Gardner s Art Through the Ages, 13e. Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East

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1 Gardner s Art Through the Ages, 13e Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East 1

2 The Ancient Near East 2

3 Goals Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture. Understand the concept of civilization and the importance of Sumer in the ancient Near East. Examine the artistic materials, techniques, subject matter, styles and conventions developed in the ancient Near East. 3

4 2.1 Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture. Understand the development of a counting system that leads to an evolution of writing and reading in Sumer 4

5 The Neolithic Revolution Examine the birth of writing in ancient Sumer. The first city states, city planning, and organized religion are attributed to Sumer. Explore how the art and architecture are effected. 5

6 Figure 2-2 White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca BCE. 6

7 Figure 2-3 Reconstruction drawing of the White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca BCE. 7

8 2.1 Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art (cont.) Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of Mesopotamian art and its iconography Identify cultures that ruled the Mesopotamian regions throughout early history Relate different media and materials used in Mesopotamian art Evaluate architecture in different civilizations in Near Eastern cultures Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different near eastern civilizations from this period 8

9 Figure 2-4 Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca BCE. Marble, 8 high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 9

10 Figure 2-5 Presentation of offerings to Inanna (Warka Vase), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca BCE. Alabaster, 3 1/4 high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 10

11 Mesopotamian Religion, Mythology, Gods and Goddesses How are ancient Near Eastern ideas about religion different from Paleolithic and earlier Neolithic ideas? Explore how these ideas are depicted in Sumerian sculpture, seals, and funerary objects. How does the visual representation of the human form evolve in ancient Near Eastern art? Does it retain any elements of the Paleolithic and earlier Neolithic periods? 11

12 Figure 2-6 Statuettes of two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone, male figure 2 6 high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 12

13 Figure 2-7 Fragment of the victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures), from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca BCE. Limestone, fragment 2 6 high, full stele 5 11 high. Louvre, Paris. 13

14 Figure 2-8 War side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, 8 x 1 7. British Museum, London. 14

15 Figure 2-9 Peace side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, 8 x 1 7. British Museum, London. 15

16 Figure 2-10 Bull-headed lyre (restored) from Tomb 789 ( King s Grave ), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Lyre: Gold leaf and lapis lazuli over a wooden core, 5 5 high. 16

17 Figure 2-10 Sound box (right): Wood with inlaid gold, lapis lazuli, and shell, 1 7 high. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. 17

18 2.2 Akkadian, Neo-Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hittite Cultures Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of later Mesopotamian art and its iconography Identify cultures that ruled the Mesopotamian regions throughout early history Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different Near Eastern civilizations from this period Evaluate architecture in different civilizations in Near Eastern cultures 18

19 Figure 2-11 Banquet scene, cylinder seal (left) and its modern impression (right), from the tomb of Pu-abi (tomb 800), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Lapis lazuli, 2 high. British Museum, London. 19

20 Figure 2-12 Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca BCE. Copper, 1 2 3/8 high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 20

21 Ancient Near Eastern Politics and Art Explore how art is used to express political ideas of kingship and territory in the ancient Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian cultures. 21

22 Figure 2-13 Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa, Iran, BCE. Pink sandstone, 6 7 high. Louvre, Paris. 22

23 Important First in the Ancient Near East First record of a known poet, male or female in human history the priestess Enheduanna, daughter of King Sargon and priestess of the moon god Nanna at Ur. 23

24 Figure 2-14 Votive disk of Enheduanna, from Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Alabaster, diameter 10. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia 24

25 Figure 2-15 Ziggurat (northeastern facade with restored stairs), Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. 25

26 Figure 2-16 Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan, from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca BCE. Diorite, 2 5 high. Louvre, Paris. 26

27 The Code of Hammurabi Explore the Code of Hammurabi, how it is expressed in art and why it contributes to cultural understanding in the ancient Near East. 27

28 Figure 2-17 Stele with law code of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca BCE. Basalt, 7 4 high. Louvre, Paris. 28

29 Figure 2-18 Lion Gate, Hattusa (modern Boghazköy), Turkey, ca BCE. 29

30 Figure 2-19 Statue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa, Iran, ca BCE. Bronze and copper, 4 2 3/4 high. Louvre, Paris. 30

31 Figure 2-20 Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca BCE (after Charles Altman). 31

32 Power and the Assyrians Examine the ideas conveyed in the images of the Assyrian Lamassu and low relief sculpture. What aspects of Assyrian bas reliefs such as ritual lion hunts and war scenes convey Assyrian power? Consider their imagery and the original location of the reliefs. 32

33 Figure 2-21 Lamassu (winged, human-headed bull), from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca BCE. Limestone, high. Louvre, Paris. 33

34 Figure 2-22 Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, relief from the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu (modern Nimrud), Iraq, ca BCE. Gypsum, /8 high. British Museum, London. 34

35 Figure 2-23 Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca BCE. Gypsum, 5 4 high. British Museum, London. 35

36 Mesopotamian Architecture Compare the architecture of the Neo-Sumerian ziggurat with the city of Babylon and the fabled Tower of Babel. Explore the message(s) expressed by the architecture of Babylon such as the Ishtar Gate. 36

37 2.3 Elamite, Assyrian, and Neo-Babylonian Art Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of later Mesopotamian art and its iconography. Explore the ideas of power expressed in the art of the Assyrians. Examine the materials and techniques of Assyrian and Neo- Babylonian painting and low relief sculpture. Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different Near Eastern civilizations from this period. 37

38 Figure 2-24 Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 38

39 2.4 Persian Power and Opulence Know the location, extent, and impact of Persian Empire on the art and culture of and ancient Near East. Identify hallmarks of Persian culture and style in art and architecture. 39

40 Persian and Sassanian Splendor Examine ruins of the great imperial palace at Persepolis including key features such as the apadana. Explore how the Persian art and the later Sassanian art is different from other art of Mesopotamia. 40

41 Figure 2-25 Persepolis (apadana in the background), Iran, ca BCE. 41

42 Figure 2-26 Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the apadana, Persepolis, Iran, ca BCE. Limestone, 8 4 high. 42

43 Figure 2-27 Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon, Iraq, ca. 250 CE. 43

44 Figure 2-28 Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian, rock-cut relief, Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 CE. 44

45 Discussion Questions Discuss how many artworks are intended to celebrate a ruler s accomplishments even if they did not occur? Give specific examples of ancient Near Eastern art and architecture that do this. Identify evidence of the Sumerian culture s lasting influence today. Identify evidence of the Persian Empire s lasting influence today. 45

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