1 With the support of FOR whom, FOR what would YOU GIVE YOUR LIFE TODAY? Public Service Radio Partners An Extensive Survey of Commitment Listeners have their say! Austria Belgium Canada France Germany Poland Romania Senegal Switzerland
2 Table of Contents Editor s Letter 4 Introduction, by the Sphinx Institute 6 Analysis from Philosophie Magazine 8 Breakdown of Survey Results 13 Question 1 - In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share in your country at the turn of this new century? 15 Question 2 - In order to live your values, what would you commit yourself to? 29 Question 3 - As a final commitment, would you ever risk or give your life? 43 Question 3a - In what circumstances, if any, would you be prepared to give up your life? 57 The Image Wall - Which three of these images best represent this question to you? 71 Summary of Survey Results 79 Views from Listeners 85 Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Switzerland
3 Whither Values? Whither Commitment? Our Listeners Have Their Say! service radio stations were willing to join this great unprecedented participatory survey. This survey report presents striking results, allowing us to outline changes in our values over time. For instance, the Radio France listeners, among other noticeable responses, have felt free to unbalance the usual French Liberty, Equality, Fraternity motto by favouring their commitment to Solidarity, Environment, or Education; whereas our German friends have chosen to place Peace as a necessity above anything else! This short report also brings in forceful statements from our fellow citizens as they ponder upon what would make them risk their lives today. Words of doubts, humility, and deep beliefs at once. Words of extraordinary sincerity, doing a better job than any study at explaining how much we value our lives today. Twenty years ago, we asked our listeners to look into their memories and attic chests so we could reenact the feeling of daily life back in Thanks are due to those who listen to the Radio France stations and other 1914/1918. The result was Paroles de Poilus (Infantry Poilus Have public service radio channels; thanks for taking the time to share their 4 5 Their Say). The book was so successful that it would lead to many more personal views for the sake of joint thinking and discussion. This feeling editions of Paroles de of commonality translated into a series of special broadcasts dedicated to this great survey on all of our radio stations on Monday, 2 June, this year! As commemorative events are marking the hundredth anniversary of the Great War, we have decided to look into the future by asking the listeners Thanks to the Sphinx Institute for sharing its expertise so we could make of all the Radio France stations what their shared values are. Which full use of the survey results. Thanks to Philosophie Magazine for bringing common ground would they build this new century upon? in the material with regard to philosophical considerations. What would they really do in defence of their values? What would we Thanks to our partners in the public service radios, to the European really do? How far committed? Does it take just a one-click support on Broadcasting Union, and to URTI for making this great adventure come social media or activism within a trade union or a political party? This true. May this be the stepping-stone to fruitful regular further cooperation broad-spectrum coverage helps us gain a thorough knowledge of societal in future. developments. Such is the fulfilment of our public service remit: listening to our listeners Then comes the ultimate question. Quite disturbing. A question we do so they can be heard to the fullest extent. not like to ask ourselves even though we all hold it as of paramount Jérôme Bouvier importance. A seemingly distant question which could be raised again, Radio France Ombudsman urging in the blowing wind of History: would you be willing to risk or give your life for these values? Whether private citizens or public figures, there have been over 20,000 respondents, not only from France, but also from Germany, Belgium, Canada, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Switzerland, Austria, where the public
4 The Sphinx Institute is pleased to collaborate with Radio France on this joint effort to conduct the participatory survey For Whom, for What Would You Give Your Life Today? launched as part of the memorial events marking the hundredth anniversary of World War I. This survey was the occasion to collect a huge, comprehensive corpus of some 20,000 observations for analysis. This presents a whole range of responses as food for thought to nurture and challenge our reasoning on this thorny question still puzzling us either as an individual or at the level of a society. In addition, the survey finds one of its strengths in a cross-border discussion set simultaneously (in France, Germany, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Senegal, Russia, Poland, Belgium, Romania ) in order to fathom out parallels and divergences on an international scale. The comparison was made possible by a multilingual implementation, giving room and space for illustrations and images, inciting the respondents to express themselves while opening up a terrain that has mostly remained uncharted to date. The Sphinx Institute has placed all its expertise in terms of technology and methodology into this ambitious project, supporting this initiative wholeheartedly as a privileged partner. A specialised research centre for data collection and analytical processes, the Sphinx Institute manages a full range of survey projects within a variety of fields and sectors. Enhanced with its parent company s 30-year expertise in studies and statistics, the Sphinx Institute is dedicated to online surveys, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. Risking or Giving Your Life: Results Show Significant Cross-Border Differences It is interesting to compare the results for listeners from France, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Belgium, and Canada. Would similar considerations be found in the face of this one great question? All else being equal, could there be any expressions of national characteristics? The analysis reveals that a significantly greater number of Polish respondents are more willing to risk or give up their lives, whereas the Swiss and the Germans show more reluctance towards this idea. Likewise, for the circumstances put forward when asked for the reasons they would ever risk their lives, the Poles are much more inclined to put forward their country or religion, whereas the Germans emphasise the family, while the French evoke their ideals. When asked for their views on the core values that their fellow citizens should share, strong disparities emerged across the involved countries. The analysis outlines tangible cultural and structural differences, owing to the respondent s respective national history. As the French seem to find common ground in solidarity, environment, and education, the Germans have a specific tendency to focus on peace, freedom, and justice, whereas the Polish respondents would bring their family, homeland, and religious beliefs to the foreground. Also, the Swiss and Belgian respondents appear to share values more in common with their French counterparts. Respect, solidarity, and environment are the answers mostly received from Switzerland compared with the solidarity, respect, and education preferred in Belgium, while the Canadian respondents would rather opt for education and equality. 6 7
5 There is something powerful and quite audacious about the question asked by Radio France this year; how audacious to swim the Zeitgeist river of trends upstream! Predictably, most of the respondents would answer, To die for my children? Yes! To give up my life saving someone else s? Perhaps. For a concept, a country, a political party, a religion? No way! Furthermore, those who have not followed the majority of respondents are helplessly looked upon with eyes of suspicion: are they fanatic, indoctrinated, irresponsible people? As a sign of the times, whenever journalists at large in Mali or Syria are reported missing or kidnapped, the virtuous-minded will now be wondering whether they have not done a little too much on purpose. The distance between this question and us is a century-long gap, from August 1914 on, or the seventy years between today and June At least this is what we first thought, as the survey was launched last autumn. In the meantime, our perspective has evolved. Maybe the freshly collected verbatims, the results of the survey, and the contributions of the philosophers we interviewed (Anne Dufourmantelle, Miguel Benasayag, David Le Breton, Pierre Zaoui) all have reframed the issue. Maybe the death toll in Maidan, Ukraine has played a part too. Suddenly, this is not about years ago, but a few kilometres away not a matter of a whole century, but a three-hour flight from here. It is not just the Maidan event, of course. There is also that strange atmosphere hanging over France and also that old domestic habit we experience with a book or a TV series, asking us to choose our camp between resistance and collaboration. Something is on the move from deep within. The purpose of a radio station or a magazine is not only to measure the ebbs and flows of the Zeitgeist, but also to raise questions without prompting, to open up our eyes, and to identify changes throughout time. Special thanks are due to Radio France for inviting us to take part in this survey. Fabrice Gerschel Publishing Director of Philosophie Magazine Risking life as a whole rather than risking the whole of one s life. Anne Dufourmantelle, philosopher and psychoanalyst, is the author of Éloge du risque (In Praise of Risk) Payot, 2011, La Femme et le Sacrifice (Women and Sacrifice) Denoël, 2007, and, her latest work, Puissance de la douceur (Powerful Sweetness) Payot, A society that leaves no room for sacrifice is a society of perversion. This truth is only a way of saying the following: without any possible sacrifice whether it comes in the form of an act of bravery or resistance in everyday life an ineluctable outlook of totality and withdrawal is being outlined, as shown by Jan Patočka in his Heretical Essays in the Philosophy of History. He asserts that focusing on today s values is preparing for a totalitarian world. Au contraire, sacrifice gives shape to the event, splitting the momentum of psyche, humanity, and history into two parts, creating a before and an after. Going through it heralds novelty. 9 Nevertheless, ranking sacrifice up to a stand-alone value may be an utterly hazardous endeavour. This is an ambivalent concept: One can distinguish a faint difference between sacrifice and renunciation. Sacrifice bends towards life, whereas renunciation belongs to the neurotic structures. Renunciation is an act of abdication vis-à-vis desire, framing a once open space. Meanwhile, sacrifice is an opening to a new time, a bounce ahead, reflecting a radical unruliness. This empowers the sacrifice actor with a sizeable importance. Democracy originates from revolutionary occurrences, yet its current materialistic functioning obviates the necessary spiritual ideal in the name of which more revolutions could be started. Democracy makes use of religious fanaticism
6 which, in fact, offers an amount of total deadly sacrifice like a supreme repellent, providing an alibi for a ban on any radicality that could question its paradigm of convenience as well as its position as holder of the order of things. Now it appears that true sacrifice has no liability to fanaticism nor deadliness. Therein lies a concept of resistance in a sense that it takes a granted loss before it can build upon a new ground in consistency with the newly created reality. Take wartime heroes, for instance, being both heroes and victims at once as parts of a unique story line in our collective historical timeline; their sacrifice is a key to a higher level of humanity. They are not giving up their lives but committing themselves heart and soul to a notion of life as a reminder that being human is not meant to go without any strings attached. A useful figure allowing everyone to gather together, regardless of the existent hostilities, making them all stand united behind one same front line over a certain idea of mankind, sketching a whole line of meaning fulness into existence. At the same time, sacrifice represents an unacceptable threat to society, for sacrifice is an act of subversion that takes the subject out of the social game, rendering one impossible to grab and impossible to read. Giorgio Agamben stressed how sacrifice is akin to the sacred. Indeed, to sacrifice is to take an event, figure, or date out of a line of profanity and mundanity in order to place it into the exceptional. This happening unravels the common timeline so as to spin another time frame off of it, from which both another world and another outlook can be discovered. Now no society can live only in a profane order, without sacred bearings, without its share of darkness and risks; both sacralisation and sacrifice are as necessary as they are insupportable. How does society deal with such a paradox? By undermining the issue of sacrifice and overwhelmingly covering it with that of security. The anxiety of insecurity is such that we cannot tolerate any occurrence that might go against our idea of total security for the individual, restricting our freedom while outlining the totalitarian outlook against which Jan Patočka warned us of. Such freedom is not restricted by censorship. No coercion needed each and every one lets an insidious rule slip into one s inner self, a rule that operates from within, taking advantage of networking individuals and their absolute availability. There exists no political organisation, ruler, or outside power that could, in fact, tame one s inner self. From inside and by one s own will, one fully unfolds, spreading oneself too thin, until complete transparency is achieved, ruining one s inner self, thus placing oneself in vulnerable circumstances. Which ways to resistance? By operating below the radar screen of society, escaping community networks and various inductive forms of voluntary servitude? More generally, by managing to leave room for secrets, this is not about the small secret of one s little hidden flaws, nor the official secret, but the secret one needs to grant in mutual agreement with oneself. Therefore, one would yield to resistance and fully live one s life, and one should renounce the vows of security and regard facing risks as acceptable in a way back to our inner compass, as in Lacan s words, Desire is obligation. Instead, all systematic endeavours of life insurance are parts of a bigger system of servitude. Risking life as a whole rather than risking the whole of one s life, to put it in a nutshell. We are all looking forward to living major historic momenta, whereas it is more about having insistingly constant ethics appointments with oneself Interview by Cédric Enjalbert for Philosophie magazine, February 2014
7 Breakdown of Survey Results
8 In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share in your country at the turn of this new century?
9 Belgium In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in Belgium were female by 51.3% and under 35 years old by 41%. By age group* Belgium From Belgium* Freedom 30.4% Environment 28.1% Justice 24% Family 21.7% Peace 21.3% Equality 19.7% Work 9.6% Sense of fellowship 9.4% Multiculturalism 8.1% Culture 7.1% Security 6.5% Homeland 3.8% Identity 3.7% Religious Beliefs 3.1% Determination 2.3% Other 1 % By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
10 Canada In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in Canada were male by 76.9% and years old by 40.3%. Canada By gender group* From Canada* By age group* Equality 29.3% Environment 28.3% Education 28% Solidarity 22.9% Family 21.1% Respect 20.6% Sense of fellowship 8.5% Culture 5.7% Work 4.4% Identity 4.1% Religious Beliefs 3.1% Homeland 2.3% Determination 1% Other 0.5% Security 8.5% Multiculturalism 6.2% * Most quoted answers.
11 France In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in France were female by 57.5% and under 35 years old by 51%. By age group* France From France* Freedom 28.6% Respect 28.3% Justice 20.3% Equality 20.3% Peace 19.7% Sense of fellowship 17.7% Culture 13.2% Work 7.5% Homeland 5% Religious Beliefs 4.5% Determination 3.5% Identity 3.2% Security 2.7% Other 1.1% By political trend** By gender group* Family 12.8% Multiculturalism 10.3% * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
12 Germany In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in Germany were male by 67.6% and under 35 years old by 41.2%. By age group* Germany From Germany* Family 28.2% Environment 22.9% Education 21.2% Solidarity 18.5% Respect 15% Equality 11.8% Security 7.7% Homeland 6.7% Sense of fellowship 6.2% Religious Beliefs 5.3% Culture 4.8% Multiculturalism 4.6% Identity 4% Work 3.1% Other 1.4% Determination 1% By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
13 Poland In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in Poland were male by 65.6% and under 35 years old by 48.9%. By age group* Poland From Poland* Justice 25.9% Solidarity 10.1% Environment 5.2% By political trend** Peace 25.2% Sense of fellowship 10% Multiculturalism 3.1% Religious Beliefs 23.6% Culture 9.3% Determination 1.7% Respect 17.4% Identity 9.2% Other 1.1% Security 16.9% Work 8.7% Equality 12.2% Education 6.5% By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
14 Switzerland In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share 1 in your country at the turn of this new century? The survey respondents in Switzerland were male by 72.1% and under 35 years old by 48.7%. By age group* Switzerland From Switzerland* Environment 28.4% Homeland 8% Freedom 28.1% Peace 22.8% Justice 21.8% Family 20% Equality 16.3% Security 9.5% Work 9% Multiculturalism 8.8% Culture 7.1% Sense of fellowship 6.6% Religious Beliefs 6.6% Identity 5% Determination 4.2% Other 1.2% By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
15 In order to live your values, what would you commit yourself to?
16 Belgium In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? By age group* Belgium From Belgium* Joining an association, a society 51.3% Demonstrating (street protests) 38.2% Donating to movements/ organisations that promote these values 32.4% Joining a political party 19.3% Joining a trade union 9.5% My religious customs 8.8% By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
17 Canada In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? By gender group* Canada From Canada* By age group* Demonstrating (street protests) 39.5% Joining an association, a society 33.9% Donating to movements/organisations that promote these values 32.3% Joining a political party 16.1% Joining a trade union 10.1% My religious customs 6.1% * Most quoted answers.
18 France In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? By age group* France From France* Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) 51.5% Demonstrating (street protests) 45% Donating to movements/ organisations that promote these values 30.4% Joining a political party 15% Joining a trade union 11.7% My religious customs 11.4% By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
19 Germany In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? By age group* Germany From Germany* Donating to movements/ organisations that promote these values 52.8% Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) 46.8% Joining an association, a society 33.2% Joining a political party 27.1% Joining a trade union 18.4% My religious customs 16% By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
20 Poland In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? By age group* Poland From Poland* Joining an association, a society 31.9% My religious customs 26% Donating to movements/ organisations that promote these values 24.1% Demonstrating (street protests) 20.6% Joining a trade union 17% Joining a political party 6.6% By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
21 Switzerland In order to live your values, 2 what would you commit yourself to? From Switzerland* By age group* Switzerland Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) 42,3% Donating to movements/ organisations that promote these values 35,3 % Demonstrating (street protests) 28,5% Joining a political party 19,3 % My religious customs 12,5 % Joining a trade union 8,4 % By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
22 As a final commitment, would you ever risk or give your life?
23 Belgium As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? By age group Belgium From Belgium By socio-occupational category By gender group
24 Canada As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? By age group Canada From Canada By socio-occupational category By gender group
25 France As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? By age group France From France By socio-occupational category By gender group
26 Germany As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? By age group Germany From Germany By socio-occupational category By gender group
27 Poland As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? By age group Poland From Poland By socio-occupational category By gender group
28 Switzerland As a final commitment, 3 would you ever risk or give your life? From Switzerland By age group Switzerland By socio-occupational category By gender group
29 In what circumstances, if any, would you be prepared to give up your life?
30 Belgium 3 prepared to give up your life? a In what circumstances, if any, would you be Belgium By gender group* From Belgium* By age group* For my religion 6.2% For my career 0.7% For financial gain 0.5% * Most quoted answers.
31 Canada 3 prepared to give up your life? a In what circumstances, if any, would you be Canada By gender group* From Canada* By age group* For my religion 6.5% For my career 2.3% For financial gain 0.7% * Most quoted answers.
32 France In what circumstances, if any, would you be 3 prepared to give up your life? a By age group* France From France* For my religion 11.9% For my career 1.7% For financial gain 0.7% By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
33 Germany 3 prepared to give up your life? a In what circumstances, if any, would you be By age group* Germany From Germany* For my religion 7.8% For my career 1.1% For financial gain 0.9% By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
34 Poland 3 prepared to give up your life? a In what circumstances, if any, would you be By age group* Poland From Poland* For my ideals 31.4% For financial gain 1.6% For my career 1.4% By political trend** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
35 Switzerland 3 prepared to give up your life? a In what circumstances, if any, would you be By age group* Switzerland From Switzerland* For my religion 12,7 % For my career 2,2 % For financial gain 0,8 % By religious position** By gender group* * Most quoted answers. ** Most specific answers.
36 Which three of these images best represent this question to you?
37 Belgium 4Top Four Images: Belgium s Choice Canada 4Top Four Images: Canada s Choice 60.4% 65.1% % 33.3% 32.9% 29.8% 26% 31.6%
38 France 4 Top Four Images: France s Choice Germany 4Top Four Images: Germany s Choice 64.1% 47.5% 39.2% % 35.4% 28.6% 35% 19.5%
39 Poland 4Top Four Images: Poland s Choice Switzerland 4Top Four Images: Switzerland s Choice 72.1% 59.9% 34.6% % 30.3% 29.7% 14.4% 28.1%
40 Summary of Survey Results
41 33.3% Canada Freedom Justice Peace 37% 34.4% 32.9% France Solidarity Environment Education 37.2% 32.4% 30.2% Freedom Peace Justice 47.8% 46.1% 39.7% Poland Family Freedom Homeland 39.1% 36.2% 32.3% Romania Education Family Religious Beliefs 35.1% 31.1% 28.4% Work Religious Beliefs Peace 52% 45.5% 39.1% Respect Solidarity Education 35.6% 30.6% 29.3% Voting 88.7% 57% 54.3% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) 86.3% 69.3% 49.1% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Joining an association, a society 91.1% 63.9% 56.7% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Demonstrating (street protests) 82.7% 76.1% 57.8% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) 84.7% 47.2% 34.8% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Demonstrating (street protests) 64.9% 40.5% 23% Applying these values in my everyday life My religious customs Voting 80.4% 54% 42% Applying these values in my everyday life Voting Joining an association, a society 90.1% 75.3% 44.2% Austria 33.3% Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) Belgium 34.2% Applying these values in my everyday life Canada Respect 63.3% France Education 70.8% Germany Belgium Solidarity Voting 90.7% Poland 35.7% Showing moral support (petitions, social media, etc.) Romania 38.8% Applying these values in my everyday life Senegal 44.9% 2 In order to live your values, what would you commit yourself to? Switzerland Austria Environment Germany Justice Senegal 80 Peace Switzerland 1 In your opinion, what are the three core values that your fellow citizens should share in your country at the turn of this new century? 81
42 For my family For my ideals For my country 31.2% 87.9% 46.7% 23.9% Yes No For my family For my ideals For my country 29.4% 80.8% 62.3% 21% Canada France Yes No For my family For my ideals For my country 69.9% 30.1% 89% 44.3% 16.6% Yes No For my family For my country For my religion 22.6% 90.1% 50% 36% Poland 70.6% 77.4% Romania 68.8% Germany 9.4% Yes No For my family For my religion For my country 57.5% 42.5% 66.7% 40.5% 35.7% Yes No For my country For my religion For my family 82% 18% 69.3% 62.3% 56.8% Yes No For my family For my ideals For my country 71.6% 28.4% 86.2% 48.8% 24.1% Austria No 47.2% Belgium Yes 86.8% Canada 15.5% 50.9% France For my country 53.4% For my religion Germany For my ideals 86% For my ideals Poland For my family For my family Romania No 32% No Senegal Yes Yes Switzerland Austria Belgium a 68% Senegal 82 3 In what circumstances, if any, would you be prepared to give up your life? 49.1% Switzerland 3 As a final commitment, would you ever risk or give your life? 83
43 Views from Listeners
44 Austria FOR whom, FOR what would YOU GIVE YOUR LIFE TODAY? You can only sacrifice your life for your children! Other human sacrifices do not change the world. One example: Jesus Christ. Only in order to become famous - that s not what one gives one s life for! A. Repression, war, pogroms, persecution, injustice, religious fanaticism, in order not to lose my identity, convictions L. Austria Only if I were reasonably certain that it would indeed have an effect: for a human life, for the lives of many humans, for justice/freedom, or also if I were otherwise faced with the alternative of doing something (extreme) that goes against my conscience. C. I cannot think of any cause for which I would sacrifice my life. Maybe there are reasons, after all; however, I am not aware of them at this point in time. J.
45 Belgium FOR whom, FOR what would YOU GIVE YOUR LIFE TODAY? When risking your life, you might as well risk to make a useless sacrifice of yourself. Each and every one of us on earth is worth more alive than dead. M. As Brassens sang, basically, Dying for ideas is OK for as long as you make it a really slow death! Ideas are the silliest reason for you to die for, especially when they no longer exist the next day. T. Belgium Just die first and let us live! C. In order to save all the good things acquired from struggle and resistance over centuries freedom, women s rights, the separation of church and state, and the end of birthright privileges. A. We all die one day. Better die standing on your feet, then P. I would risk my life for my children so they could live in a free world, for my daughters so they could have the same rights as I did when I grew up developing a sense of self-realisation, and for my sons so they would never have to go to war. R.
46 Canada FOR whom, FOR what would YOU GIVE YOUR LIFE TODAY? I would die for nothing at all because I don t trust our governments anymore. At the end of the day, those who give their lives (as in Afghanistan) only serve the interests of the rulers. Anyway, the warmongers so prompt to defend the homeland never ever take their place on the front lines. D. What a question! Would my country be in jeopardy? Would my loved ones no longer be safe? I d need to be fully convinced of the reasons why I should commit to this first. To be honest, the war in Afghanistan was a mistake. The end result would have been the same with any other methods, but with much fewer human losses. The most shocking to me are all the half-truths they use on us to justify a new war or more conflict operations. C. The only thing I could give my life for would be to liberate a people from the oppression of dictatorship. This being said, as I m not experiencing such living conditions, I can t really think of any other cause in my present life so important that I would die for it. There are many other reasons to fight for, yet not so far as to give your life. I believe education has the power to make things change in time (mentalities, values, etc.). Besides, I think giving up your life is a rather hard loss that is contrary to the goal we need to reach as a group. R. Canada
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