MICHGAN BRIDGE CONFERENCE

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1 MICHGAN BRIDGE CONFERENCE Increased LRFD Axial Resistance Factors for Piling Using Static Load Test and PDA Testing Christopher Naida, P.E., SME Chris D. Johnecheck, P.E., Michigan Department of Transportation March 17, 2015

2 OVERVIEW How Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is addressed in driven pile design Two aspects: construction and design (estimating pile lengths) MDOT implementation of Dynamic Testing (PDA) and Static Load Tests Case studies

3 LRFD Design for Pile Driving General LRFD Equation Σ η*γ*q φ*r n η = Load Modifier (redundancy, operational importance) γ = Load Factor Q = Service Load or Force φ = Resistance Factor R n = Nominal Pile Bearing Resistance (Ultimate) Factored Geotechnical Resistance (R R ): R R = φ*r n = φ static *R s + φ static *R p = φ dyn *R n φ static = resistance factor for static analysis method used to estimate pile lengths (Table ) φ dyn = resistance factor for dynamic method used to verify nominal pile bearing resistance (Table ) R s & R p = pile side and tip resistance used to estimate pile lengths R n is used as the basis for determining R ndr during pile driving

4 LRFD Design for Pile Driving (continued) R R = φ dyn *R ndr (assumes no scour or downdrag on pile) φ dyn value is based on type of quality control used in construction Quality Control During Construction Dynamic Formula (modified gates formula) φ dyn = 0.5 Dynamic Pile Testing (PDA) φ dyn = 0.65* Static Load Test φ dyn = * (may decrease based on site variability) * Requires dynamic testing with signal matching, and best estimates are made from a restrike

5 Saximeter

6 PDA Gauges

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8 M-85 Load Test

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11 TYPICAL NOMINAL PILE DRIVING RESISTANCE (R ndr ) Steel H Piles Pile (R ndr ) HP 10X kips HP 10X kips HP 12X kips HP 12X kips HP 12X kips HP 14X kips HP 14X kips

12 TYPICAL NOMINAL PILE DRIVING RESISTANCE (R ndr ) continued Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles Pile Size (R ndr ) Metal Shell 12" O.D. w/0.312" Walls 250 kips Metal Shell 14" O.D. w/0.312" Walls 350 kips Metal Shell 16" O.D. w/0.375" Walls 500 kips Timber Pile Timber Pile (R ndr ) 150 kips

13 Factored Nominal Pile Bearing Resistance Example Assume geotechnical engineer uses R ndr = 350 kips Dynamic Formula (modified gates formula) R R = φ dyn *R ndr R R = 0.5 (350 kips) = 175 kips Dynamic Pile Testing (PDA) R R = 0.65 (350 kips) = 227 kips Static Load Test R R = 0.8 (350 kips) = 280 kips Designer can use higher factored resistance when specifying a more reliable form of Quality Control

14 Perform Economic Analysis General rules for Resistance Factor (φ dyn ) (detailed analysis shall be performed) Project Driven Pile Cost <$300,000 >$300,000 Pile Certification Method FHWA-Modified Gates Formula Dynamic Testing/Signal Matching (PDA Testing) Resistance Factor (φ dyn ) * >$500,000 Static Load Test * This resistance factor applies to the Beginning of Redrive (BOR) case.

15 Estimating Pile Lengths for Contract Documents AASHTO Bridge Design Manual states (C ): The estimated pile length necessary to provide the required nominal resistance is determined using static analysis, local pile driving experience, knowledge of the site subsurface conditions, and/or results from a static pile load test program. In lieu of local pile driving experience, consider the following equation using static analysis: φ dyn *R n = φ static *R nstat (C ) R nstat = predicted nominal resistance from the static analysis used to estimate pile lengths

16 AASHTO Static Resistance Factors-φstatic

17 Estimating Pile Length Example φ dyn *R n = φ static *R nstat...equation estimates lengths reasonable when using the dynamic formula (modified gates) and associated φ dyn = 0.5 Example: Assume R ndr = 350 kips, a sand profile, and using the modified gates formula for quality control Using dynamic formula: 0.5 * 350 kips = 0.45 * R nstat.estimate pile length based on R nstat = 390 kips Caution: When using extreme limits of static & dynamic analysis: 0.8 * 350 kips = 0.45 * R nstat.. R nstat = 620 kip

18 Contract Documentation of Design Note the R ndr on the design plans. Note the dynamic resistance factor utilized in the design analysis on the design plans. If loss of resistance due to scour or downdrag are expected, quantify these losses on the design plans. Include dynamic testing or static load test SP in contract documents if specified on the project.

19 Increased LRFD Axial Resistance Factors for Piling Using Static Load Test and PDA Testing Case Studies

20 Benton Harbor Project Overview New 6-story building supported on H-piles (HP10x42) Designed for lengths of 150 feet to penetrate extremely dense sands Driven lengths of 150 to 190 feet Construction manager getting claims from piling contractor due to longer piles Photo Courtesy of Yahoo Maps

21 Benton Harbor Soil Conditions Loose sands and organics (e.g., peat) over extremely dense sands Photos Courtesy of SME

22 Benton Harbor Results Photo Courtesy of SME Drove P719 from 140 to 153 feet o Axial pile capacity was below the requirement Re-strike on P716 previously driven (3 days from initial drive) o Increased blow counts (resistance) met design o Reduced blow counts with driving (i.e., 10, 7, 6, 4, 2 bpi) o Localized loss of support from fine silty sands

23 Benton Harbor Results Pile and soil observations o Cycled loading from pile driving Increased pore water pressures, reduced skin friction and soil plug formation at pile tip Led to softening and accumulation of deformation (e.g., decreasing blow counts and capacity) o Setup and Re-strike (3 days later) Time allowed sands to reduce pore water pressure Increased effective stress and pile capacity

24 Benton Harbor Easy Initial Driving Photos Courtesy of SME

25 Benton Harbor Hard Driving during Re-strike Photos Courtesy of SME

26 Thompson Township Project Overview New bridge supported on pipe-piles o inch dia. with a inch thick wall o 0.75 inch steel plated bottom Piles were designed for lengths of 35 feet to penetrate into dense sands Photo Courtesy of Yahoo Maps

27 Thompson Township Soil Conditions Loose sands and organics over dense sands Decreasing strength to medium dense sands over limestone Artesian water flow with positive pressure flow of 15 gal/min out of borehole Water flow occurred between elevations 567 to 544 feet Photo Courtesy of MDOT

28 Thompson Township Pile Installation Criteria Required nominal capacity of 115 kips Initial drive of pile to minimum tip elevation of 588 feet in dense sands o Measure capacity and stop if met o If needed continue driving Continue driving pile to maximum tip elevation of 569 feet (above artesian water elevation of 567 feet) o Measure capacity and re-strike as needed o If required reduce capacity and add more piles Photo Courtesy of MDOT

29 Thompson Township Results Abutment B piles achieved capacity in upper dense sands Abutment A piles achieved capacity in lower medium dense sands Photo Courtesy of SME

30 Questions?

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