE SOVIET UNION. LIST OF CHARACTERS: OLD MAJOR IS A PIG WHO SYMBOLIZES KARL MARX AND VLADIMIR LENIN. AT THE BEGINNING OF THE NOVEL, THE ANIMALS ARE EXCITED TO HEAR ABOUT A DREAM OLD MAJOR HAS.

3 KARL MARX IS THE FOUNDER OF COMMUNISM. HE WROTE THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO WHICH IS LIKE THE BIBLE FOR COMMUNISM. OLD MAJOR PREACHES ANIMALISM IN THE BOOK. ANIMALISM IS COMMUNISM. LENIN WAS THE FIRST COMMUNIST LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION. NAPOLEON IS A PIG WHO SYMBOLIZES JOSEF STALIN. NAPOLEON IS A DIFFERENT BREED OF PIG THAN THE OTHER PIGS ON THE FARM. STALIN WAS FROM A DIFFERENT REGION OF THE SOVIET UNION THAN MOST OF THE LEADERS. HE WAS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA. NAPOLEON IS A MEAN PIG. STALIN WAS A MEAN MAN. SNOWBALL SYMBOLIZES LEON TROTSKY. SNOWBALL WANTS TO MODERNIZE THE FARM WHILE TROTSKY WANTED TO MODERNIZE THE SOVIET UNION. NAPOLEON AND SNOWBALL ARE ENEMIES WHO FIGHT FOR CONTROL OF ANIMAL FARM AFTER OLD MAJOR DIES. STALIN AND TROTSKY ARE ENEMIES WHO FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OF THE SOVIET UNION AFTER LENIN DIED. SQUEALER IS A PIG WHO SYMBOLIZES PROPAGANDA. PROPAGANDA IS ONE-SIDED INFORMATION DESIGNED TO PERSUADE, I.E. COMMERCIALS. IT IS SQUEALER S JOB TO MAKE SURE THE ANIMALS BELIEVE WHAT NAPOLEON SAYS. BOXER IS A STRONG HORSE WHO IS THE MOST ADMIRED ANIMAL ON THE FARM. HE IS HUGE (EIGHTEEN HANDS HIGH, FOUR INCHES PER HAND), AND HE IS NOT VERY BRIGHT. BOXER SYMBOLIZES THE WORKING CLASS PEOPLE IN THE SOVIET UNION. CLOVER IS A HORSE WHO IS THE MATRIARCH OF THE ANIMALS. SHE ALSO SYMBOLIZES WORKING CLASS PEOPLE. BENJAMIN IS A DONKEY WHO IS SKEPTICAL OF THE CHANGES BEING MADE ON THE FARM. HE HAS A BAD DISPOSITION, AND HE IS BOXER S FRIEND.

4 HE ALSO SYMBOLIZES WORKING CLASS PEOPLE. MURIEL IS A GOAT WHO IS THE BEST READER AMONG THE ANIMALS. SHE SYMBOLIZES WORKING CLASS PEOPLE. BLUEBELL, JESSIE AND PINCHER ARE DOGS (WORKING CLASS). BLUEBELL AND JESSIE HAVE PUPPIES WHO ARE TAKEN BY NAPOLEON. THOSE DOGS WILL SYMBOLZIE STALIN S SECRET POLICE. MOLLIE IS A VAIN HORSE. SHE LIKES TO PRIMP. SHE IS NOT A FAN OF THE WAY THINGS ARE GOING ON THE FARM. SHE SYMBOLZIES UNHAPPY WORKING CLASS PEOPLE. MOSES IS A RAVEN WHO SYMBOLIZES THE CHURCH. MOSES TALKS ABOUT SUGAR CANDY MOUNTAIN, WHICH SYMBOLIZES HEAVEN. MR. JONES IS THE OWNER OF MANOR FARM. JONES SYMBOLIZES CZAR (OR TSAR) NICHOLAS II WHO WAS THE RULER OF RUSSIA. ROMANOV WAS NICHOLAS S LAST NAME. HIS FAMILY RULED RUSSIA FROM 1613 TO MRS. JONES SYMBOLIZES ALEXANDRA. MR. PILKINGTON OWNS A NEIGHBORING FARM NAMED FOXWOOD. PILKINGTON SYMBOLIZES WINSTON CHURCHILL WHO WAS PRIME MINISTER OF GREAT BRITAIN DURING WORLD WAR II. FOXWOOD SYMBOLZIES ENGLAND. MR. FREDERICK OWNS ANOTHER FARM NEAR ANIMAL FARM NAMED PINCHFIELD. FREDERICK SYMBOLIZES ADOLPH HITLER WHO RULED GERMANY FROM PINCHFIELD SYMBOLIZES GERMANY. WHYMPER IS A SOLICITOR (LAWYER) WHO ACTS AS AN AGENT BETWEEN NAPOLEON AND THE HUMAN BEINGS HE TRADES WITH. EVENTS IN THE NOVEL:

5 BEAST OF ENGLAND IS A SONG THAT SYMBOLIZES THE REBELLION. REBELLION SYMBOLIZES THE MAY REVOLUTION. BATTLE OF THE COWSHED SYMBOLIZES THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917, NOVEMBER ON MOST CALENDARS. RUSSIA STILL USED THE JULIAN CALENDAR AT THIS TIME INSTEAD OF THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR. BATTLE OF THE WINDMILL SYMBOLIZES GERMANY INVADING THE SOVIET UNION IN WORLD WAR II. BUILDING THE WINDMILL SYMBOLIZES STALIN S FIVE YEAR PLANS. THE MEETING BETWEEN NAPOLEON AND PILKINGTON SYMBOLIZES THE MEETING BETWEEN STALIN AND CHURCHILL AT THE TEHERAN PEACE CONFERENCE DURING WORLD WAR II.

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