2 Initiating Problem The Initiating problem appears only ONCE! It is what makes the student reflect on a problem he/she whishes to investigate deeper or a problem he/she would like to be able to solve, or that he/she just finds interesting to work with. It s the entrance to the project work for the student.
3 Initiating Problem An example: Every time it rains in Monterrey, I can hardly drive in some streets, as the water is flooding the street! Why does this happen? And why does it happen in some streets and not in other streets?
4 One example? I have noticed that sometimes when I watch a person talk I hear one sound but if I close my eyes and the person repeats the exact same sound I hear something different. Why does this happen? And why does it only happen in some cases and not others?
5 One example Sometimes when I watch a movie it seems that the audio speech material and the visuals content (lips moving) are not following each other. Why does it happen and how come that it only bothers me sometimes and not other?
6 Another example In current film production there is a tradition for having to re-synchronize sound and video material after the initial recordings of movie scenes have been made. This is a long and tedious process which furthermore induces a very high cost for the companies that produces the movies: Sound studios have to be paid, actors have to be brought in again to the production adding to the cost and usually additional technicians have to work on the synchronization. For the viewer the synchronization of audio and video is very important and most viewers from time to time experience that the audio and video in some scenes are not in synchronization.
7 Lately the same problem of de-synchrony have been made apparent in network-applications where large datastreams of audio and video material may not reach the end-application at the exact same time for the final playback. How can we reduce the process of synchronization? Can this be done in a way that preserves aesthetics?
8 An other example: Initiating Problem In Mexico we dye fabrics to be manufactured in other countries. By doing this, we import pollution! We need the employment, so how can we make a dying process that is not polluting the environment with surplus colors from the dying process? And can we do this without a negative influence on the production costs and what will the influence be on the unemployment rate?
9 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis
10 Problem Analysis What is the problem Is the chosen problem really a problem? To who? (If it s not a problem for anyone, then it is not worth solving it is it?). Why is it a problem? How is it a problem? When is it a problem? Where is it a problem?... Etc.
11 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation N times
12 Task Formulation In this phase, the students need to formulate the problem more precisely in order to be very clear of what they will go on working with in the project. It is on the bases of the previous analysis they made, that they can formulate what the project will be dealing with. Make it open in it s formulation. This way the project will have a more scientific approach than if it was formulated with just ONE possible solution! Be open for the unexpected!
13 Task Formulation An example: How can we develop a dying process, where the surplus color from the process can be recycled without raising the production cost of the process?
14 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation N times Problem Delimitation
15 Problem Delimitation In this phase the students must make limits to the project. Most likely the time is not sufficient to deal with all aspects of the chosen problem, so they have to focus on the issues that they will go on with in their further project work. After this phase, the team will have a clear idea of what they will be doing for the rest of the project, as they have made analysis and limitations to the project. In theory: Unexpected problems should hopefully not appear later!
16 An example: Problem Delimitation In this project, we will look into the dying process at a dying factory, and especially focus on the following topics: 1. The process of dying fabrics in general 2. The dying process the specific one used 3. The washing process used 4. Production costs
17 Problem area The human visual system The human auditory system Cognition Feature detection in audio Feature detection in images Feature detection in time-based media Artefacts in audio and vision Network data streams
18 1st approach Trying to understand the visual system Trying to understand the audio system Understand how multi-modality works and where the limits are. Detecting the limits of perception of desynchrony in audio-visual contents. Creating an application that uses the knowledge of de-synchrony for data-streaming purposes.
19 Problem delimitation: In this project we wish to understand the processes that are involved in perceived de-synchrony of audio and visual material, and we wish to focus on: The human auditory system in general The human visual system in general Multimodality - specifically the correspondence between the auditory and visual system Detecting the limits of perception of de-synchrony in audio-visual contents.
20 2nd approach Trying to understand feature detection in audio Trying to understand feature detection in images and time based media Factors that may corrupt correct feature detection Applying the methodologies of feature detection in an application that automatically synchronizes visuals and audio.
21 Problem delimitation: In this project we wish to understand how methods for feature detection of audio and visual content can be used for synchronisation purposes and we wish to focus on: Feature detection in computer systems Parameters that allow proper feature detection. Automatize feature detection in time-based media
22 By the way 1st approach is possible in MED 3 2nd approach might be possible with a 5 year grant project for 5-7 phd s
23 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution
24 Solution In this phase the students work with the solution to the formulated task. In this phase, the technological / scientific content of the project is very high.
25 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution Discussion/conclusion
26 Discussion/conclusion The developed solution(s) is evaluated against the result of the problem analysis (the technical specifications to the solution) and the given specifications/limitations prior to the project. On the bases of this evaluation/discussion, the final conclusion(s) and or recommandation(s) are made for the report. Finally a perspectivation can be included.
27 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution Discussion/conclusion Implementation
28 Implementation The work they have been doing must if possible be implemented. This phase is on how to implement the recommended solution and thus add the last part of the Kolb Circle the experience.
29 Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution Discussion/conclusion Implementation Reporting
30 Reporting The documentation of the project work must be in a format which we can assess or evaluate. The best way to do so, is to let the students make a project report on their work during the semester (period). The report should be coherent and with a clear line of argument. In some cases, the students also make a process analysis, that describes and analyses the students process on cooperation, conflict solving, time scheduling, evaluations of courses etc. It must be analytic in it s presentation not just discriptive.
31 Phases with problems for the teams! The intensity of the colours illustrates the frustration levels of the students. Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution Discussion/conclusion Implementation Reporting
32 Tools for analysis Brain storm Categorization
34 Diagrams for beaking down problems Hierarchic Generic Same type/family Entity part part
35 Building Generic diagram (All topics on same level)
36 Building Factory building Domestic building Institution Generic diagram (All topics on same level)
37 Bygning Factory building Domestic building Institution Multi storage building Villa Generic diagram (All topics on same level)
38 Villa Entity/part diagram
39 Villa El installations Construction Heating plant Entity/part diagram
40 Villa El installations Construction Heating plant Fundament Walls Roof Entity/part diagram
42 6 W diagram What Where Who When Why how
44 Matrices Matrices can used in analysis be used in more different ways. Two examples are: Comparison of solutions Coherence in the project
45 Matricers Comparison of solutions Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 Ethics Economy Environment Safety Labour force
46 Matrices Interrelations in the project work Topic Aspect Topic 1 Economy Ethics Environment Safety Labour force Topic 2 Topic 3
47 Matrices Interrelations in the project work Topic Aspect Design Economy Ethics Environment Safety Labour force Calculations Installation
49 Assignment 1. Make a time and resource plan
50 Contracts and other tools
52 Supervisors ammendments
53 Aalborg University Esbjerg Department of Chemistry and Applied Engineering Science Niels Bohrs Vej 8 DK6700 Esbjerg Denmark Phone fax Work Sheet NO.: Work sheet cover page. Group: Author: Date: Commented by: Status: ( a: 1. draft; b: 2. draft; c: final draft; rev.: 0) Where do attached documents belong in the project : Scope of document: To be attached to written material from the teams to the supervisor Particular focus areas to be commented:
54 Work Sheet NO.: Work sheet cover page Group: Author: Date: Commented by: Status: ( a: 1. draft; b: 2. draft; c: final draft; rev.: 0)
55 Work sheet cover page Where do attached documents belong in the project : Scope of document:
56 Work sheet cover page Particular focus areas to be commented:
57 The Group Process The Group Life Cycle
58 Maturity Clear goals and role Mutual respect Clear communication of facts and feelings Constructive criticism Consensus The Group Process The initial phase Uncertainty Vague norms and roles Power struggles Conflicts Divide /rule Alliances Management Integration Crystallization of roles Sub-groups Deeper communication We - feeling Honeymoon Nice communication Unity and generosity Idealization
59 Phases with problems for the teams! The intensity of the colors illustrates the frustration levels of the students. Initiating Problem Problem Analysis Task Formulation Problem Delimitation Solution Discussion/conclusion Implementation Reporting Initial phase Power struggle Honeymoon Integration Conflicts Maturity
60 observer supervisor student Communication diagram
61 The Phases of POPBL
62 Frustrations Problem Conclusion Analysis Solution
63 Assessment of projectunit at Aalborg University
64 Status seminar and assessment
65 Conceptualization Reflection Experience Test Status seminar
66 Supervisors examinors (Audience) Black board OH screen
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