KEY Ch. 27: The Cold War and the American Dream 53 points

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1 KEY Ch. 27: The Cold War and the American Dream 53 points Section 1 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War (21 points) 1. Why was there an economic boom after WW II? (1 point) After the war, people began to purchase goods they had put off buying during the war (and the Depression). The result was a sharp increase in demand for many goods which led to skyrocketing prices. 2. What led to the demand for new homes in the post war years? How was this demand met? (2 points) Prosperity and the baby boom led to the demand for new houses. The government guaranteed housing loans for veterans. As a result, many people bought homes, and many moved to the suburbs. William Levitt met the demand by using assembly line techniques to mass produce houses and sell them cheaply. 3. What happened when labor unions went on strike in 1946? (1 point) Workers wanted higher wages to help deal with rising prices. More than 4.6 million workers went on strike in During a railroad strike, Truman threatened to take over the railroad and use the army to drive the trains and the strike was settled before that could happen. 4. How did Truman handle U.S. social issues like discrimination? (2 points) Truman created a civil rights commission and ordered an end to racial segregation and discrimination in the military. He also proposed the Fair Deal which called for new housing and employment projects and an end to racial discrimination in hiring. 5. What were the origins of the Cold War? (2 points) During WWII, the Soviets occupied the Eastern European states that they had freed from Nazi rule. Stalin had promised to allow free elections in those states, however, when the war ended, he installed pro-soviet governments throughout Eastern Europe. The resulting tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, as each suspected the other of trying to dominate world affairs, resulted in a Cold War. The two nations never met directly on the battlefield, but the threat of deadly conflict lasted for decades. 6. What was the Berlin Airlift. (2 points) The city of Berlin (located in the eastern Soviet controlled half of Germany) was divided into four sectors --West Berlin occupied by the U.S., Great Britain and France, and East Berlin occupied by Soviets. In June 1948, the Soviet Union attempted to control all of Berlin by cutting surface traffic to and from the city of West Berlin. Starving out the population and cutting off their business was their method of gaining control. The US reacted with a continual daily airlift which brought much

2 needed food and supplies into the city of West Berlin. The airlift lasted until the end of September of although on May 12, 1949, the Soviet government yielded and lifted the blockade. 7. Why was the Berlin Wall built? Why was it torn down? (2 points) It was built to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Germany. It was torn down when Communism began to fall in What was the strategy of containment? (1 point) Using various military and non-military methods to stop the spread of Communism. 9. How does the Marshall Plan relate to the Truman Doctrine? (2 points) The Truman Doctrine promised U.S. aid to people fighting to maintain democracy. The Marshall Plan offered 1.3 billion dollars in aid to Europe to help them rebuild after WWII. The purpose was to help prevent the spread of Communism by helping to revive their economies. 10. What was NATO? Why was it formed? ( 2 points) NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), was an alliance of the U.S., Canada, and 10 western European nations. It was formed in reaction to the installation of pro-soviet governments in Eastern Europe. 11. What was the Warsaw Pact? ( 1 point) An alliance of the Eastern European nations and the Soviet Union formed in response to the formation of NATO. 12. Who were the Rosenbergs? What happened to them? (2 points) They were members of the American Communist Party and were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets. They were executed in How did Truman s loyalty checks and the HUAC affect people in the United States? (1 point) Thousands of government workers lost their jobs because they were forced to resign. People in the movie industry were blacklisted and had their careers ruined by suspicion and fear of communism. Section 2 The Korean War and McCarthyism (22 points) 14. How was Korea divided up after WWII? Which side was communist? Which was non-communist? (3 points) After WWII, Korea was divided at the 38 th parallel (line of latitude). North Korea became communist, and South Korea was non-communist.

3 15. What event in June 1950 started what is known as the Korean War? (1 point) In June, 1950, North Korean forces crossed the 38 th parallel into South Korea. The U.S. asks the UN to stop the Communists. 16. What prompted China to enter the war? (1 point) UN forces had pushed North Korean forces back to the Yalu River, the boundary between North Korea and Communist China. They saw the UN forces as a threat and warned against any further advances, but MacArthur s troops ignored the warning. 17. Why did President Truman refuse to blockade China? Why was MacArthur fired? (2 points) Truman did not want to bring the Soviet Union into the War. MacArthur was fired because he disagreed with President Truman about how to handle the Korean War. MacArthur wanted to take the war into China and Truman wanted to avoid WWIII. He criticized Truman publicly, which led to his firing 18. How did American s feel about the outcome of the Korean War? Why? (2 points) American s were frustrated by the outcome of the war. The UN and U.S. were aiding South Korea. China was helping North Korea. In the end, nothing changed. The two Koreas remained split at the 38 th parallel, and so it ended with a cease fire and a stalemate rather than a clear victory. 19. Why does McCarthyism refer to reckless charges against innocent citizens? (1 point) The practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. 20. How did Senator McCarthy lose his political power? (1 point) People began to speak out and challenge him. The public turned against him. 21. How was Eisenhower s foreign policy on Communism different than Truman s? (1 point) Eisenhower favored a more aggressive stand against communism. 22. Compare the policies of brinkmanship and containment. How are they similar? How are they different? (2 points) Brinkmanship and containment are similar in that both are efforts to stop the spread of Communism. They are different in that containment merely says it will aid countries in trying to remain free, while brinkmanship would push matters to the brink of combat.

4 23. What was the arms race? How did it lead to the United States and the Soviet Union both stockpiling weapons? (2 points) Competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to develop more destructive weapons. Fear of the other side lead to the buildup of huge stockpiles of nuclear weapons. 24. How did the Soviet Union push the United States to research outer space? (1 point) The Soviets launched Sputnik, the world s first space satellite. This ignited the space race, a competition between the United States and Soviet Union to lead in space exploration. The United States set aside billions of dollars for space research. 25. How did the U-2 incident lead to the collapse of peace talks between the Soviet Union and the U.S.? (1point) When the United States was caught spying on the Soviet Union, Khrushchev (the Soviet leader) demanded an apology and Eisenhower (the U.S. President) refused. 26. How is U.S. involvement in Iran, Guatemala, and Egypt (Suez Canal incident) similar? (1 point) In all three incidents the U.S. became involved in foreign countries because they thought they might be in favor of Communism or because they had ties to the Soviet Union in some way. 27. Read Technology of the Time. Why were people afraid of Sputnik? H-bomb? U-2 Spy Plane? 3 points (3 points) People were afraid of Sputnik because it meant that the Soviets had a guided missile capable of reaching the U.S. in less than an hour. They were afraid of the H-bomb because it was even more destructive than the atomic bomb. The U-2 Spy Plane made people afraid that the government could watch people without their knowledge. Section 3 American Life in the 1950s (10 points) 28. Describe the growth and movement of the U.S. population during the 1950s. (2 points) There was a sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate after WWII. Prosperity and the baby boom led many people to move to the suburbs and to move to the sunbelt. 29. Describe suburban life in the 1950s? (2 point) People dreamed of living a more comfortable, secure life. The prosperous economy encouraged them to buy new goods, get married, start families, and move to new areas. They became

5 consumers of modern conveniences, such as washing machines and vacuum cleaners. They also owned cars, televisions, and record players. 30. What caused urban decay? (1 point) Well-to-do Americans headed for the suburbs, and shops and businesses moved with them. Fewer people remained in the city to pay taxes for services (garbage collection, firefighting, road repair, etc.). Cities began to decay without proper care and maintenance. 31. What aspects of 1950s popular culture are still relevant today? ( 2 points) Rock and roll and television still heavily influence popular culture today. People still like to live in suburbs and drive (we are a car culture ). 32. How did television help John Kennedy win the Presidency? (1 point) Kennedy participated in the first televised presidential debate. He appeared energetic and confident on tv, looking directly into the camera. This probably helped him win votes. 33. Would a beatnik live in a suburb? Why or why not? (2 points ) No. They resisted the conformity and shallowness of American society, which suburbs would be representative of. Suburbs were residential areas made up of single-family homes, shopping centers, movie theaters, and restaurants.

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