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1 4.2 & 3 DEFINITIONS & NOTES ATOMIC STRUCTURE Unit 4.2 Notes.doc Particle Location Symbol Relative Charge Outside e- -1 or 1- Nucleus Inside Nucleus p+ +1 or 1+ 1 Electron Proton Neutron Inside Nucleus Relative Mass (proton = 1) 0 or n 0 1 Mass Analogy Pickle (very small mass) Watermelon (large mass) Text book NUCLEUS the central part of the atom. It contains the protons and neutrons. ELECTRONS negatively charged particles circling the nucleus. They have very little mass. PROTONS positively charged particles in the nucleus. The number of protons determines the element. NEUTRONS particles with no charge in the nucleus. They help create stability. The glue of the nucleus. ATOMIC NUMBER The number of protons in the nucleus. The whole number on the periodic table.(integer) 1,2,3.. ATOMIC MASS mass of a single atom of an element, measured in atomic mass units. The ATOMIC MASS IS THE number including a decimal on the periodic table. ATOMIC MASS UNIT the mass of a single atom of H, abbreviated amu ISOTOPES atoms of an element with varying numbers of neutrons in nucleus ENERGY LEVEL possible quantities of energy can possess, This is like a stair case ORBITAL spatial regions around the nucleus of the atom where an electron is likely to be found. EXAMPLE: Atomic Symbol 8 O Atomic Number Number of protons in nucleus Atomic Mass Mass of a single (average) atom in Atomic Mass Units. Why is the Atomic Mass of H not 1? Different number of neutrons creates isotopes

2 How do electrons circle the Nucleus? What is the pattern of electrons around the nucleus? How can a sketch of the atom be made from Periodic Table Information? Electrons fill inner shells first. What is the Atomic#? The number of protons and electrons (neutral atom). Atomic # = p = e (Neutral Atom) What is a row (Period) in the Periodic Table? The row an element is in tells how many shells the atom will have. Row = Shells The number or elements in a row also tells the number of electrons each shell can hold. # of Electrons in Period elements in Period st shell = nd shell = rd shell = 8 What is a column (Group) in the Periodic Table? The tall groups numbered with the letter A give the number of electrons in the outer shell. Outer shell electrons are called Valence Electrons. Group = Outer Shell Electrons = Valence Electrons

3 Summary of Rules Electrons fill inner shells first. Atomic # = p = e (Neutral Atom) Row = Shells Group = Outer Shell Electrons = Valence Electrons Try Drawing Carbon for Example Electrons fill inner shells first. Atomic # = p = e (Neutral Atom) Carbon is Atomic #, so it has protons and electrons in the outer shell. Row = Shells Carbon is in the 2 nd Row, so it will have 2 shells. Group = Outer Shell Electrons = Valence Electrons Carbon is in the 4th Group, so it will have 4 valence electrons (outer shell electrons). Example: Carbon ELECTRON CONFIGURATION A list of the number of electrons in each shell. For Carbon 2,4 1 st shell has 2 e, 2 nd shell has 4 e

4 DRAW THE STRUCTURE OF SULPHUR AND WRITE THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Electrons fill inner shells first. Atomic # = p = e (Neutral Atom) Row = Shells Group = Outer Shell Electrons = Valence Electrons CONFIGURATION:,,

5 ISOTOPES MASS NUMBER = # OF PROTONS + # OF NEUTRONS MASS NUMBER sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus used for designating the different isotopes not listed in periodic table because # of neutrons varies in Isotopes NUCLEAR SYMBOL HYPHEN NOTATION General Form Mass# Atomic# Example 13 C X General Form X Mass # Example C 13 Read 13, Carbon Read Carbon 13 Three Isotopes of Carbon are known: 12 C 13 C 14 C How many neutrons does each Isotope of Carbon have? Fill in the missing information. Nuclear Symbol # of protons # of neutrons # of electrons Electron Configuration Cl ,8,7 4 Be , ,8,8, ,8,8

6 DOT NOTATION or LEWIS STRUCTURE symbol with the number of valence electrons DEFINITION: VALENCE ELECTRONS - the outer orbit electrons, it is these electrons that determine the way in which the element acts These are shown as dots surrounding the chemical symbol. Draw dots on the sides (left, right, top and bottom) of the symbol Start on top and place a dot on top and work clockwise around the symbol as shown below THESE ARE THE OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS ONLY EXAMPLE: X 3 7 I P Ca C Ne Si

7 Add Down 4.2 NOTES ON CALCULATING AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS Working from Mass Number & % Abundance to get Atomic Mass Information on % and mass of each Isotope will be given similar to the table shown to the left % %.2423 Convert the % to a decimal (if it is not already a decimal) Multiply the Mass Number by the Corresponding % Abundance 35 x.7577 = AMU 37 x.2423 = AMU Add the results AMU AMU = AMU (Rounded answer) TRY THE SAME WORK SETTING UP A TABLE AS SHOWN HERE Multiply Across Isotope % Abundance Mass (AMU) Subtotal (AMU) Cl Cl Total

8 Add Down Working from Exact Weight & % Abundance to get Atomic Mass Information on % and mass of each Isotope will be given similar to the table shown to the left. Convert the % to a decimal (if it is not already a decimal) % %.2423 Multiply the Mass Number by the Corresponding % Abundance x.7577 = AMU x.2423 = AMU Add the results AMU AMU = AMU (Rounded answer) TRY THE SAME WORK SETTING UP A TABLE AS SHOWN HERE Multiply Across Isotope % Abundance Mass (AMU) Subtotal (AMU) Cl Cl Total Internet Resources: https://d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net/fxgadqwe1tspqzjxm9go75zfu2vnggfk7iwxnzmsxfbgnc 0d.pdf

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Atomic Structure ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 4.1 Defining the Atom Essential Understanding Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. Lesson Summary Early Models of the Atom The scientific