1 WOULD JESUS EAT MEAT TODAY? Perhaps not. Here s why. Peace by William Strutt, inspired by Isaiah 11 Allastar Publishing Modern animal agriculture causes immense pain and suffering to animals, harms the environment, and damages our health. Yet many Christians believe the Bible gives us permission to eat animals. Can Christian teachings and principles help guide our food choices?
2 As Christians, we are called to serve God, which means that we must be mindful of how our choices affect God and God s Creation. The Bible relates that God gave humanity dominion over Creation (Genesis 1:26), and we see this as a sacred responsibility, not a license to ruin the environment and torment God s creatures. Indeed, many of the world s problems are due to human heartlessness and self-indulgence. Moving toward a plant-based diet is a responsible, effective, and faithful way to serve God and to protect God s Creation. How is vegetarianism good stewardship? God s Earth In Genesis 2:15, God instructed Adam to till and keep the Garden of Eden, and by analogy we may see caring for God s Creation as our sacred task. The typical meat eater s diet can require up to 14 times more water and 20 times more energy than that of a vegetarian. Indeed, current use of land, water, and energy is not sustainable; resource depletion threatens to cause hardships for humankind this century. A 2006 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations found that animal agriculture is a leading cause of climate change Cattle ranching is now the primary reason for deforestation in the Amazon. Seventy percent of the deforested land is now occupied by pastures; feedcrops cover a large part of the remainder. They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain. Isaiah 11:9 Manure and wastewater from factory farms contaminate the environment with drug residues, heavy metals, pathogens, and excess nutrients. and air pollution; land, soil, and water degradation; and biodiversity loss. According to the report, the livestock sector is an even larger contributor to global warming than transport (cars, trucks, airplanes, and so forth). Huge quantities of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide are emitted by farmed animals and their waste. Animal agriculture is also a key factor in deforestation, which releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The total area used for grazing and the production of feedcrops accounts for 70 percent of all agricultural land and 30 percent of the earth s land surface. About 20 percent of the world s pastures and rangelands have been degraded (over 70 percent in the drylands), mostly through overgrazing, compaction, and erosion created by livestock action. 2 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
3 World Hunger Jesus preached, For I was hungry and you gave me food. [A]s you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me (Matt. 25:35, 40 RSV). Yet, while tens of millions of people die annually from starvationrelated causes and close to a billion suffer from malnutrition, 37 percent of the world s harvested grain is fed to animals being raised for slaughter; in the United States, the figure is 66 percent. Only a fraction of what chickens, pigs, and other animals eat makes them grow edible flesh most is needed to simply keep them alive or to grow body parts that people don t eat. Consequently, farmed animals consume much more food than they produce. Converting plant foods to meat wastes percent of the protein, up to 96 percent of the calories, and all of the fiber. Because land, water, and other resources are limited, the world Animals are God s creatures, not human property, nor utilities, nor resources, nor commodities, but precious beings in God s sight. Rev. Andrew Linzey Under crowded, stressful conditions, birds peck each other. To combat this, the ends of their beaks are cut off with hot blades. can support many more vegetarians than meat eaters. As worldwide demand for meat has grown, the net effect is that the world s poor have become increasingly unable to afford food of any kind. Inefficient conversion of grains into animal flesh contributes to world hunger. God s Animals Jesus said that God feeds the birds of the air (Matt. 6:26) and does not forget sparrows (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew Scriptures forbid inhumane slaughter or cruelty toward beasts of burden (Exod. 23:5; Deut. 22:6 7, 25:4). Yet, in the United States, virtually all food derived from animals is obtained through intensive factory farming methods. In fact, nearly ten billion land animals are slaughtered each year, over a million every hour, and the number of aquatic animals killed for food is far greater. These animals suffer greatly from stressful crowding, barren environments that frustrate their instinctive drives, mutilations and amputations without pain relief (including debeaking, Questions and Answers about Christianity and Vegetarianism 3
4 If we really love and care about animals, we shouldn t pay people to raise them in inhumane conditions and then kill them. Fifty billion land animals are killed worldwide each year, and no country has ever tormented and killed more animals than the United States today. If sin is whatever separates us from God, is not cruelty to God s creatures and unnecessary damage to God s earth a sin? For many Christians, a plant-based diet constitutes mindful and faithful eating. Stephen R. Kaufman, M.D., CVA chair dehorning, tail docking, and castration), and other painful procedures (Bernard Rollin, Ph.D., Farm Animal Welfare). For example, farmers crowd egglaying hens in cages so small they can t spread their wings. Some birds are immobilized when their feet get caught in the wire mesh; unable to reach food, they starve to death. Millions of chicks are mailed via the U.S. Postal Service each year. Although mortality rates are high, chicks are deemed cheap and not worth the cost of humane transport. It seems that contemporary farmers embrace any practice that increases productivity, regardless of how much animal pain and suffering it inflicts. Some calves are chained by the neck in individual stalls for weeks before being slaughtered. Turkeys on a truck bound for the slaughterhouse. During transport to slaughter, animals are often handled roughly and exposed to extremes of heat or cold. Finally, slaughter typically involves terror and, often, great pain (Gail Eisnitz, Slaughterhouse). Illustrating the industry s callousness, animals too sick to walk are painfully dragged to slaughter rather than humanely euthanized. Typical of the industry s attitude, Hog Farm Management advised, Forget the pig is an animal. Treat him just like a machine in a factory. If we eat the products of factory farming we are, Fr. John Dear notes, paying people to be cruel. 4 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
5 Your Health The apostle Paul wrote that our bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19), and it follows that we should care for our bodies as gifts from God. The largest organization of food and nutrition professionals in the United States, the American Dietetic Association, has endorsed well-planned vegetarian diets. In 2009, the ADA noted, appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle and for athletes. In contrast to the predominantly plant-based Mediterranean diet that Jesus ate, modern Western diets (heavily Almost all mother pigs spend their adult lives in stalls without enough room to turn around. They [animals], too, are created by the same loving Hand of God which created us. it is our duty to protect them and to promote their well-being. Mother Theresa Hens in battery cages have about 1 3 sq. ft. per bird. laden with animal products) put people at risk. For example, animal foods tend to be high in saturated fat and cholesterol, which elevate blood lipids and increase the risk of heart disease by far, the number one killer in the West. Because farmed animals are bred to grow quickly and given little exercise, their flesh is particularly high in saturated fats. In contrast, unsaturated fats in plant foods generally improve one s lipid profile and reduce heart disease risk. Numerous studies show this. The Cornell-Oxford-China Project found that rural Chinese people, who eat much less animal fat and protein and derive the bulk of their nutrition from plant sources, have far less heart disease mortality and much lower cholesterol levels than Americans or urban Chinese people who eat a more Western diet. Regarding obesity and diabetes, fiber in fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans), oats, and barley helps people feel full, which discourages overeating. In study after study, vegetarians weigh less and have an easier time maintaining a healthy weight than their meat-eating peers. Questions and Answers about Christianity and Vegetarianism 5
6 Does the Bible support vegetarianism? The Bible depicts vegetarianism as God s ideal, and the diet conforms to the central biblical principle of steward ship. In Eden, all creatures lived peacefully, and God told both humans and animals to consume only plant foods (Gen. 1:29 31). Several prophecies, such as Isaiah 11:6 9, foresee a return to this vegetarian world, where the wolf, lamb, lion, cow, bear, snake, and little child all coexist peace fully. Christian vegetarians, while acknowledging human sinfulness, believe we should strive toward the harmonious world Isaiah envisioned to try to live in accordance with the prayer that Jesus taught us, Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven (Matt. 6:10). Did God put animals here for our use? Adam s dominion over animals (Gen. 1:26, 28), we believe, conveys sacred stewardship, since God immediately afterward prescribed a vegetarian diet (1:29 30) in a world God found very good (1:31). Created in God s image of love (1 John 4:8), we are called to be caretakers of God s Creation, not tyrants over God s creatures. Genesis 1:21 22 relates that, before God created humanity, God regarded the animals good and a little child shall lead them. Isaiah 11:6 and blessed them. Further evidence that we should consider animals as inherently valuable comes from Genesis 2:18 19, which indicates that God made animals as Adam s helpers and companions: Then the Lord God said, It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him. So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them (RSV). Adam named the animals, which we believe shows concern and friendship. We don t name the animals we eat. God endowed pigs, cattle, sheep, and all farmed animals with their own desires and needs, which is apparent when these animals are given an opportunity to enjoy life. For example, pigs are as curious, social, and intelligent as cats or dogs. Pigs can even play some video games better than monkeys. 6 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
7 Similarly, chickens enjoy one another s company and like to play, dust bathe, and forage for food. Jesus compared his love for us to a hen s love for her chicks (Luke 13:34). Why did God give Noah permission to eat meat (Gen. 9:2 4)? Virtually all plants were destroyed by the Flood. Alternatively, God may have allowed Noah limited freedom to express human violence, since unrestrained violence was responsible for the Flood itself (Gen. 6:11 13). Importantly, this passage neither commands meat eating nor indicates that the practice is God s ideal. Indeed, eating meat came with a curse animals would no longer be humanity s friends: The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast (Gen. 9:2). While eating meat was not prohibited, it represented a complete break from God s ideal of animals and humans living peacefully together, as depicted in Eden and by the prophets. Does God care for animals? Proverbs 12:10 teaches, A righteous man has regard for the life of his beast, and Psalm 145:9 reminds us that The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over all that he has made. The Bible describes God s concern for animals repeatedly (Matt. 10:29, 12:11 12, 18:12 14) and forbids cruelty (Deut. 22:10, 25:4). Importantly, after the Flood, God made a covenant, stated five times, with animals as well as humans. All creatures share in the Sabbath rest (Exod. 20:10; Deut. 5:14). The Bible describes animals praising God (Pss. 148:7 10, 150:6), shows animals present in eternity (Isa. 65:25; Rev. 5:13), and affirms that God preserves animals (Ps. 36:6; Eph. 1:10; Col. 1:20). Animals and humans look to God for sustenance (Pss. 104:27 31, 147:9; Matt. 6:26; Luke 12:6) and deliverance (Jon. 3:7 9; Rom. 8:18 23). God s covenant in Genesis 9, in all five instances, is with all flesh, not just humans. Does vegetarianism equate human and animal life? Vegetarianism simply reflects respect for Creation the diet benefits humans, animals, and the environment. What about animal sacrifices? The Bible relates that God accepted animal sacrifices. However, several later prophets objected to sacrifice, emphasizing that God prefers righteousness. Animal sacrifices are not required or even desired now, for at least two reasons. First, Paul encouraged self-sacrifice, Factory farming tortures God s animals. When we consume of the products of factory farming, we are sending a clear message to factory farmers: I approve. Do it again. Rev. Frank L. Hoffman Questions and Answers about Christianity and Vegetarianism 7
8 Are meat eaters sinners? The Bible does not prohibit eating meat in all circumstances. While many people have eaten meat for nourishment, most Christians today have ready access to a wide variety of healthful plant foods. Many Christian vegetarians find modern factory farming particularly objectionable because it is unnecessary and merciless. Blessed are the merciful. Matthew 5:7 writing, [P]resent your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship (Rom. 12:1). Second, traditional interpretations of Jesus death affirm that, because of him, animal sacrifice is no longer necessary. Christians, being new creations in Christ, may model Christ by choosing a loving relationship with all Creation. Indeed, Jesus twice quoted Hosea (6:6), saying, I desire mercy and not sacrifice (Matt. 9:13, 12:7). What does the Bible say about eating meat? Diet is a major theme in the Bible. At ChristianVeg.org/hgc-replies.htm, we discuss biblical passages frequently cited by those who defend meat eating. Have there been many vegetarian Christians? Our numbers are increasing rapidly, just as vegetarianism is growing in the general population. Also, many early Christians were vegetarian, including the Desert Fathers. Since then, the Trappist, Benedictine, and Carthusian Many activists hand out Would Jesus Eat Meat Today? booklets at Christian events and colleges. Please visit ChristianVeg.org for more information. Didn t Jesus eat meat? Luke 24:43 describes Jesus eating fish after the Resurrection. However, Jesus diet 2,000 years ago in a Mediterranean fishing community, where many people struggled to get adequate nutrition, does not tell us what Christians should eat today. Similarly, we do not need to dress just as Jesus did. We are blessed with a wide range of health ful, tasty, convenient plant foods, much like in Eden. Meanwhile, we believe that the way animals are treated today makes a mockery of God s love for them. 8 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
9 orders have encouraged vegetarianism, as have Seventh-Day Adventists. In the nineteenth century, members of the Bible Christian sect established the first vegetarian groups in England and the United States. Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Tertullian, Origen, Clement of Alexandria, John Wesley (Methodism s founder), Ellen G. White (a Seventh-Day Adventists founder), Salvation Army cofounders William and Catherine Booth, Leo Tolstoy, and Nobel Peace Prize winner Rev. Dr. Albert Schweitzer were Christians who became vegetarian, as is the musician Moby. Don t laws ensure the welfare of farmed animals? In the United States and many other countries, standard procedures on farms are specifically exempted from all humane legislation, regardless of the pain and suffering they cause. Practices such as bodily mutilations, which would warrant felony animal cruelty charges Not until we extend the circle of compassion to include all living things shall we ourselves know peace. Rev. Dr. Albert Schweitzer if done to a dog or cat, are perfectly legal when done to a pig or chicken. At the slaughterhouse, humane slaughter laws are weak and poorly enforced for pigs, cattle, and sheep; the slaughter of birds is completely exempt. The CVA supports efforts to improve conditions on farms, but for many reasons, including our desire not to pay others to do things we would not do ourselves, we feel compelled to be vegetarians. What would happen to farmers and others whose livelihoods depend on animal agriculture? If people ate fewer animal products, businesses would adapt to the increased consumer demand for vegetarian foods. Questions and Answers about Christianity and Vegetarianism 9
10 Since animals eat each other, what s wrong with humans eating animals? Christians are not called to follow the law of the jungle (where might makes right ), but to follow Christ to be compassionate, merciful, and humble, and to respect God s Creation. Are we natural meat eaters? While humans can digest flesh, and it is likely that our ancestors consumed some meat, our anatomy much more strongly resembles that of plant-eating creatures. For example: like plant eaters (but un like meat eaters), our colons are long and complex (not simple and short); our saliva contains digestive enzymes (un like carnivores); and our teeth resemble those of plant eaters for instance, our canines are short and blunt (not long, sharp, and curved). The millions of healthy vegetarians (who tend to outlive meat eaters) demonstrate that it is neither necessary nor desirable to eat meat. Be merciful, even as your Father is merciful. Luke 6:36 and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God? What if I don t think vegetarianism should be my priority? Cruelty-free eating requires very little time and commitment and can improve one s sense of well-being. Anyone can adopt a healthy vegetarian diet while con tinuing other important activities. What can I do? Micah 6:8 To the degree that you move toward a plant-based diet, you significantly help humans, animals, and the environment. As Christians, we are called to be faithful, which includes living in accord with our core values as inspired by the Holy Spirit. Being faithful also includes showing fellow Christians, in loving and compassionate ways, that nonanimal foods promote good steward ship of God s Creation and, fortunately, are tasty, convenient, and nutritious. Find out more at ChristianVeg.org. 10 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
11 What to Eat? When changing your diet, it may take time to explore new foods and develop a routine. There are many different products from which to choose keep experimenting to find your personal favorites. You can generally shop for vegetarian foods at supermarkets, natural food stores, and co-ops. Vegetarian selections are usually offered at Chinese, Indian, Italian, Mexican, Middle Eastern, Thai, and other ethnic restaurants just ask! When I first started looking into vegetarianism, I chose to explore a new type of cooking or a new type of food every week: Indian one week Thai, seitan, Middle Eastern, nutritional yeast. Soon, I had a menu that far exceeded my previous, omnivorous diet, in both diversity and taste. Erik Marcus Substitution Guide You can continue to prepare your favorite dishes and avoid animal products by making simple substitutions: Dairy Use milks, cheeses, creams, yogurts, and frozen desserts made from soy, rice, or nuts. Nutritional yeast adds a cheesy flavor to foods. Replace butter with olive oil or trans-fat-free margarine. Eggs In baking recipes, use powdered egg substitutes, such as Ener-G Egg Replacer, or replace each egg with half a banana, or 1 heavy tsp. of soy flour or cornstarch plus 2 Tbsp. water. Meat Use textured vegetable protein (TVP), seitan, or other vegetarian meats. Grocery stores generally offer several mock-meat choices. Simple Meal Ideas Breakfast Soy yogurt Pancakes Fruit smoothie Oatmeal or other hot cereal Bagel or toast with jelly Cereal or granola with nondairy milk Lunch/Dinner Grain or soy burger Peanut butter and jelly Tofu, tempeh, or seitan stir-fry Baked tempeh or tofu sandwich Baked, mashed, or fried potatoes Soup or chili (over pasta or rice) Pasta and tomato sauce Vegetarian hot dog Mock lunchmeat sandwich Bean burrito Tofu lasagna Seitan casserole Snacks/Dessert Pretzels, popcorn, or chips Nuts, seeds, or trail mix Pie, cookies, or cake Nondairy ice cream Fresh or dried fruit Energy bar What to Eat? 11
12 Vegetarian Nutrition Like all diets, vegetarian diets require appropriate planning for optimal nutrition. The following nutrients are those that people most often have questions about or that need some specific attention in purevegetarian diets (i.e., diets that exclude all animal-derived products). all things were created by him [God], and for him. Colossians 1:16 Protein Vegetarians should eat 0.4 g of protein per day for every pound of healthy body weight. If vegetarians consume adequate calories and a variety of foods each day, they should get enough protein. One need not combine foods at each meal to get complete protein. Some Good Sources of Protein Serving Protein (g) Veggie dog/burger Soybeans* ½ cup 14.3 Textured soy protein ½ cup 11 Tofu ½ cup 10 Soymilk 1 cup 5 10 Lentils* ½ cup 8.9 Peanut butter 2 Tbsp. 8.0 Chickpeas* ½ cup 7.5 Sunflower seeds 2 Tbsp. 5.0 Brown rice* 1 cup 4.9 *Cooked Carbohydrates Many popular books have denounced carbohydrates, but it s processed carbohydrates that aren t good for you. Carbohydrate-rich, whole plant foods (such as beans, oatmeal, brown rice, and fruits) help you feel full to prevent weight gain, lower cholesterol, and prevent diseases such as diverticulitis and diabetes. Fats Higher fat foods like nuts and seeds (and their butters), avocados, and small amounts of vegetable oils (especially canola and olive) should be part of a healthy diet. These foods are particularly important for meeting children s calorie needs. The omega-3 fatty acids have antiblood-clotting, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering properties. Vegetarians should include a daily source of 500 mg linolenic acid (ALA), which can be met with 1 5 oz. English (brown) walnuts, ¼ tsp. flaxseed oil, 1 tsp. ground flaxseeds, or 1 tsp. canola oil. Nutritionists also recommend mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), obtained from seaweed or supplements. Limit consumption of omega-6 oils (e.g., corn, soy, safflower, sunflower, sesame, and vegetable oil ), and for cooking use olive, peanut, or canola oil. Canola and flaxseed oils can be warmed, but should not be brought to high heat. Calcium Adequate Intakes (set by the National Academy of Sciences) are 1,200 mg (over age 50), 1,000 mg (ages 19 50), 1,300 mg (ages 9 18), 800 mg (ages 4 8), and 500 mg (ages 1 3). Some Good Sources of Calcium Serving Ca (mg) Calcium supplement 1 tablet Orange juice, fortified 1 cup Soymilk, fortified 1 cup Blackstrap molasses 1 Tbsp. 187 Collard greens* ½ cup 178 Navy beans* ½ cup 64 Almonds 2 Tbsp. 50 Broccoli* ½ cup 50 Kale* ½ cup 47 *Cooked 12 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
13 Iron Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for men and postmenopausal women is 8 mg, and 18 mg for premenopausal women. Vegetarians are no more likely to suffer from iron deficiency anemia than nonvegetarians. Iron from plants is generally not absorbed as well as iron from meat, but vitamin C enhances iron absorption (if eaten at the same meal), and pure vegetarians tend to have high intakes of iron and vitamin C. Drinking coffee and caffeinated tea with meals can inhibit iron absorption. Some Good Sources of Iron Serving Iron (mg) Grape-Nuts ½ cup 16.2 Bran flakes 1 cup 11 Soybeans* ½ cup 4.4 Blackstrap molasses 1 Tbsp. 3.3 Pumpkin seeds 2 Tbsp. 2.5 Chickpeas* ½ cup 2.4 Pinto beans* ½ cup 2.2 Apricots, dried ¼ cup 1.5 Spinach* ½ cup 1.5 Raisins ¼ cup 1.1 *Cooked And God said, Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. Genesis 1:29 Vitamin D Vitamin D is produced by sunshine on bare skin (without sunscreen). Light-skinned people need minutes of sunshine on their hands and face, 2 3 times/week. Dark-skinned people need up to 6 times this amount. People who live in cold or cloudy climates or who seldom get out in the sun should meet needs through fortified foods or supplements. The bone density of pure vegetarians living in northern climates has been shown to increase from a supplement of 5 mcg/day. Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 prevents permanent nerve damage, keeps the digestive system healthy, and reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering homocysteine levels. Deficiency symptoms sometimes include fatigue, and tingling in the hands or feet. No unfortified plant foods (including seaweeds and tempeh) are reliable sources of B 12. Pure vegetarians should get 3 mcg/day through fortified foods, or at least 10 mcg/day through a supplement. Iodine Since the amount of iodine in plant foods varies considerably, pure vegetarians should take a modest iodine supplement of about 75 to 150 mcg (or a multivitamin containing this amount) every few days. Recommended Daily Intakes for Pure-Vegetarian Adults Upper limita Calcium 1,000 1,200 mg 2,500 mg Vitamin B mcgb None Vitamin D 5 15 mcg 50 mcg ( IU) (2,000 IU) Iodine mcgc 1,100 mcg Omega-3 fats gd Unknown a Could be harmful in amounts exceeding upper limit. b mcg = microgram = µg. c One mcg iodine tablet every few days will generally meet needs. d See sources listed above in the Fats section. For further details on vegetarian nutrition, including other important nutrients and the needs of other age groups, please read Staying Healthy on Plant-Based Diets (available at VeganHealth.org). Vegetarian Nutrition 13
14 Vegetarian Recipes Corn and Wild Rice Salad 1 ½ cups uncooked wild rice blend 2 cups fresh or frozen corn kernels 1 cup finely chopped celery ¾ cup shredded carrot ¾ cup dried cranberries or cherries 2 3 cup sunflower seeds or toasted unsalted pumpkin seed kernels ½ cup finely chopped red onion ¼ cup raspberry vinegar or raspberry vinaigrette salad dressing 1 Tbsp. olive oil (less if using dressing) 1 Tbsp. soy sauce (may use low-sodium) 1 tsp. grated orange peel ½ tsp. pepper Cook rice according to package directions, omitting salt and fat. Set aside and cool. Combine the cooked rice, corn, and remaining ingredients in a bowl. Cover the salad and chill. Makes 8 one-cup servings. Curried Garbanzo Beans 1 large onion, chopped ½ cup vegetable broth 2 (15 ½ 19 oz.) cans chickpeas, drained and partially mashed 1 tsp. curry powder, or to taste 1 tsp. coriander, or to taste 1 tsp. cumin, or to taste 3 oz. mango chutney, or to taste 2 (15 ½ 19 oz.) cans diced tomatoes Sauté onions in the vegetable broth. Add beans, spices, chutney, and tomatoes, mixing well. Serve over brown rice or pasta. I ve found that a person does not need protein from meat to be a successful athlete. Carl Lewis (winner of 10 Olympic medals, 9 gold) Hearty Lentil-Barley Soup ¾ cup chopped onion ¾ cup chopped celery 1 clove garlic, minced ¼ cup margarine 6 cups water 1 (28 oz.) can diced tomatoes ¾ cup dry lentils, rinsed and drained ¾ cup pearl barley 6 vegetarian bouillon cubes ½ tsp. dried rosemary, crushed ½ tsp. dried oregano, crushed ¼ tsp. pepper 1 cup thinly sliced carrots 1 cup shredded soy (Swiss) cheese 1 loaf bread In a 4-quart Dutch oven, cook onion, celery, and garlic in hot margarine until tender. Add water, undrained tomatoes, lentils, barley, bouillon cubes, herbs, and pepper. Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Cover and simmer for 45 minutes. Add carrots and simmer for 15 minutes more or just until carrots are tender. Ladle into soup bowls, top with cheese, and serve with thick slices of bread. Makes 5 servings. 14 Christian Vegetarian Association Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
15 Vegetarian Resources Recommended Cookbooks Dreena Burton. The Everyday Vegan. Gail Davis. So, Now What Do I Eat? The Complete Guide to Vegetarian Convenience Foods. Bobbie Hinman and Millie Snyder. Lean and Luscious and Meatless. Sarah Kramer and Tanya Barnard. How It All Vegan! Patricia LeShane. Vegetarian Cooking for People with Diabetes. Jennifer Raymond. The Peaceful Palate and Fat-Free and Easy. Joanne Stepaniak. Vegan Vittles and The Uncheese Cookbook. Debra Wasserman. Simply Vegan. See also VegCooking.com/cookbooks.asp and All-Creatures.org/recipes.html Cruelty to animals is as if a man did not love God. Cardinal John Henry Newman Recommended Reading Neal Barnard. Food for Life; Eat Right, Live Longer; and Turn Off the Fat Genes. Stephen R. Kaufman and Nathan Braun. Good News for All Creation: Vegetarianism as Christian Stewardship. Andrew Linzey. Animal Theology. George H. Malkmus. Why Christians Get Sick. Vesanto Melina and Brenda Davis. The New Becoming Vegetarian: The Essential Guide to a Healthy Vegetarian Diet. Virginia Messina and Mark Messina. The Vegetarian Way: Total Health for You and Your Family. Vasu Murti. They Shall Not Hurt or Destroy. John Robbins. The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and the World. Richard Schwartz. Judaism and Vegetarianism. Matthew Scully. Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy. Stephen H. Webb. Good Eating and On God and Dogs. Richard Alan Young. Is God a Vegetarian? See also ChristianVeg.org/bibliography.htm Vegetarian Resources 15
16 For CVA information and free membership, visit ChristianVeg.org or Other Web Sites (many include recipes) All-Creatures.org BlackVegetarians.org ChristianVegetarian.co.uk FactoryFarming.com JesusVeg.com MundoVegetariano.com PCRM.org VeganOutreach.org VegetarianTeen.com VegSource.com VRG.org Vegetarian Starter Kits TryVeg.com VeganOutreach.org/guide CVA Board of Directors Stephen R.L. Clark, D.Phil. Fr. John Dear, S.J. Daniel Dombrowski, Ph.D. DeRonda E. Elliott, R.N., C.C., M.T.S. Elizabeth Farians, Ph.D. William Greenway, Ph.D. Rev. Frank L. Hoffman Mary Hoffman Stephen R. Kaufman, M.D., chair Andrew Linzey, Ph.D., D.D. Rev. Linda McDaniel Stephen H. Webb, Ph.D. Richard Alan Young, Ph.D. unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 18:3 Contact the CVA U.S.A. P.O.B , Cleveland, OH phone/fax U.K. Foresta, Pines Rd., Liphook, GU30 7PL phone Photographs were provided courtesy of Compassion in World Farming, Farm Sanctuary, PETA, and USDA. Christian Vegetarian Association, (reprint permission granted) Rev. 1/10
SS-207-06 For more information, visit the Ohio Department of Aging web site at: http://www.goldenbuckeye.com and Ohio State University Extension s Aging in Ohio web site at: http://www.hec.ohio-state.edu/famlife/aging
1800 Calorie Meal Plan Meal Portion Food Calories DAY 1 Breakfast 1 cup Hot Oatmeal, cooked, unsweetened 150 1 banana 120 1 Amy s Bean & Rice Burrito 280 (in the frozen foods section of your grocery store
DIABETES & HEALTHY EATING Food gives you the energy you need for healthy living. Your body changes most of the food you eat into a sugar called glucose. (glucose) Insulin helps your cells get the sugar
HEALTH UPDATE PO Box 800760 Charlottesville, VA 22908 Gynecology: (804) 924-2773 Vegetarian Diets Vegetarian diets, like all diets, need to be planned appropriately to be nutritionally adequate. Common
Ready, Set, Start Counting! Carbohydrate Counting a Tool to Help Manage Your Blood Glucose When you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose in a healthy range will help you feel your best today and in
How to Increase Volume in Your Meals By adding certain types of food to your diet and drinking more water, you can actually increase the amount of food you eat, while staying within your fat gram and calorie
Canada s Food Guide Jeopardy Drafted: July 2008 Revised: December 2012 Eating Well with Canada s Food Guide Veg & Fruit Grain Products Milk & Alternatives Meat & Alternatives Physical Activity Miscellaneous
Breakfast recipes Toast with peanut butter and orange juice (serves 1) 2 average slices of brown toast 24 g of peanut butter Drink: 200 ml of orange juice Fruity cereal with a skinny latte (serves 1) 2
Gaining Weight for Athletes Prepared by Jenn Van Ness, ATC June 2008 Gain Weight the Healthy Way To gain one pound, you need to eat approximately 500 more calories a day. Approximately one pound of fat
Healthy Eating You are what you eat! So before you even shop for food, it is important to become a well informed, smart food consumer and have a basic understanding of what a heart healthy diet looks like.
Eat More, Weigh Less? How to manage your weight without being hungry 607 calories 293 calories Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Can you weigh less without
MEAL PLANNING FOR MECHANICAL SOFT DIET Definition of Terms Calories Protein Blenderized Pureed Units of energy. A nutrient used by your body for growth and repair. The best sources are milk, meats, fish,
Appendix A Food Sources of Vitamins and Minerals Appendix A 229 Appendix A Food Sources of Vitamins and Minerals Vitamin A (Retinol) Food Amount IU* Liver 3 oz 45,400 Crab 2 cup,680 Egg medium 590 Fats
Making Healthy Food Choices Section 2: Module 5 1 Nutrition For Health What is healthy Tips on planning meals Making a shopping list/ Bulk orders Using WIC foods Cook and freeze What foods to choose How
Nutrition Pointers: Fruits and Veggies Eat as many as possible try filling half your plate with fruits and veggies. Fruits and veggies are good for you whether they are fresh or frozen. Go for a wide variety
Healthy Eating Guidelines for Your Vegetarian Toddler: - 3 Years The word vegetarian means different things to different people. Lactoovo vegetarians don t eat meat, fish, seafood and poultry, but will
Eating Low-Fat on a Budget Following a low-fat diet can help lower your risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes and stroke. Eating low fat usually means eating fewer calories. High calorie intake may lead
Nutritional Guidelines for Roux-en-Y, Sleeve Gastrectomy and Duodenal Switch Gastric Restrictive Procedures Phase III Regular Consistency The University of Chicago Hospitals Center for the Surgical Treatment
HEALTHY RECOMMENDATIONS AND PORTION CONTROL FACTSHEET Dining Services Portion control can be a major obstacle, especially for college students with on-campus meal plans. As you can see on the table below,
01 Balanced diet The Eatwell Plate What is a balanced diet? Your balanced diet will be specific to you it will depend on your age, your body weight and your gender. It also depends on how active you are.
Vegetarian Eating for teens and adults This handout will help you to plan a balanced vegetarian diet. 2 Vegetarian eating for teens and adults Table of Contents Page What is the Vegetarian Food Guide?...3
DRY BEAN RECIPES Beans, Beans and More Beans Soup ¼ cup each dry Black Beans, Cranberry Beans, Pinto Beans and Light Red Kidney Beans 1 cup dry Navy Beans 6 cups water ½ cup onion, diced 2 cloves garlic,
PART 5 INTRO TO EATING WITH DIABETES When you have diabetes be careful about what you eat to help you control your blood sugar. Foods are in three main groups: Carbohydrates (Carbs) Higher Carbohydrates
Healthy eating for your heart What does heart healthy eating mean to me? Heart healthy eating is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Heart healthy eating, along with regular physical activity and
Salt and High Blood Pressure A Guide to Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake A Look at the DASH eating plan My Plate Basics Sodium is a mineral element most commonly found in salt (sodium chloride) Sodium occurs
To succeed with weight-loss you need to follow the right diet. So we got a registered dietitian to develop the SLIMQUICK, which can help make dieting easy! Diet Overview The SLIMQUICK is designed using
What is iron? Iron deficiency in children (8 years or younger) Iron is a mineral found in food that your body needs. It is bound to hemoglobin, which is an important part of red blood cells. Iron helps
Blenderized & Pureed Recipes While you are having difficulty chewing or swallowing, use these recipes for preparing pureed meals. Use the recipes as a base for developing your own recipes. Be creative!
Healthy Grocery Shopping on a Budget Tips for smart spending at the grocery store Re c ipe e! In d si Grocery Store Science Eating well does not need to cost a lot of money. Here are some ways to choose
Carbohydrate Counting for Patients with Diabetes Lauren Dorman, MS RD CDE Registered Dietitian & Certified Diabetes Educator Program Purpose To increase knowledge of carbohydrate counting skills for nurses
Meal Planning for a Mushy Soft Diet After Nissen Fundoplication Name: Date: Dietitian: Telephone: Questions? CALL YOUR DIETITIAN! Patient Food and Nutrition Services University of Michigan Hospital 1500
Food Sources of Fibre Information About Fibre Fibre includes all parts of plant foods that your body can't digest or absorb. Fibre is also known as roughage or bulk. Insoluble fibre helps promote regularity
Mealtime Memo National Food Service Management Institute The University of Mississippi for Child Care No. 10, 2008 Teaching Children about the Food Groups: Meat and Meat Alternates This Mealtime Memo focuses
WHOLE GRAINS FOR GOOD HEALTH Section 1: What are Whole Grains? Whole grains are nutritious, delicious, and are included in the WIC program! Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel. That means whole
Healthy Grocery Shopping On A Budget 1 Click Understanding to edit Master Grocery title style Stores Over 50,000 products Strategically placed items and traffic flow Lighting, music, color used strategically
Nutrition Information from My Plate Guidelines Note: This information was compiled from the website: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ for participants in the 4-H Food Prep Contest 1/12/16. The information
Fruits & Vegetables, Your Connection to Better Health! Fruits & Vegetables US Dietary Guidelines What counts as a fruit or vegetable? How much do YOU need? Health Benefits Food Safety Tips Optimal Cooking
simple steps give you for good bowel health This booklet contains simple steps you can take to help achieve good bowel health. This is important to everyone, as these small changes will help your digestive
Eat Well For Life: Get the facts on Fiber What is Dietary Fiber? Fiber (also known as roughage or bulk) includes the parts of plant foods that the body cannot digest or absorb. Fiber is found in the skin,
MINTO PREVENTION & REHABILITATION CENTRE CENTRE DE PREVENTION ET DE READAPTATION MINTO Counting Fat Grams About This Kit In previous kits you have learned Foods to Choose and Foods to Decrease/Avoid for
ChildcareNashville.com childcare nashville/cooks academy We started with 12 child care centers... We have grown to 27 Cooks Academy participants and over 90 Childcare Nashville providers. The following
Delicious Dinners on a Dime No-Fuss Family Meals that Feed Four for Less than $10 by SparkRecipes.com Taco Soup $15.34 for 9 servings; $1.70 per serving; about $6.80 to serve 4 Prep time: 10 minutes Cooking
Fiber An important part of a healthy diet is eating fiber-rich foods. This handout will explain what fiber is, where it s found, and how to increase the amount of fiber in your diet. What is fiber? Fiber
Healthy eating for toddlers Toddlerhood is a time where children learn about new foods and where life long eating habits are often established. To help children grow up to be healthy adults, it is important
Level 2 Dysphagia Mechanically Altered* This diet consists of foods that are moist, soft-textured and easily formed into a bolus. All foods on Level 1 are. Meats and other select foods may be ground or
What is fibre? Dietary Fibre is the edible part of plants that escapes digestion in the small intestine, passing through to the large intestine where it is mostly broken down by bacteria. Different types
Ginny Messina, MPH, RD Atlanta VegFest Atlanta, GA November 8, 2014 Vegan Diets: No Cultural or Historical Habits 7 Habits of Happy, Healthy Vegans 1. Eat legumes 2. Choose healthy fats 3. Identify important
You can eat healthy on any budget Is eating healthy food going to cost me more money? Eating healthy meals and snacks does not have to cost you more money. In fact, eating healthy can even save you money.
Cooking Suggestions and Recipes for a Low Sodium Diet A good way to reduce the sodium in your diet is to cook your own food. This way, you control what goes into the food you eat. Below are tips for lowering
Eating more fibre This handout provides you with tips on how to increase the amount of fibre in your diet. Why do I need fibre in my diet? Fibre in the diet is important for good health. Fibre can promote
r Fibe An important part of a healthy diet is eating a variety of fiber-rich foods, including whole-grain breads and cereals, fruits and vegetables, beans and nuts. Fiber is an important part of your diet.
Maximizing Nutrition at Minimal Cost Outline: Get down to the nutrition basics Identify health issues at hand Understand the challenges & barriers Practical application & solutions Rate Your Plate What
PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu High Calorie, High Protein, Puréed Diet for Head and Neck Cancer Patients This type of diet will help you make sure you meet your energy needs and get enough
Plant Based Diet Christina Lichtinger, PharmD Plant based diets do not provide enough protein MYTH Dairy is required in the diet in order to consume enough calcium MYTH Sufficient Vitamin B12 is not available
LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL WITH DIET AND EXERCISE Presented by Nutritionist Alix B. Landman, MPH, RD, CDE Cigna Provider CONTRIBUTORS OF HEART DISEASE AND HIGH VLDL CHOLESTEROL Wrong Foods: Excessive Sugar,
DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 Peanut Butter Raisin Oatmeal: 1 cup cooked oatmeal ¼ cup raisins Tuna-Cucumber Wrap: 1 8 flour tortilla 3 oz tuna (canned in water) 2 Tbsp mayonnaise 5 cucumber sticks ¼ cup lowfat
Fat Facts That Can Help Your Heart Sally Barclay, MS RD LD Nutrition Clinic for Employee Wellness Most Common Risk Factors for Heart Disease High LDL (bad) cholesterol Smoking Low HDL (good) cholesterol
Detox Menu Guide We want you to have the best results possible while doing our detox. If your goal is weight loss, then eating the right foods and exercising moderately will help boost your results and
Teaching Manual for the Dietary Guideline Placemats 1 Lesson #1: The Placemat Description: This lesson will provide an overview of the purpose and message behind the placemats. Things to bring to the lesson:
FCS8750 Healthy Meal lans 1 Linda B. Bobroff 2 What Is a Meal lan? A meal plan is a guide to help you plan daily meals and snacks. It allows you to eat foods that you enjoy and that provide a good balance
Minestrone with sun dried tomatoes 1 Tbs. olive oil ½ tsp. dried oregano ½ tsp. dried basil 1 medium onion, diced (1 ½ cups) 1 large or 2 medium carrots, sliced into rounds (1 cup) 3 stalks celery, sliced
SLU Athletic Department Nutrition Presentations INCORPORATING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: HOW AND WHY Objectives After this presentation, you will be able to list ways to incorporate fruits and vegetables into
Video Podcast Episode 4 Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein and food allergy and intolerance Resources available to support Episode 4: Episode 4 Powerpoint Worksheet 4.1 Seafood
Eat Smart! Follow the Healthy Eating Food Pyramid! Food contains various types of nutrients to keep us healthy. For the sake of health, the nutritional value, functions, freshness and hygiene condition
Information About Fibre Food Sources of Fibre Fibre includes all parts of plant foods that your body can't digest or absorb. Fibre is also known as roughage or bulk. Insoluble fibre helps promote regularity
MONTHLY NUTRITION-THEMES THAT SUPPORT THE MICHIGAN NUTRITION STANDARDS 4 Team Up Around the School MONTHLY NUTRITION-THEMES THAT SUPPORT THE MICHIGAN NUTRITION STANDARDS Many classrooms and schools have
Ready, Set, Start Counting! Carbohydrate Counting a Tool to Help Manage Your Blood Glucose When you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose in a healthy range can help you feel your best today and in
Monthly Membership Monthly Membership, Page 1 May/Jun Notes What s going on this week!? Welcome to week #1 of this month Trueformers! Thank you so much for being with us on this journey to living a healthy
Carbohydrate Counting for Pediatric Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Review Date 4/08 K-0591 Program Purpose To increase knowledge of carbohydrate counting and insulin management skills for those caring for
Each Sample Menu will give you healthy meal options that are gluten free and approximately 1600 calories for the day. Sample Menu 1 Oatmeal with Berries 346 cals 1 cup instant oatmeal 225 cals 1 cup skim
HIGH FIBER DIET (Article - Web Site) August 20, 2003 Dietary fiber, found mainly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes, is probably best known for its ability to prevent or relieve constipation.
BBQ Chicken and Rice BBQ Chicken and Rice - Serves 2 8 oz boneless skinless chicken breast 1 cup minute rice 1 cup frozen corn ¾ cup chicken broth 2 Tbs tomato sauce 1 Tbs BBQ seasoning Salt and pepper
Glycemic Index & Diabetes Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches in the foods you eat. They are broken down into glucose, which your body uses for energy. Carbohydrates are found in grains & cereals,
Healthy Eating During Pregnancy Pregnancy is a time of great change. Your body is changing to allow your baby to grow and develop. Good nutrition will help you meet the extra demands of pregnancy while
Teachers Notes The eatwell plate The eatwell plate is a pictorial food guide showing the proportion and types of foods that are needed to make up a healthy, varied and balanced diet. The plate has been
Patient Education Magnesium in Your Diet This handout explains why your body needs magnesium. Since you take medicine that may cause your body to lose magnesium, you might need to take magnesium supplements.
Apple Pie Oatmeal Apple Pie Oatmeal - Serves 1 ½ cup quick cook oats ½ cup milk ½ cup apple, peeled and diced 1 Tbs brown sugar 1 Tbs butter Mix all ingredients in the mug and cook for 1.5 minutes. Baked
Nutritional Glossary This glossary provides nutrition information about the nutrients commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods Each glossary definition has a long and a short version.
Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Functions Food Sources Water-soluble Vitamin B1-Thiamin Necessary to help the body maximizes the use of carbohydrate, its major source of energy. Essential