4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters

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1 Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will analyze characters from stories and pictures using effective strategies of good readers: making inferences, predictions and connections. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.4.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character and setting. Reading R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. Writing W.4.3 Uses appropriate grammar and mechanics to write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences; identifies the parts of speech correctly. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings: Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are. Writers make characters come alive using descriptive text. Authors create text patterns and make word choices that help readers better understand the text. Content (Students will know ) Character traits (hero and villain) Strategies of effective readers (i.e. connections, predictions, inferences) Parts of speech (i.e. adjectives) Four sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) Content Vocabulary Main character Character traits Prediction Inference Connection Adjectives Essential Questions: What can I learn about myself from stories and pictures? How does a character come alive? How does the author s story-organization and word choice help the reader understand a story? Skills (Students will be able to ) Listen and respond during a read-aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character Identify the main character(s) Make inferences to compare and contrast character traits (i.e. between characters or between character and self) Make predictions and connections (i.e. predictions about what will happen next in a story, connections between characters in fiction and self) Use appropriate grammar and mechanics to write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences June

2 Performance Tasks: Character Posters Part 1: Pre-Reading Give students Alphabet Chart (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task - Alphabet Chart) and the topic, Hairs. Ask them what words come to mind when they think of this topic. Have them place each word in the correct box and share answers with the class. For example the word curly will go in the C-D box. Tell students that they will now read a story titled Hairs. Ask students what they think the story is about based on the title and the words that they gathered in the alphabet chart. Record students answers on the board. Explain to students that they just made predictions about the text. Present to students the definition of prediction. Post the definition of prediction on the board: Prediction is a reading strategy that efficient readers use to develop ideas about what to expect next in the text. They modify their expectations as they obtain additional information while reading. When the text suddenly stops making sense, good readers go back and re-read. Making predictions becomes automatic to good readers, but it is a skill that can be taught and developed. Part 2: Reading Read the story Hairs aloud (See Attachment: 4.3 Text Hairs), pausing to clarify any new vocabulary. Ask students to describe the different characters presented in the story. Part 3: Character Organizers Have students work in small groups and have them illustrate the mother character in Hairs on a character organizer (See Attachment: 4.3 Graphic Organizer Blank Character Map). Make sure that they use the descriptions in the story to help them illustrate the figure. In the illustration, have them write sentences Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence: Journal Writing: Have students create a journal entry where they make text-to-self connections (can be used as closing to poster assessment). Review text-to-self connections (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence Making Connections Prompts) Order of Adjectives quiz (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence Order of Adjectives Quiz) Identifying adjectives quiz (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence Identifying Adjectives Quiz) Quiz on the different types of sentences (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence Different Sentence Types Quiz) Fluency Running Records and Paired Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check) June

3 Subject: ESL describing what the mother would say. Example: Dear, do you want me to give you a hug? Part 4: Share Have each group present its poster to the class to be assessed based on their understanding of the character traits of the mother. Using Visual Clues to Make Inferences About Character Traits Step 1: Introduce what the word inference means: Making an inference is using clues from the text and your own knowledge and experience to figure out what the author is trying to tell you. Step 2: Give a comic strip to students and ask them to infer the dialogue that is taking place between the two characters in the comic strip (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task Making Inference Comic Strip 1). Step 3: Have students work in pairs as they create the dialogue for the comic strip. After everyone has completed the dialogue, have each pair read their dialogue aloud to the class. Step 4: Discuss with the class that although each pair had a different dialogue, each one is correct (i.e. each pair may have had different knowledge and experience regarding the activity that the characters in the comic strip were performing and each pair may have taken different clues from the text). Step 5: Provide a second comic strip to each student and ask them to repeat the same activity with the new comic strip (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task Making Inference Comic Strip 2) Step 6: Have each student present his/her dialogue to the class. Making Connections Step 1: Explain to students that they will compare and contrast a hero from a movie to someone in their life whom they consider their hero. June

4 Subject: ESL Step 2: Tell students that they will use a Venn diagram graphic organizer to compare the two heroes or heroines (See Attachment: 4.3 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram) Step 3: Teacher may brainstorm a list of heroes or heroines with the class, from which they can choose. Possible examples: Superman, Supergirl, Spiderman, Incredible Hulk, Wonder Woman, Elektra, etc. Explain to students that the super hero or heroine in their life may not look exactly like the super hero or heroine in their lives; however, the qualities of the heroes/heroines are what they are using to compare and contrast in this activity. Step 4: Have students share their work with the class. You may want to use a gallery walk to have students share their work. Have students post their work around the room. During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room. You may want to give students sticky notes that they can use to give feedback to the class. For example, ask students to write something on their sticky note that they like about the work of another student. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Inferences & Predictions Introduce inferences by showing students a visual text and asking them what they think is happening in the text (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence - Making Inference Visual 1). Introduce predictions using visual texts (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence - Making Inference Visual 2) Have students compare and contrast predictions and inferences using the think/pair/share strategy Use photos from magazines or newspapers and have students make predictions or inferences based on the images Use stories with illustrations and have students write sentences to describe them, by inferring what the picture describes Have students play a game where they have to make inferences (See Attachments: 4.3 Learning Activity - Inferring Card Game and 4.3 Learning Activity - Inferring Card Game Rules). You can use the format of this game to create your own game on making predictions and connections. June

5 Parts of Speech Give students a list of adjectives and a list of pictures showing everyday activities. Ask students to create sentences describing the pictures using the adjectives. To extend the activity, you can also have students create different types of sentences to describe the same picture. For example, The woman is attractive. (declarative sentence). Is the woman attractive? (interrogative sentence) (See Attachment: 4.3 Learning Activity Adjectives to Describe Everyday Situations) Have students copy the following sentences into their notebook, underline the adjectives and draw an arrow to each adjective s modifier. o A green dragon climbed into the dark castle and kidnapped the beautiful, sleeping princess. o A giant, fuzzy spider was crawling in Chad s hair. o The tall, handsome boy wearing a brown leather jacket walked into the math classroom and smiled at Denise. o This European inventor hoped to make a usable, permanent photograph. o It was a black, white, and gray version of the window view. Have students underline the adjectives in a piece of text from a book or magazine article. Then have them rewrite the paragraph without the adjectives and describe the differences between the two paragraphs to understand why adjectives make writing better. Sentence Types Write a dialogue with a group of three or four based on vocabulary that uses all four sentence types & act it out (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task - Write a Dialogue) Perform the dialogue, reading the dialogue with fluency, gestures, and intonation to reflect the sentence type So Many Questions Please: Have students work in pairs and ask them to discuss their favorite book or TV show using only questions or exclamations. Discuss with students how difficult it is to have a conversation using only one type of sentence. Sample Lessons Lesson on teaching prediction: Lesson on making connections using double entry journal: lesson-plans/guided-comprehensionmaking-connections-228.html?tab=4#tabs Additional Resources Useful activities to teach different types of sentences (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource Different Sentence Types) Activities for making inferences (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource Making Inferences) Useful resource for making inferences with text and with new words (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource Making Inferences 2) Gallery Walk resources (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource Gallery Walks) Character trait resources (See Attachments: 4.3 Resource List of Character Traits, 4.3 Resource Identifying Character Traits, and 4.3 Resource Identifying Character Traits Worksheet) Literature Connections Grandfather s Journey by Allen Say Tomas and the Library Lady by Pat Mora June Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

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